oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

2019 ( 89 )

2018 ( 555 )

2017 ( 565 )

2016 ( 816 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 333564 matches for " Patrick S. Western "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /333564
Display every page Item
Mitotic Arrest in Teratoma Susceptible Fetal Male Germ Cells
Patrick S. Western, Rachael A. Ralli, Stephanie I. Wakeling, Camden Lo, Jocelyn A. van den Bergen, Denise C. Miles, Andrew H. Sinclair
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020736
Abstract: Formation of germ cell derived teratomas occurs in mice of the 129/SvJ strain, but not in C57Bl/6 inbred or CD1 outbred mice. Despite this, there have been few comparative studies aimed at determining the similarities and differences between teratoma susceptible and non-susceptible mouse strains. This study examines the entry of fetal germ cells into the male pathway and mitotic arrest in 129T2/SvJ mice. We find that although the entry of fetal germ cells into mitotic arrest is similar between 129T2/SvJ, C57Bl/6 and CD1 mice, there were significant differences in the size and germ cell content of the testis cords in these strains. In 129T2/SvJ mice germ cell mitotic arrest involves upregulation of p27KIP1, p15INK4B, activation of RB, the expression of male germ cell differentiation markers NANOS2, DNMT3L and MILI and repression of the pluripotency network. The germ-line markers DPPA2 and DPPA4 show reciprocal repression and upregulation, respectively, while FGFR3 is substantially enriched in the nucleus of differentiating male germ cells. Further understanding of fetal male germ cell differentiation promises to provide insight into disorders of the testis and germ cell lineage, such as testis tumour formation and infertility.
Signaling through the TGF Beta-Activin Receptors ALK4/5/7 Regulates Testis Formation and Male Germ Cell Development
Denise C. Miles, Stephanie I. Wakeling, Jessica M. Stringer, Jocelyn A. van den Bergen, Dagmar Wilhelm, Andrew H. Sinclair, Patrick S. Western
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054606
Abstract: The developing testis provides an environment that nurtures germ cell development, ultimately ensuring spermatogenesis and fertility. Impacts on this environment are considered to underlie aberrant germ cell development and formation of germ cell tumour precursors. The signaling events involved in testis formation and male fetal germ cell development remain largely unknown. Analysis of knockout mice lacking single Tgfβ family members has indicated that Tgfβ's are not required for sex determination. However, due to functional redundancy, it is possible that additional functions for these ligands in gonad development remain to be discovered. Using FACS purified gonadal cells, in this study we show that the genes encoding Activin's, TGFβ's, Nodal and their respective receptors, are expressed in sex and cell type specific patterns suggesting particular roles in testis and germ cell development. Inhibition of signaling through the receptors ALK4, ALK5 and ALK7, and ALK5 alone, demonstrated that TGFβ signaling is required for testis cord formation during the critical testis-determining period. We also show that signaling through the Activin/NODAL receptors, ALK4 and ALK7 is required for promoting differentiation of male germ cells and their entry into mitotic arrest. Finally, our data demonstrate that Nodal is specifically expressed in male germ cells and expression of the key pluripotency gene, Nanog was significantly reduced when signaling through ALK4/5/7 was blocked. Our strategy of inhibiting multiple Activin/NODAL/TGFβ receptors reduces the functional redundancy between these signaling pathways, thereby revealing new and essential roles for TGFβ and Activin signaling during testis formation and male germ cell development.
Review of L' Afrique du Sud
John Western
EchoGéo , 2010,
Abstract: This admirable handbook does and does not do what it sets out to do. What it does do well and reliably, without raising its voice, is to provide excellent up-to-date information on contemporary South Africa. What it does not do - or should I say, falls short of doing - is, as would seem to be promised by the back cover blurb of this contributor to the “Idées Re ues” series, to interrogate a number of possibly misleading conventional wisdoms, such as "Nelson Mandela est un héros." ( So one exp...
The within-day behaviour of 6 minute rainfall intensity in Australia
A. W. Western, B. Anderson, L. Siriwardena, F. H. S. Chiew, A. Seed,G. Bl schl
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2011,
Abstract: The statistical behaviour and distribution of high-resolution (6 min) rainfall intensity within the wet part of rainy days (total rainfall depth >10 mm) is investigated for 42 stations across Australia. This paper compares nine theoretical distribution functions (TDFs) in representing these data. Two goodness-of-fit statistics are reported: the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between the fitted and observed within-day distribution; and the coefficient of efficiency for the fit to the highest rainfall intensities (average intensity of the 5 highest intensity intervals) across all days at a site. The three-parameter Generalised Pareto distribution was clearly the best performer. Good results were also obtained from Exponential, Gamma, and two-parameter Generalized Pareto distributions, each of which are two parameter functions, which may be advantageous when predicting parameter values. Results of different fitting methods are compared for different estimation techniques. The behaviour of the statistical properties of the within-day intensity distributions was also investigated and trends with latitude, K ppen climate zone (strongly related to latitude) and daily rainfall amount were identified. The latitudinal trends are likely related to a changing mix of rainfall generation mechanisms across the Australian continent.
The within-day behaviour of 6 minute rainfall intensity in Australia
A. W. Western,B. Anderson,L. Siriwardena,F. H. S. Chiew
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/hessd-8-3189-2011
Abstract: The statistical behaviour and distribution of high-resolution (6 min) rainfall intensity within the wet part of rainy days (total rainfall depth >10 mm) is investigated for 42 stations across Australia. This paper compares nine theoretical distribution functions (TDFs) in representing these data. Two goodness-of-fit statistics are reported: the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between the fitted and observed within-day distribution; and the efficiency of prediction of the highest rainfall intensities (average intensity of the 5 highest intensity intervals). The three-parameter Generalised Pareto distribution was clearly the best performer. Good results were also obtained from Exponential, Gamma, and two-parameter Generalized Pareto distributions, each of which are two parameter functions, which may be advantageous when predicting parameter values. Results of different fitting methods are compared for different estimation techniques. The behaviour of the statistical properties of the within-day intensity distributions was also investigated and trends with latitude, K ppen climate zone (strongly related to latitude) and daily rainfall amount were identified. The latitudinal trends are likely related to a changing mix of rainfall generation mechanisms across the Australian continent.
The complementary relationship between the Internet and traditional mass media: the case of online news and information
An Nguyen,Mark Western
Information Research: an international electronic journal , 2006,
Abstract: Background. The question whether old media are driven out of existence by new media has been a long concern in academic and industrial research but has received no definitive answer. Aim.This paper goes beyond most previous studies of Internet impact on traditional media, which have placed their relationship within a competition-based framework, to specifically investigate the complementary effect of online news and information usage on traditional sources. Method. Secondary data analysis of a national survey of 4270 Australians conducted in late 2003, employing hypothesis testing for the mean, partial correlations, and a linear regression analysis. Results. Online news and information usage at different usage levels is positively associated with the use of traditional news and information sources, especially those that are more information-intensive. Those who relied on the Internet the most for news and information still used traditional sources substantially. Conclusion. The findings suggest that even if a displacement effect takes place, there will be no replacement (absolute displacement): traditional media will still exist to complement the Internet in serving human beings' news and information needs.
Line Strengths of Rovibrational and Rotational Transitions in the X$^2Π$ Ground State of OH
James S. A. Brooke,Peter F. Bernath,Colin M. Western,Christopher Sneden,Melike Af?ar,Gang Li,Iouli E. Gordon
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: A new line list including positions and absolute intensities (in the form of Einstein $A$ values and oscillator strengths) has been produced for the OH ground X\DP\ state rovibrational (Meinel system) and pure rotational transitions. All possible transitions are included with v$\primed$ and v$\Dprimed$ up to 13, and $J$ up to between 9.5 and 59.5, depending on the band. An updated fit to determine molecular constants has been performed, which includes some new rotational data and a simultaneous fitting of all molecular constants. The absolute line intensities are based on a new dipole moment function, which is a combination of two high level ab initio calculations. The calculations show good agreement with an experimental v=1 lifetime, experimental $\mu_\mathrm{v}$ values, and $\Delta$v=2 line intensity ratios from an observed spectrum. To achieve this good agreement, an alteration in the method of converting matrix elements from Hund's case (b) to (a) was made. Partitions sums have been calculated using the new energy levels, for the temperature range 5-6000 K, which extends the previously available (in HITRAN) 70-3000 K range. The resulting absolute intensities have been used to calculate O abundances in the Sun, Arcturus, and two red giants in the Galactic open and globular clusters M67 and M71. Literature data based mainly on [O I] lines are available for the Sun and Arcturus, and excellent agreement is found.
The Link between Facets of Impulsivity and Aggression in Extremely Violent Prisoners  [PDF]
Henning V?r?y, Elin Western, Stein Andersson
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2016.61010
Abstract: Evidence is growing that aggressive behavior and impulsivity have subgroups. The subscales of the Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance and Sensation seeking (UPPS) impulsivity scale and the Bryant and Smith shortened and refined version of the Aggression Questionnaire were used to describe and compare impulsive and aggressive behavior in extremely violent and aggressive male inmates and non-violent healthy male controls. The Mann-Whitney test showed that there was a significant difference (p< 0. 006) in the total UPPS impulsivity scale scores between the aggressive inmates and the controls. The subscales revealed that this difference was based mainly on the urgency score (p< 0. 003). On the aggression subscales, the inmates scored significantly higher for physical aggression than the controls (p< 0.001), but no significant difference was seen between inmates and controls for verbal aggression, anger and hostility, although the exactp-value was very close to statistical significance at 0.054. Regression analysis revealed a strong relationship between urgency and the aggression subscales hostility (p= 0.0004) and anger (p= 0.003) and that urgency was also linked to symptoms of anxiety (
Entecavir for treatment of chronic hepatitis B: A clinical update for the treatment of patients with decompensated cirrhosis  [PDF]
P. Patrick Basu, Robert S. Brown Jr.
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2012.22012
Abstract: The introduction of nucleos(t)ide analogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was transformative in reducing morbidity and mortality. Entecavir, a potent selective nucleoside analogue first approved in 2005 for treatment of chronic HBV, is associated with significant antiviral, biochemical, serologic, and histologic responses. Rapid reductions in HBV DNA levels, low risk of resistance development, and a favorable adverse event profile have contributed to its clinical usefulness. Re-cent developments in the use of entecavir have increased its utility in the management of difficult-to-treat patients with chronic HBV, including those patients with decompensated liver disease. Recent studies in this population have demonstrated that entecavir 1.0 mg/d given for up to 48 weeks had superior antiviral activity when compared with adefovir and was generally safe and well tolerated. Long-term outcomes of entecavir in difficult-to-treat populations are eagerly anticipated.
A Reinterpretation of Historic Aquifer Tests of Two Hydraulically Fractured Wells by Application of Inverse Analysis, Derivative Analysis, and Diagnostic Plots  [PDF]
Patrick A. Hammond, Malcolm S. Field
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.65048
Abstract:

Aquifer test methods have greatly improved in recent years with the advent of inverse analysis, derivative analysis, and diagnostic plots. Updated analyses of past aquifer tests allow for improved interpretations of the data to enhance the knowledge and the predictive capabilities of the flow system. This work thoroughly reanalyzes a series of pre- and post-hydraulic fracturing, single-well aquifer tests conducted in two crystalline rock wells in New Hampshire as part of an early 1970’s study. Previous analyses of the data had relied on older manual type-curve methods for predicting the possible effects of hydraulic fracturing. This work applies inverse analysis, derivative analysis, and diagnostic plots to reanalyze the 1970’s aquifer test data. Our results demonstrate that the aquifer tests were affected by changes in flow regimes, dewatering of the aquifer and discrete fractures, and changes due to well development. Increases in transmissivities are related to well development prior to hydraulic fracturing, propagation of a single, vertical fracture hydraulically connecting the two wells after stimulation and expansion of troughs of depression. After hydraulic fracturing, the estimated total yield of the individual wells increased by 2.5 times due to the hydraulic fracturing. However, the wells may be receiving water from the same source, and well interference may affect any significant increase in their combined yield. Our analyses demonstrate the value in applying inverse analysis, derivative analysis, and diagnostic plots over the conventional method of manual type-curve analysis. In addition, our improvement in the aquifer test interpretation of the 1970’s test data has implications for more reliable estimates of sustained well yields.

Page 1 /333564
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.