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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 220153 matches for " Paul N Baird "
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Assessment of the Association of Matrix Metalloproteinases with Myopia, Refractive Error and Ocular Biometric Measures in an Australian Cohort
Maria Schache, Paul N. Baird
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047181
Abstract: Extracellular matrix proteins have been implicated in protein remodelling of the sclera in refractive error. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) falling into the collagenase (MMP1, MMP8, MMP13), gelatinase (MMP2, MMP9) and stromelysin (MMP3, MMP10, MMP11) functional groups are particularly important. We wished to assess their association with myopia, refractive error and ocular biometric measures in an Australian cohort. A total of 543 unrelated individuals of Caucasian ethnicity were genotyped including 269 myopes (≤?1.0D) and 274 controls (>?1.0D). Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (n = 53) were chosen to encompass these eight MMPs. Association tests were performed using linear and logistic regression analysis with age and gender as covariates. Spherical equivalent, myopia, axial length, anterior chamber depth and corneal curvature were the phenotypes of interest. Initial findings indicated that the best p values for each trait were 0.02 for myopia at rs2274755 (MMP9), 0.02 for SE at both rs3740938 (MMP8) and rs131451 (MMP11), 0.01 for axial length at rs11225395 (MMP8), 0.01 for anterior chamber depth at rs498186 (MMP1) and 0.02 at rs10488 (MMP1). However, following correction for multiple testing, none of these SNPs remained statistically significant. Our data suggests that the MMPs in the collagenase, gelatinase and stromelysin categories do not appear to be associated with myopia, refractive error or ocular biometric measures in this cohort.
A class of quadratic difference equations on a finite graph
Paul Baird
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: We study a class of complex polynomial equations on a finite graph with a view to understanding how holistic phenomena emerge from combinatorial structure. Particular solutions arise from orthogonal projections of regular polytopes, invariant frameworks and cyclic sequences. A set of discrete parameters for which there exist non-trivial solutions leads to the construction of a polynomial invariant and the notion of a geometric spectrum. Geometry then emerges, notably dimension, distance and curvature, from purely combinatorial properties of the graph.
Do Patients Drink Enough Water? Actual Pure Water Intake Compared to the Theoretical Daily Rules of Drinking Eight 8-Ounce Glasses and Drinking Half Your Body Weight in Ounces  [PDF]
Paul A. Oakley, Melissa L. Baird
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.711072
Abstract: Water is vital for virtually every bodily process, but many people don’t drink enough water. We assessed how much actual water, on average, was drank by 100 consecutive patients from a well-ness clinic. The average water intake was about five 8-ounce glasses of water a day. When compared to the “drink eight glasses of water a day” rule, our sample was 3 glasses short. When compared to the “drink half your body weight in ounces” rule, our sample was 6 glasses short. Chronic, unintentional dehydration is so common that it may be better to consider many “dehydration diseases” such as asthma and allergies as well as non-infectious conditions and chronic pains to be identified as “indicators of body thirst” and not the conditions that today are considered “diseases of unknown etiology”. Physiologically there are parameters of dehydration that can be measured prior to one feeling “thirsty”, and therefore, simply drinking “ad libitum” or by natural instinct may not be adequate. Patients need to be told to drink more water and to keep a mental daily tally to be sure to optimize their hydration status to better their health.
Comprehensive Analysis of Copy Number Variation of Genes at Chromosome 1 and 10 Loci Associated with Late Age Related Macular Degeneration
Stuart Cantsilieris, Stefan J. White, Andrea J. Richardson, Robyn H. Guymer, Paul N. Baird
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035255
Abstract: Copy Number Variants (CNVs) are now recognized as playing a significant role in complex disease etiology. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible vision loss in the western world. While a number of genes and environmental factors have been associated with both risk and protection in AMD, the role of CNVs has remained largely unexplored. We analyzed the two major AMD risk-associated regions on chromosome 1q32 and 10q26 for CNVs using Multiplex Ligation-dependant Probe Amplification. The analysis targeted nine genes in these two key regions, including the Complement Factor H (CFH) gene, the 5 CFH-related (CFHR) genes representing a known copy number “hotspot”, the F13B gene as well as the ARMS2 and HTRA1 genes in 387 cases of late AMD and 327 controls. No copy number variation was detected at the ARMS2 and HTRA1 genes in the chromosome 10 region, nor for the CFH and F13B genes at the chromosome 1 region. However, significant association was identified for the CFHR3-1 deletion in AMD cases (p = 2.38×10?12) OR = 0.31, CI-0.95 (0.23–0.44), for both neovascular disease (nAMD) (p = 8.3×10?9) OR = 0.36 CI-0.95 (0.25–0.52) and geographic atrophy (GA) (p = 1.5×10?6) OR = 0.36 CI-0.95 (0.25–0.52) compared to controls. In addition, a significant association with deletion of CFHR1-4 was identified only in patients who presented with bilateral GA (p = 0.02) (OR = 7.6 CI-0.95 1.38–41.8). This is the first report of a phenotype specific association of a CNV for a major subtype of AMD and potentially allows for pre-diagnostic identification of individuals most likely to proceed to this end stage of disease.
Association of the Hepatocyte Growth Factor Gene with Keratoconus in an Australian Population
Srujana Sahebjada, Maria Schache, Andrea J. Richardson, Grant Snibson, Mark Daniell, Paul N. Baird
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084067
Abstract: Purpose A previous study has indicated suggestive association of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene with Keratoconus. We wished to assess this association in an independent Caucasian cohort as well as assess its association with corneal curvature. Participants Keratoconus patients were recruited from private and public clinics in Melbourne, Australia. Non-keratoconic individuals were identified from the Genes in Myopia (GEM) study from Australia. A total of 830 individuals were used for the analysis including 157 keratoconic and 673 non keratoconic subjects. Methods Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) were chosen to encompass the hepatocyte growth factor gene as well as 2 kb upstream of the start codon through to 2 kb downstream of the stop codon. Logistic and linear regression including age and gender as covariates were applied in statistical analysis with subsequent Bonferroni correction. Results Ten tSNPs were genotyped. Following statistical analysis and multiple testing correction, a statistically significant association was found for the tSNP rs2286194 {p = 1.1×10-3 Odds Ratio 0.52, 95% CI - 0.35, 0.77} for keratoconus. No association was found between the 10 tSNPs and corneal curvature. Conclusions These findings provide additional evidence of significant association of the HGF gene with Keratoconus. This association does not appear to act through the corneal curvature route.
Twistor theory on a finite graph
Paul Baird,Mohammad Wehbe
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/s00220-011-1245-6
Abstract: We show how the description of a shear-free ray congruence in Minkowski space as an evolving family of semi-conformal mappings can naturally be formulated on a finite graph. For this, we introduce the notion of holomorphic function on a graph. On a regular coloured graph of degree three, we recover the space-time picture. In the spirit of twistor theory, where a light ray is the more fundamental object from which space-time points should be derived, the line graph, whose points are the edges of the original graph, should be considered as the basic object. The Penrose twistor correspondence is discussed in this context.
Shear-free ray congruences on curved space-times
Paul Baird,Mohammad Wehbe
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: A shear-free ray congruence on Minkowski space is a 3-parameter family of null geodesics along which Lie transport of a complementary 2-dimensional spacelike subspace (called the screen space) is conformal. Such congruences are defined by complex analytic surfaces in the associated twistor space $\CP^3$ and are the basis of the construction of massless fields. On a more general space-time, it is unclear how to couple the massless field with the gravitational field. In this article we do this by considering the following Cauchy-type problem: given a Riemannian 3-manifold $(M^3, g_0)$ endowed with a unit vector field $U_0$ that is tangent to a conformal foliation, we require that the pair extend to a space-time $({\mathcal M}, {\mathcal G})$ endowed with a spacelike unit vector field $U_t$ in such a way that $U_t$ simultaneously generates null geodesics and is tangent to a conformal foliation on spacelike slices $t=$ const.
Three-dimensional Ricci solitons which project to surfaces
Paul Baird,Laurent Danielo
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: We study $3$-dimensional Ricci solitons which project via a semi-conformal mapping to a surface. We reformulate the equations in terms of parameters of the map; this enables us to give an ansatz for constructing solitons in terms of data on the surface. A complete description of the soliton structures on all the $3$-dimensional geometries is given, in particular, non-gradient solitons are found on Nil and Sol.
Harmonic morphisms on heaven spaces
Paul Baird,Radu Pantilie
Mathematics , 2007, DOI: 10.1112/blms/bdp006
Abstract: We prove that any (real or complex) analytic horizontally conformal submersion from a three-dimensional conformal manifold M to a two-dimensional conformal manifold N can be, locally, `extended' to a unique harmonic morphism from the heaven space of M to N.
CR geometry and conformal foliations
Paul Baird,Michael Eastwood
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: We use the CR geometry of the standard hyperquadric in complex projective three-space to give a detailed twistor description of conformal foliations in Euclidean three-space.
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