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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10542 matches for " Patrick Durand "
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Effects of ion drift on time-over-threshold charge estimates using first-order integrators in thermal neutron MWPC
Patrick Van Esch,Thomas Durand
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: Time-over-threshold measurements of the output of a first order integration amplifier can be used as a cheap way to estimate the charge deposited on a wire in an MWPC. Even if the time scale of the first order system is seemingly much larger than the signal development time, we noticed experimentally a significant deviation from the relationship of time-over-threshold and the charge, as would be naively expected from the exponential response of the amplifier. We strongly suspect the current induced by the residual ion movement to be at least partially responsible for this observation. It is of course well-known that the ion movement is responsible for the bulk of the signal generation in a wire chamber, this is not the point ; however, the surprise is rather that this movement has influences on time scales which are so long that the finite ion movement could be thought negligible. In this paper we will treat theoretically the influence of ion movement and of AC coupling on the expected time-over-threshold relationship and confront this to the measurements on a small test MWPC in thermal neutron detection.
Exploratory study on the discourse of an interdisciplinary team on workers: trajectories during a return-to-work programme Trajectoires des travailleurs recevant un programme de retour au travail : étude exploratoire des discussions d’une équipe interdisciplinaire Trayectorias de los trabajadores beneficiarios de un programa de reinserción profesional : estudio exploratorio de los intercambios de un equipo interdisciplinar
Marie-José Durand,Raymond Baril,Patrick Loisel,Julie Gervais
Perspectives Interdisciplinaires sur le Travail et la Santé , 2008,
Abstract: Purpose: Based on the viewpoint of an interdisciplinary team, this exploratory study aimed to identify different types of trajectories followed by workers with musculoskeletal disorders and the factors contributing to them.Methods: The research design used a single-case study in which the main unit of analysis was an interdisciplinary work team. This team discussed eighteen workers’ progression during a work rehabilitation programme. Analytical methods were based on phenomenology. All team discussions were audiotaped and transcribed, and two researchers completed the content analysis.Results: Four types of trajectories emerged: (1) return-to-work trajectories without obstacles; (2) return-to-work trajectories with obstacles; (3) non-return-to-work trajectories with episodes of progression; and (4) non-return-to-work trajectories without progression. Moreover, three outlines emerged from the data analysis: (1) the worker’s compliance with the programme; (2) the way the worker coped with exposure to work; and (3) stakeholder collaboration. The results of this study also suggested that the absence of a single consistent message among participating health professionals could create confusion for workers and pose a major impediment to the resumption of their activities.Conclusion: The results underscore, for clinicians, the complexity in managing this type of chronic work rehabilitation population, related to both the worker and the worker’s interactions with the stakeholders. Also, this study casts light on the non-linear work rehabilitation processes of individuals with prolonged disabilities of musculoskeletal origin, as described by an interdisciplinary team. Sujet : Cette étude exploratoire a pour objectif de décrire différents types de trajectoires de travailleurs présentant des troubles musculo-squelettiques pendant un programme de réadaptation. Les trajectoires sont tracées à partir des visions d’une équipe interdisciplinaire.Méthode : Le devis de recherche est une méthode de cas unique où l’unité d’analyse principale est une équipe interdisciplinaire. Cette équipe a discuté de la progression de 18 travailleurs, durant un programme de réadaptation. Les analyses des discussions ont été inspirées par la phénoménologie. Toutes les discussions de l’équipe ont été enregistrées et retranscrites. L’analyse de contenu a été effectuée par deux chercheurs. Résultats : Quatre types de trajectoires ont émergé : 1) trajectoires de retour au travail sans obstacle ; 2) trajectoires de retour au travail avec obstacles ; 3) trajectoires de non-retour au travail avec é
Trajectoires des travailleurs recevant un programme de retour au travail : étude exploratoire des discussions d’une équipe interdisciplinaire Exploratory study on the discourse of an interdisciplinary team on workers: trajectories during a return-to-work programme Trayectorias de los trabajadores beneficiarios de un programa de reinserción profesional : estudio exploratorio de los intercambios de un equipo interdisciplinar
Raymond Baril,Marie-José Durand,Patrick Loisel,Julie Gervais
Perspectives Interdisciplinaires sur le Travail et la Santé , 2008,
Abstract: Sujet : Cette étude exploratoire a pour objectif de décrire différents types de trajectoires de travailleurs présentant des troubles musculo-squelettiques pendant un programme de réadaptation. Les trajectoires sont tracées à partir des visions d’une équipe interdisciplinaire.Méthode : Le devis de recherche est une méthode de cas unique où l’unité d’analyse principale est une équipe interdisciplinaire. Cette équipe a discuté de la progression de 18 travailleurs, durant un programme de réadaptation. Les analyses des discussions ont été inspirées par la phénoménologie. Toutes les discussions de l’équipe ont été enregistrées et retranscrites. L’analyse de contenu a été effectuée par deux chercheurs. Résultats : Quatre types de trajectoires ont émergé : 1) trajectoires de retour au travail sans obstacle ; 2) trajectoires de retour au travail avec obstacles ; 3) trajectoires de non-retour au travail avec épisodes de progression et 4) trajectoires de non-retour au travail sans progression. Trois facteurs clefs ont émergé de ces analyses comme déterminant au processus de retour au travail : 1) la complaisance des travailleurs face au programme de réadaptation, 2) les différentes fa ons dont le travailleur aborde et vit la première exposition au travail et 3) la collaboration avec les différents partenaires. Les résultats de cette étude suggèrent aussi que l’absence de message unique entre les professionnels de la santé face au travailleur peut entra ner de la confusion et devenir un frein à la reprise des activités.Conclusions : Les résultats soulignent encore une fois la complexité pour les cliniciens de la prise en charge en réadaptation au travail de travailleurs en phase chronique. Cette intervention doit agir à la fois sur le travailleur et également sur les interactions entre les travailleurs et les différents partenaires concernés. Aussi, cette étude souligne le processus non linéaire de la réadaptation au travail pour des individus présentant des incapacités prolongées d’origine musculo-squelettique, tel que décrit par une équipe interdisciplinaire. Purpose: Based on the viewpoint of an interdisciplinary team, this exploratory study aimed to identify different types of trajectories followed by workers with musculoskeletal disorders and the factors contributing to them.Methods: The research design used a single-case study in which the main unit of analysis was an interdisciplinary work team. This team discussed eighteen workers’ progression during a work rehabilitation programme. Analytical methods were based on phenomenology. All team discussions were au
étude de la fidélité de l’implantation d’un programme de réadaptation au travail auprès de travailleurs de la construction ayant une dorsolombalgie Study of the implementation fidelity of a work rehabilitation program for construction workers with low back pain Estudio de la fidelidad de la implementación de un programa de rehabilitación en el trabajo para los trabajadores de la construcción con una dorsolumbalgia
Diane Berthelette,Marie-José Durand,Patrick Loisel,Daniel Imbeau
Perspectives Interdisciplinaires sur le Travail et la Santé , 2012,
Abstract: Cette étude compte parmi les rares recherches évaluatives en santé et en sécurité du travail qui tentent d’ouvrir la bo te noire des interventions de réadaptation au travail afin d’en saisir les mécanismes d’action. Elle visait à décrire la variation de l’implantation d’un programme de collaboration précoce en réadaptation au travail et à apprécier son niveau de mise en application en étudiant les écarts entre le modèle prévu et les interventions dispensées. Le devis consistait en une étude descriptive de la fidélité de l’implantation du programme avec différentes unités d’analyse. L’analyse a permis, entre autres, de mettre en lumière la variation dans la mise en uvre du programme et d’apprécier l’écart entre le programme prévu et réalisé. Few program evaluation studies on occupational health and safety have as yet been conducted. The goal of this study was to increase our understanding of the various mechanisms of a work rehabilitation program by: (1) describing the quantity and quality of the activities taking place and the resources used; and (2) estimating how faithful the implemented program was to the originally planned model. A descriptive study of the fidelity of the program’s implementation was conducted using different units of analysis. The results highlighted variations in the program’s implementation and some differences between what was planned and what was implemented. Este estudio se encuentra entre las escasas investigaciones evaluativas de salud y seguridad en el trabajo que pretenden abrir la caja negra de las intervenciones de rehabilitación en el trabajo con el fin de comprender los mecanismos de acción. El estudio se trazó como objetivo describir la variación de la implementación de un programa de colaboración precoz en rehabilitación en el trabajo y apreciar su nivel de operacionalización estudiando las diferencias entre el modelo previsto y las intervenciones acordadas. La estimación se llevó a cabo a través de un estudio descriptivo de la fidelidad de la implementación del programa con diferentes unidades de análisis. El análisis permitió entre otras cosas evidenciar la variación en la puesta en marcha del programa y apreciar la diferencia entre el programa previsto y el realizado.
Haemodynamic management of severe sepsis: recommendations of the French Intensive Care Societies (SFAR/SRLF) Consensus Conference, 13 October 2005, Paris, France
Thierry Pottecher, Sylvie Calvat, Hervé Dupont, Jacques Durand-Gasselin, Patrick Gerbeaux, the SFAR/SRLF workgroup
Critical Care , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/cc4965
Abstract: This consensus report is reproduced from a translation of the original [1], which was published in French. It is limited to the management of haemodynamic consequences of severe sepsis. The treatment of associated organ failure (renal, hepatic and haematological) is beyond the scope of this report.The recommendations were made by the panel using available scientific data and studies. The scientific value of studies is divided into five levels as follows: level 1 includes large randomized controlled trials with clear results, and low risk for false positives (α error) or false negatives (β error); level 2 includes smaller randomized controlled trials with less clear results, and medium to high risk for false positives (α error) or false negatives (β error); level 3 includes nonrandomized studies with contemporaneous controls; level 4 includes nonrandomized studies with historical controls or expert opinion; and level 5 includes case reports, noncomparative studies, or expert opinion.The strength of the recommendations is graded on the basis of the level of evidence of the studies on which they are based. Grade A recommendations are based on at least two studies of level 1 evidence; grade B recommendations are based on one level 1 study; grade C recommendations are based on level 2 studies; grade D recommendations are based on level 3 studies; and grade E recommendations are based on level 4 or 5 studies. However, there may be situations in which the level of scientific evidence available is of insufficient quality to support the recommendation (i.e. grade D or E) but the recommendation is considered essential on clinical grounds.The different stages of sepsis are characterized by certain circulatory changes. Circulatory changes exist at both 'macrovascular' and 'microvascular' (capillary) levels, but presently there is no way to monitor microcirculatory changes directly, and neither are any direct therapeutic interventions available. Therefore, at present the therape
Browsing repeats in genomes: Pygram and an application to non-coding region analysis
Patrick Durand, Frédéric Mahé, Anne-Sophie Valin, Jacques Nicolas
BMC Bioinformatics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-7-477
Abstract: This article presents Pygram, a new visualization application for investigating the organization of repeated sequences in complete genome sequences. The application projects data from a repeat index file on the analysed sequences, and by combining this principle with a query system, is capable of locating repeated sequences with specific properties. In short, Pygram provides an efficient, graphical browser for studying repeats. Implementation of the complete configuration is illustrated in an analysis of CRISPR structures in Archaea genomes and the detection of horizontal transfer between Archaea and Viruses.By proposing a new visualization environment to analyse repeated sequences, this application aims to increase the efficiency of laboratories involved in investigating repeat organization in single genomes or across several genomes.Some years ago, genomes were considered as static objects containing an informative part, the coding sequences, representing only a small percentage of the total genome, and a part referred to as "junk DNA" that was generally free of any annotation. It is now widely acknowledged that genomes must be considered from a more dynamic point of view, involving the study of the many " copy" events that occur during evolution, while covering not only coding genes, but non-coding sequences as well. A large number of in silico studies have revealed that repetitive sequences play an important role in the structure, function, dynamics and evolution of genomes in Archaea [1,2], Bacteria [3,4] and Eukarya [5-7]. It is well known, for instance, that proteins are combinations in a finite set of domains that represent basic structural units whose arrangements determine a wide variety of functions. Other classes of repeats, such as transposable elements, allow mobile elements to move around a genome, and have a major impact on the evolution of sequences [8]. DNA palindromes, a particular form of repeat, are widespread in human cancers. Other repeats in
Nonurgent patients in the emergency department? A French formula to prevent misuse
Stéphanie Gentile, Pascal Vignally, Anne-Claire Durand, Sabina Gainotti, Roland Sambuc, Patrick Gerbeaux
BMC Health Services Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-66
Abstract: We carried out a cross sectional survey on patients' use of EDs. The study was conducted in a French hospital ED. Patients were interviewed about their use of health services, ED visits, referrals, activities of daily living, and insurance coverage status. Patients' medical data were also collected.85 patients considered nonurgent by a triage nurse were asked to respond to a questionnaire. Sex ratio was 1.4; mean age was 36.3 +/- 11.7 years.Most patients went to the ED autonomously (76%); one third (31.8%) had consulted a physician. The main reasons for using the ED were difficulty to get an appointment with a general practitioner (22.3%), feelings of pain (68.5%), and the availability of medical services in the ED, like imaging, laboratory tests, and drug prescriptions (37.6%). Traumatisms and wounds were the main medical reasons for going to the ED (43.5%).More than two-thirds of responders (68%) were willing to be reoriented towards PCUs. In the multivariate analysis, only employment and the level of urgency perceived by the patient were associated with the willingness to accept reorientation. Employed persons were 4.5 times more likely to accept reorientation (OR = 4.5 CI (1.6-12.9)). Inversely, persons who perceived a high level of urgency were the least likely to accept reorientation (OR = 0.9 CI (0.8-0.9).Our study provides information on the willingness of ED patients to accept reorientation and shows the limits of its feasibility. Alternative structures such as PCUs near the ED seem to respond appropriately to the growing demands of nonurgent patients. Reorientation, however, will be successful only if the new structures adapt their opening hours to the needs of nonurgent patients and if their physicians can perform specific technical skills.For several decades, French hospitals have faced overcrowding in Emergency Departments (EDs). This phenomenon is mostly due to a misuse of EDs on the part of patients who use EDs for nonurgent problems [1-16]. In fact,
Host genotype by parasite genotype interactions underlying the resistance of anopheline mosquitoes to Plasmodium falciparum
Louis Lambrechts, Jean Halbert, Patrick Durand, Louis C Gouagna, Jacob C Koella
Malaria Journal , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-4-3
Abstract: To test for genotype by genotype interactions between malaria parasites and their anopheline vectors, different genetic backgrounds (families consisting of the F1 offspring of individual females) of the major African vector Anopheles gambiae were challenged with several isolates of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (obtained from naturally infected children in Kenya).Averaged across all parasites, the proportion of infected mosquitoes and the number of oocysts found in their midguts were similar in all mosquito families. Both indices of resistance, however, differed considerably among isolates of the parasite. In particular, no mosquito family was most resistant to all parasites, and no parasite isolate was most infectious to all mosquitoes.These results suggest that the level of mosquito resistance depends on the interaction between its own and the parasite's genotype. This finding thus emphasizes the need to take into account the range of genetic diversity exhibited by mosquito and malaria field populations in ideas and studies concerning the control of malaria.In the last few years, exciting advances in the biology and molecular genetics of the development of Plasmodium parasites in their mosquito vectors [1,2] have led to the creation of transgenic mosquitoes that are partially resistant to malaria infection [3], bringing the efforts to control malaria with the techniques of transgenesis a major step forward [4,5]. A crucial aspect of these advances is, of course, the fact that the mosquito's genetic make-up determines, at least partly, its resistance to malaria infection [6,7], giving hope for the possibility that key genes controlling resistance may be identified. This hope has been reinforced by the recent identification, in a rodent model of malaria, of several mosquito immune genes that affect parasite development [8,9]. Unfortunately, several aspects of the current knowledge make it difficult to estimate the relevance of such laboratory-base
Recent studies on Schistosoma intercalatum: taxonomic status, puzzling distribution and transmission foci revisited
Jourdane, Joseph;Southgate, Vaughan R;Pagès, Jean René;Durand, Patrick;Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis Albert;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762001000900006
Abstract: schistosoma intercalatum, which causes human rectal schistosomiasis in africa, still presents a great interest for its imprecise taxonomic status and its puzzling distribution in africa. two geographically isolated strains of s. intercalatum are recognized, the lower guinea strain and the congo strain, which differ from each other in a number of morphological, biological and biochemical characteristics. recent molecular data using rapd markers indicate high divergence between the two strains, with values of nei and li's similarity indice allowing recognition of two genetically distinct taxa: experiments on pre- and post-isolating mechanisms are in progress in order to re-evaluate the taxonomic status of this polytypic species. with regard to its geographical distribution, s. intercalatum is characterized by the existence of two stable endemic areas (localized in lower guinea and north east of democratic republic of congo) which correspond to the historical areas of species discovery, and the emergence during the last 15 years of new foci of the lower guinea strain outside previously known endemic areas. the absence of local adaptation of the lower guinea strain to its intermediate host, supported by experimental studies, may help to facilitate the spread of this strain. nevertheless, the present restricted distribution of this species remains puzzling, because its potential snail hosts (bulinids) are widely distributed throughout much of africa. recent experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that interspecific sexual interactions between human schistosomes could have a role in limiting the distribution of s. intercalatum: the competitive sexual processes acting among human schistosomes show that s. haematobium and s. mansoni are always competitively dominant over s. intercalatum. these epidemiological observations lead the authors to distinguish three kinds of transmission foci for s. intercalatum.
Recent studies on Schistosoma intercalatum: taxonomic status, puzzling distribution and transmission foci revisited
Jourdane Joseph,Southgate Vaughan R,Pagès Jean René,Durand Patrick
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2001,
Abstract: Schistosoma intercalatum, which causes human rectal schistosomiasis in Africa, still presents a great interest for its imprecise taxonomic status and its puzzling distribution in Africa. Two geographically isolated strains of S. intercalatum are recognized, the Lower Guinea strain and the Congo strain, which differ from each other in a number of morphological, biological and biochemical characteristics. Recent molecular data using RAPD markers indicate high divergence between the two strains, with values of Nei and Li's similarity indice allowing recognition of two genetically distinct taxa: experiments on pre- and post-isolating mechanisms are in progress in order to re-evaluate the taxonomic status of this polytypic species. With regard to its geographical distribution, S. intercalatum is characterized by the existence of two stable endemic areas (localized in Lower Guinea and North East of Democratic Republic of Congo) which correspond to the historical areas of species discovery, and the emergence during the last 15 years of new foci of the Lower Guinea strain outside previously known endemic areas. The absence of local adaptation of the Lower Guinea strain to its intermediate host, supported by experimental studies, may help to facilitate the spread of this strain. Nevertheless, the present restricted distribution of this species remains puzzling, because its potential snail hosts (bulinids) are widely distributed throughout much of Africa. Recent experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that interspecific sexual interactions between human schistosomes could have a role in limiting the distribution of S. intercalatum: the competitive sexual processes acting among human schistosomes show that S. haematobium and S. mansoni are always competitively dominant over S. intercalatum. These epidemiological observations lead the authors to distinguish three kinds of transmission foci for S. intercalatum.
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