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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 23672 matches for " Paul Kimani "
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Hi-Tech yet Highly Toxic: Electronic and E-Waste
JW Kimani
Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa , 2009,
Abstract: There is no gainsaying the importance of computers in today's technological development. Computers that were so rare barely 20 years ago are now almost a banality in most countries, including the developing world. However, the increase in numbers has posed a new danger of how to dispose of old computers. The practice has been to throw decrepit computers into dumpsites thus posing a fatal threat to the environment and the people. In this paper, we review the dangers posed by high tech products when they are not disposed of in the correct manner. In particular we discuss how rich nations dump toxic wastes in poor countries as a way of “assisting” them cope with economic problems. Garbage imperialism poses a real threat to world stability and health.
Infertility: Cultural Dimensions and Impact on Women in Selected Communities in Kenya
Violet KIMANI, Joyce OLENJA
African Anthropologist , 2001,
Abstract: Infertility is a growing problem in Africa and affects the lives of many couples. As a health problem, it is largely culturally and socially constructed in such a way that even though it affects a couple it is the woman who bears the burden. This perspective has major implications for women whose status hinges on fertility performance. This paper presents the cultural construction of infertility and how it impacts on the lives of infertile women in Kenya. The presentation is based on material collected through qualitative methodologies among infertile and fertile women as well as through key informant interviews. Overall, infertility not only erodes the status of infertile women but also threatens their source of livelihood as some of their verbatim comments vividly point out. The burden of infertility is compounded by the fact that at the national programme level it is underplayed as a problem, the main focus being on fertility control. This is a situation that needs to be redressed so that those who are infertile, regardless of their numbers, receive the attention they require to experience quality life. JOURNAL OF THE PAN AFRICAN ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION Number 2 Volume VIII October 2001, pp. 200-216
Participatory Mapping of Terrestrial Fishery Resources in Kwale District, Kenya
P Kimani, D Obura
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science , 2004,
Abstract: A participatory mapping study was conducted in Kinondo location of Kwale district in Kenya. The area is subject to high human population and development pressure in the north, where tourism and urban development is intense, compared to lower population pressure in the south where such development is low. Our focus was to document information about these resources that have maintained fishing for many generations and to address issues of their conservation and management. The study focused on the spatial arrangement, access, ownership and use of land-based resources, mainly shrubs, grasses and trees, at four landing sites along the north-south population gradient. Participatory techniques (sketch maps, livelihood diagrams and transect walks) were applied, where trained fishers led other fishers in mapping, and the local Digo language was used for recording names. Resources were arranged in distinct vegetation zones parallel to the beach. A north-south increase in resource availability and abundance was recorded, inversely related to the higher population pressure in the north compared to the south. While much of the land on which vegetation resources are located was publicly accessible, a significant part is owned by absentee landlords, concentrated in the north. This over time results in increasingly restricted access to resources by fishermen, as shown in the more developed, northern section of the study site. Fishers also experience problems with access routes to landing sites on the beach due to encroachment on routes by beachfront development. The mapping activity revealed the potential for conflict over resource access and the need for solutions to maintain fishers' access to terrestrial resources important for fishing.
Harmonizing the agricultural biotechnology debate for the benefit of African farmers
Segenet Kelemu, George Mahuku, Martin Fregene, Douglas Pachino, Nancy Johnson, Lee Calvert, Idupulapati Rao, Robin Buruchara, Tilahun Amede, Paul Kimani, Roger Kirkby, Susan Kaaria, Kwasi Ampofo
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2003,
Abstract: The intense debate over agricultural biotechnology is at once fascinating, confusing and disappointing. It is complicated by issues of ethical, moral, socio-economic, political, philosophical and scientific import. Its vocal champions exaggerate their claims of biotechnology as saviour of the poor and hungry, while, equally loudly, its opponents declare it as the doomsday devil of agriculture. Sandwiched between these two camps is the rest of the public, either absorbed or indifferent. Biotechnology issues specific to the African public must include crop and animal productivity, food security, alleviation of poverty and gender equity, and must exclude political considerations. Food and its availability are basic human rights issues—for people without food, everything else is insignificant. Although we should discuss and challenge new technologies and their products, bringing the agricultural biotechnology debate into food aid for Africa where millions are faced with life-or-death situations is irresponsible. Agricultural biotechnology promises the impoverished African a means to improve food security and reduce pressures on the environment, provided the perceived risks associated with the technology are addressed. This paper attempts to harmonize the debate, and to examine the potential benefits and risks that agricultural biotechnology brings to African farmers.
Molecular Diversity of Kenyan Lablab Bean (Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet) Accessions Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Markers  [PDF]
Esther N. Kimani, Francis N. Wachira, Miriam G. Kinyua
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.33037
Abstract: Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet is a multipurpose legume that combines use as human food and animal feed in addition to serving as a cover crop for soil conservation. In this work, molecular diversity in Lablab purpureus was assessed using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers on fifty Kenyan lablab accessions obtained from farmers’ fields and the Kenya National gene bank. One hundred and eighty polymorphic bands were revealed using fifteen selective primer pairs. The overall mean expected heterozygosity (He) for the five populations was 0.189. Estimates of components of molecular variance revealed that most of the genetic variation resided within populations (99%) and only 1% variance was among the populations, while Principal Coordinate Analysis showed an overlap between accessions from different geographic origins. The UPGMA cluster analysis generated from the distance matrix of the 50 assayed accessions, revealed low diversity among most of the accessions. The low diversity observed may be due to the narrow genetic base for breeding stocks, and extensive exchange of germplasm among smallholder farmers across the country. Results obtained from this study are discussed in light of the need to enhance the genetic management and improvement of this multipurpose crop species.
Perceptions and Barriers to Contraceptive Use among Adolescents Aged 15 - 19 Years in Kenya: A Case Study of Nairobi  [PDF]
Joyce Kinaro, Murungaru Kimani, Lawrence Ikamari, Elias H. O. Ayiemba
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.71010
Abstract: Even after the launch of family planning program in Kenya, in 1967, contraceptive use among adolescents has remained below 10 percent while child bearing has increased from 2 percent at age 15 to 36 percent at age 19. To understand the roles of perceptions and barriers on contraceptive use, a mixed method study design was applied to a conceptual framework that operationalized these concepts using data from different sources of social interactions in Nairobi, Kenya. Quantitative data were collected from 1119 adolescents aged 15 - 19 years. Qualitative data were collected from adolescents, adolescents’ parents and their school teachers. The later were analyzed and interpreted together with the results from cross-tabulations and logistic regression in order to understand the roles of perceptions and barriers. Contraceptive use was found to be 8.6 percent among the adolescents. Overall, unfavourable perceptions among adolescents, parents and teachers seemed to have contributed to low contraceptive use. Unfavourable perceptions played greater role compared to barriers such as sexual partner communication, opinion on adolescents to use a contraceptives and ability to seek contraceptives. Qualitative data show that teachers and parents lack adequate information and skills to discuss sexuality issues. Linking data among adolescents, parents and teachers help to understand the roles of perceptions and barriers to contraceptive use in Kenya. The findings suggest capacity building of teachers and parents on accurate sexuality information for adolescents while services should be youth-friendly.
Exploring the paradox: double burden of malnutrition in rural South Africa
Elizabeth W. Kimani-Murage
Global Health Action , 2013, DOI: 10.3402/gha.v6i0.19249
Abstract: Background: This article is a review of the PhD thesis by Elizabeth Kimani-Murage that explores the double burden of malnutrition in rural South Africa. This is in the context of a worryingly rapid increase in obesity and obesity-related diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) including South Africa, and in the wake of on-going nutrition transition and lifestyle changes in these countries. Objective: To understand the profiles of malnutrition among children and adolescents in a poor, high HIV prevalent, transitional society in a middle-income country. Methods: A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted in 2007 targeting 4,000 children and adolescents aged 1–20 years. In addition, HIV testing was carried out on children aged 1–5 years and Tanner pubertal assessment among adolescents aged 9–20 years. Results: The study shows stunting at an early age and adolescent obesity, particularly among girls, that co-exists in the same socio-geographic population. The study also shows that HIV is an independent modifiable risk factor for poor nutritional outcomes in children and makes a significant contribution to nutritional outcomes at the individual level. Significant predictors of undernutrition at an early age, documented at individual, household, and community levels, include child's HIV status, age and birth weight, maternal age, age of household head, and area of residence. Significant predictors of overweight/obesity and risk for metabolic disease during adolescence, documented at individual and household levels include child's age, sex, and pubertal development, household-level food security, socio-economic status, and household head's highest education level. Conclusions: The combination of early stunting and adolescent obesity raises critical concerns in the wake of the rising public health importance of metabolic diseases in LMICs. This is because, both paediatric obesity and adult short stature are risk factors for metabolic syndrome and metabolic diseases in adulthood. Clearly, policies and interventions to address malnutrition in this and other transitional societies need to be double-pronged and gender-sensitive.
Microarray Analysis of HIV Resistant Female Sex Workers Reveal a Gene Expression Signature Pattern Reminiscent of a Lowered Immune Activation State
Elijah M. Songok, Ma Luo, Ben Liang, Paul Mclaren, Nadine Kaefer, Winnie Apidi, Genevieve Boucher, Joshua Kimani, Charles Wachihi, Rafick Sekaly, Keith Fowke, Blake T. Ball, Francis A. Plummer
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030048
Abstract: To identify novel biomarkers for HIV-1 resistance, including pathways that may be critical in anti-HIV-1 vaccine design, we carried out a gene expression analysis on blood samples obtained from HIV-1 highly exposed seronegatives (HESN) from a commercial sex worker cohort in Nairobi and compared their profiles to HIV-1 negative controls. Whole blood samples were collected from 43 HIV-1 resistant sex workers and a similar number of controls. Total RNA was extracted and hybridized to the Affymetrix HUG 133 Plus 2.0 micro arrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara CA). Output data was analysed through ArrayAssist software (Agilent, San Jose CA). More than 2,274 probe sets were differentially expressed in the HESN as compared to the control group (fold change ≥1.3; p value ≤0.0001, FDR <0.05). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the differentially expressed genes readily distinguished HESNs from controls. Pathway analysis through the KEGG signaling database revealed a majority of the impacted pathways (13 of 15, 87%) had genes that were significantly down regulated. The most down expressed pathways were glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate, phosphatidyl inositol, natural killer cell cytotoxicity and T-cell receptor signaling. Ribosomal protein synthesis and tight junction genes were up regulated. We infer that the hallmark of HIV-1 resistance is down regulation of genes in key signaling pathways that HIV-1 depends on for infection.
The HAART cell phone adherence trial (WelTel Kenya1): a randomized controlled trial protocol
Richard T Lester, Edward J Mills, Antony Kariri, Paul Ritvo, Michael Chung, William Jack, James Habyarimana, Sarah Karanja, Samson Barasa, Rosemary Nguti, Benson Estambale, Elizabeth Ngugi, T Blake Ball, Lehana Thabane, Joshua Kimani, Lawrence Gelmon, Marta Ackers, Francis A Plummer
Trials , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-10-87
Abstract: A multi-site randomized controlled open-label trial. A central randomization centre provided opaque envelopes to allocate treatments. Patients initiating ART at three comprehensive care clinics in Kenya will be randomized to receive either a structured weekly SMS ('short message system' or text message) slogan (the intervention) or current standard of care support mechanisms alone (the control). Our hypothesis is that using a structured mobile phone protocol to keep in touch with patients will improve adherence to ART and other patient outcomes. Participants are evaluated at baseline, and then at six and twelve months after initiating ART. The care providers keep a weekly study log of all phone based communications with study participants.Primary outcomes are self-reported adherence to ART and suppression of HIV viral load at twelve months scheduled follow-up. Secondary outcomes are improvements in health, quality of life, social and economic factors, and retention on ART. Primary analysis is by 'intention-to-treat'. Sensitivity analysis will be used to assess per-protocol effects. Analysis of covariates will be undertaken to determine factors that contribute or deter from expected and determined outcomes.This study protocol tests whether a novel structured mobile phone intervention can positively contribute to ART management in a resource-limited setting.Trial Registration Number: NCT00830622The most important factor for sustainable treatment of HIV/AIDS for individuals and programs globally is highly consistent use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART). For patients, this means adhering to daily or twice daily medication schedules, typically at a minimum of at least 95% of the time, and for programs this means supporting and monitoring patients to achieve those goals.[1] The World Health Organization and UNAIDS have outlined ambitious goals of universal access to those in need among the 28 million people infected with HIV globally, and include a directive
Memory Phenotypes of HIV-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses Are Independent of Functional Activity as Defined by Cytokine Output  [PDF]
Meika E. I. Richmond, Sandra A. Kiazyk, Lyle R. McKinnon, Billy Nyanga, Charles Wachihi, Makubo Kimani, Joshua Kimani, Francis A. Plummer, T. Blake Ball
Open Journal of Immunology (OJI) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oji.2014.43012
Abstract: Objectives: The definition of CD8+ T cell attributes that mediate protective immunity in HIV dis-ease progression has not been clearly defined. Although our ability to characterize these cells continues to improve, the extent to which specific memory phenotypic categories of CD8+ T cells reliably represent their functional attributes remains controversial. Methods: We simultaneously assessed surface phenotype and functionality of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells by multiparametric flow cytometry, measuring five CD8+ T cell functions (CD107a, IFNγ, MIP-1β, TNFα and IL2) and phenotypic markers CCR7, CD45RA, and CD27, in parallel in 24 HIV-infected individuals. Results: Virus-specific responses were contained within all eight phenotypic categories defined using CCR7, CD45RA, and CD27. Phenotypic profiles of HIV-specific cells differed from CEF-specific cells, with HIV-specific cells having higher levels of CD45RA (p = 0.008). Interestingly a large portion of CEF and HIV-specific cells were found within previously undefined phenotypes CCR7+CD27-CD45RA+ (14.6% and 17.2%, respectively) and CCR7+CD27-CD45RA-(14.8% and 15.8%, respectively). In addition, up to 10% - 20% of responding cells were phenotypically “naive”. Additionally, memory phenotypes of cells exhibiting monofunctional and polyfunctional responses frequently differed, and failed to associate with a consistent phenotype representing functionally active cells. Conclusion: These data suggest that particularly after antigen stimulation, that surface phenotypes defined by CCR7, CD27 and CD45RA expression on antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, reflect a wide range of immunological functions, and that no single phenotype defined by memory marker expression can reliably be used to identify functional capacity.
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