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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 222137 matches for " Paul Pévet "
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Conversion of L-Tryptophan into Melatonin Is the Possible Action Pathway Involved in the Effect of L-Tryptophan on Antidepressant-Related Behavior in Female Rats: Analysis of the Influence of Treatment Duration  [PDF]
Sihame Ouakki, Fatima Zahra El Mrabet, Aboubaker El Hessni, Abdelhalem Mesfioui, Paul Pévet, Ali Ouichou
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.34036
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pharmacological doses of melatonin (MEL) and L-tryptophan (L-TRP) on depression-like behavior in female rats submitted to the forced swimming test (FST) after 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks of treatment. This will allow exploring the different mechanisms of L-TRP actions particularly that due to its conversion into MEL. For this purpose, four groups of 24 rats each were constituted; (Group 1: Control): received saline solution NaCl (0.9%), (Group 2: MEL4): received 4 mg/Kg of MEL, (Group 3: L-TRP4): received 4 mg/Kg of L-TRP and (Group 4: L-TRP20): received 20 mg/Kg of L-TRP. Animals of each group were distributed on 4 subgroups of 6 rats submitted to different time treatments. The duration of immobility (TIM) and struggling period (TST) of rats in FST were measured after 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of drug treatment and the effects of MEL and L-TRP were compared. Chronical administration of different doses of MEL or L-TRP failed to induce any anti-depressant activity in rats subjected to FST after 2 weeks of treatment. However, after 4 weeks, daily administration of MEL at 4 mg/Kg significantly reduced the immobility period and enhanced struggling time. After 6 weeks, MEL at 4 mg/Kg and L-TRP at 20 mg/Kg were both effective in reducing immobility and increasing struggling movement, their effects being statistically comparable. All treatments were able to significantly reduce immobility time and increase struggling duration after 8 weeks, but L-TRP at 4 mg/Kg was less
Melatonin and Diazepam Affect Anxiety-Like and Depression-Like Behavior in Wistar Rats: Possible Interaction with Central GABA Neurotransmission  [PDF]
Sihame Ouakki, Fatima Zahra El Mrabet, Ibtissam Lagbouri, Aboubaker El Hessni, Abdelhalem Mesfioui, Paul Pévet, Etienne Challet, Ali Ouichou
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.37055
Abstract: Recent studies have shown the importance of the GABA-ergic transmission in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depressive disorders in humans. Our present study aims to investigate the interaction of melatonin (MEL) with this system by exploring the effects of MEL with or without a facilitator of GABA-ergic neurotransmission, diazepam (DZ) on the levels of depression and anxiety in Wistar rats. For this purpose, different doses of MEL (2, 4 or 16 mg/kg) or DZ (2 mg/kg) are subchronically administered during 15 days. After pharmacological treatments, anxiety levels are evaluated in behavioral tests of Open Field (OFT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) and depression levels are evaluated by the forced swim test (FST). The results showed that MEL produces anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like effects in a dose-dependent manner; the maximum effect was obtained at a dose of 16 mg/kg. However, a dose of 4 mg/kg is necessary to induce an effect. The effect of MEL and DZ reported in this study concerns selective modulation of behavioral anxiety and depression since locomotor activity assessed by the OFT and EPM was not affected. The subchronic injection of MEL at 4 mg/kg, DZ at 2 mg/kg or the two combined molecules also induces also anxiety-like and antidepressant-like behavior. In addition, a potentiating effect between MEL and DZ was observed. These effects suggest that psychopharmacological actions of MEL are due, at least in part, to its ability to improve the central GABA-ergic transmission.
Intrinsic Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells in the Diurnal Rodent, Arvicanthis ansorgei
Diana Karnas, David Hicks, Jér?me Mordel, Paul Pévet, Hilmar Meissl
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073343
Abstract: Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) represent a new class of photoreceptors which support a variety of non-image forming physiological functions, such as circadian photoentrainment, pupillary light reflex and masking responses to light. In view of the recently proposed role of retinal inputs for the regulation of diurnal and nocturnal behavior, we performed the first deep analysis of the ipRGC system in a diurnal rodent model, Arvicanthis ansorgei, and compared the anatomical and physiological properties of ipRGCs with those of nocturnal mice. Based on somata location, stratification pattern and melanopsin expression, we identified two main ipRGC types in the retina of Arvicanthis: M1, constituting 74% of all ipRGCs and non-M1 (consisting mainly of the M2 type) constituting the following 25%. The displaced ipRGCs were rarely encountered. Phenotypical staining patterns of ganglion cell markers showed a preferential expression of Brn3 and neurofilaments in non-M1 ipRGCs. In general, the anatomical properties and molecular phenotyping of ipRGCs in Arvicanthis resemble ipRGCs of the mouse retina, however the percentage of M1 cells is considerably higher in the diurnal animal. Multi-electrode array recordings (MEA) identified in newborn retinas of Arvicanthis three response types of ipRGCs (type I, II and III) which are distinguished by their light sensitivity, response strength, latency and duration. Type?I ipRGCs exhibited a high sensitivity to short light flashes and showed, contrary to mouse type?I ipRGCs, robust light responses to 10?ms flashes. The morphological, molecular and physiological analysis reveals very few differences between mouse and Arvicanthis ipRGCs. These data imply that the influence of retinal inputs in defining the temporal niche could be related to a stronger cone input into ipRGCs in the cone-rich Arvicanthis retina, and to the higher sensitivity of type I ipRGCs and elevated proportion of M1 cells.
Effects of Nocturnal Light on (Clock) Gene Expression in Peripheral Organs: A Role for the Autonomic Innervation of the Liver
Cathy Cailotto, Jun Lei, Jan van der Vliet, Caroline van Heijningen, Corbert G. van Eden, Andries Kalsbeek, Paul Pévet, Ruud M. Buijs
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005650
Abstract: Background The biological clock, located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), controls the daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. Early studies demonstrated that light exposure not only affects the phase of the SCN but also the functional activity of peripheral organs. More recently it was shown that the same light stimulus induces immediate changes in clock gene expression in the pineal and adrenal, suggesting a role of peripheral clocks in the organ-specific output. In the present study, we further investigated the immediate effect of nocturnal light exposure on clock genes and metabolism-related genes in different organs of the rat. In addition, we investigated the role of the autonomic nervous system as a possible output pathway of the SCN to modify the activity of the liver after light exposure. Methodology and Principal Findings First, we demonstrated that light, applied at different circadian times, affects clock gene expression in a different manner, depending on the time of day and the organ. However, the changes in clock gene expression did not correlate in a consistent manner with those of the output genes (i.e., genes involved in the functional output of an organ). Then, by selectively removing the autonomic innervation to the liver, we demonstrated that light affects liver gene expression not only via the hormonal pathway but also via the autonomic input. Conclusion Nocturnal light immediately affects peripheral clock gene expression but without a clear correlation with organ-specific output genes, raising the question whether the peripheral clock plays a “decisive” role in the immediate (functional) response of an organ to nocturnal light exposure. Interestingly, the autonomic innervation of the liver is essential to transmit the light information from the SCN, indicating that the autonomic nervous system is an important gateway for the SCN to cause an immediate resetting of peripheral physiology after phase-shift inducing light exposures.
The ESF Programme on Functional Genomics Workshop on ‘Data Integration in Functional Genomics: Application to Biological Pathways’
Pierre-Alain Binz,Henning Hermjakob,Paul van der Vet
Comparative and Functional Genomics , 2004, DOI: 10.1002/cfg.389
Abstract: We report from the second ESF Programme on Functional Genomics workshop on Data Integration, which covered topics including the status of biological pathways databases in existing consortia; pathways as part of bioinformatics infrastructures; design, creation and formalization of biological pathways databases; generating and supporting pathway data and interoperability of databases with other external databases and standards. Key issues emerging from the discussions were the need for continued funding to cover maintenance and curation of databases, the importance of quality control of the data in these resources, and efforts to facilitate the exchange of data and to ensure the interoperability of databases.
The ESF Programme on ‘Integrated Approaches to Functional Genomics’. Workshop on ‘Ontology for Biology’
Luca Bernardi,Isabel Rojas,Paul van der Vet
Comparative and Functional Genomics , 2003, DOI: 10.1002/cfg.252
Abstract:
: Configurable Chemical Middleware
Paul van der Vet,Hans E. Roosendaal,Peter A. T. M. Geurts
Comparative and Functional Genomics , 2001, DOI: 10.1002/cfg.124
Abstract: One of the vexing problems that besets concurrent use of multiple, heterogeneous resources is format multiplicity. C2M aims to equip scientists with a wrapper generator on their desktop. The wrapper generator can build wrappers, or converters that can convert data from or into different formats, from a high-level description of the formats. The language in which such a high-level description is expressed is easy enough for scientists to be able to write format descriptions at minimal cost. In C2M, wrappers and documentation for human reading are automatically obtained from the same user-supplied specifications. Initial experiments demonstrate that the idea can, indeed, lead to the advent of usergoverned wrapper generators. Future research will consolidate the code and extend the approach to a realistic variety of formats.
Internal Data Market Services: An Ontology-Based Architecture and Its Evaluation
Fons Wijnhoven,Edwin van den Belt,Eddy Verbruggen,Paul van der Vet
Informing Science The International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline , 2003,
Abstract: On information markets, many suppliers and buyers of information goods exchange values. Some of these goods are data, whose value is created in buyer interactions with data sources. These interactions are enabled by data market services (DMS). DMS give access to one or several data sources. The major problems with the creation of information value in these contexts are (1) the quality of information re-trievals and related queries, and (2) the complexity of matching information needs and supplies when different semantics are used by source systems and information buyers. This study reports about a proto-type DMS (called CIRBA), which employs an ontology-based information retrieval system to solve se-mantic problems for a DMS. The DMS quality is tested in an experiment to assess its quality from a user perspective against a traditional data warehouse (with SQL) solution. The CIRBA solution gave substan-tially higher user satisfaction than the data warehouse alternative.
ESF Workshop on ¢ € Sustainability and Governance of Web and GRID Resources in Functional Genomics ¢ €
Paul van der Vet,Theo Huibers,Pierre-Alain Binz,Martin Hofmann
Comparative and Functional Genomics , 2006, DOI: 10.1002/cfg.488
Abstract:
Errors in Surgical Site Identification during Cutaneous Surgery for Skin Cancer: Review and Recommendations  [PDF]
Sharad P. Paul
Surgical Science (SS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2015.67049
Abstract: Surgical error due to incorrect identification of the surgical site has been known to occur right from the beginning of surgical practice through the ages. However, increasing awareness, preventative efforts and risks of litigation have not eliminated this problem. Cutaneous surgery for skin cancer makes up a large proportion of procedures performed each year and it is often difficult to correctly identify biopsy sites, especially as this is not easy in sun-damaged skin. In this review article, we review the incidence of wrong-site surgery, measures taken by professional bodies, and the use of photography and newer technologies in an attempt to eliminate this distressing event in the field of plastic and dermatologic surgery. The purpose of this review is to highlight the incidence of such surgical site identification errors, evaluate the risk factors, and educate the surgeon about measures that can be undertaken to avoid being faced with such a situation.
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