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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9861 matches for " Patrick Cashman "
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Pertussis vaccination in Child Care Workers: room for improvement in coverage, policy and practice
Kirsty Hope, Michelle Butler, Peter D Massey, Patrick Cashman, David N Durrheim, Jody Stephenson, April Worley
BMC Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-98
Abstract: A cross sectional survey of all child care centre directors in the Hunter New England (HNE) area of northern NSW was conducted in 2010 using a computer assisted telephone interviewing service.Ninety-eight percent (319/325) of child care centres identified within the HNE area participated in the survey. Thirty-five percent (113/319) of centres indicated that they had policies concerning respiratory illness in staff members. Sixty-three percent (202/319) of centres indicated that they kept a record of staff vaccination, however, of the 170 centre’s who indicated they updated their records, 74% (125/170) only updated records if a staff member notified them. Of centres with records, 58% indicated that fewer than half of their staff were vaccinated.Many childcare workers have not had a recent pertussis immunisation. This potentially places young children at risk at an age when they are most vulnerable to severe disease. With increasing use of child care, national accreditation and licensing requirements need to monitor the implementation of policies on child care worker vaccination. Higher levels of vaccination would assist in reducing the risk of pertussis cases and subsequent outbreaks in child care centres.The resurgence of pertussis (whooping cough) in Australia has attracted community concern, especially with recent deaths in two infants from the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW) [1,2]. Although pertussis incidence declined after the widespread use of whole cell pertussis vaccines in the mid-1940’s, this disease remains an important cause of morbidity in Australia, especially in young infants [3].This bacterial infection of the respiratory tract, caused by Bordetella pertussis, usually begins with coryza (nasal conjestion), fatigue and sometimes a mild fever. A cough then develops, which is often paroxysmal, may be followed by a deep gasp (or whoop). Pertussis affects people of all ages with infants being at greatest risk of severe disease, complications, ho
Roma in the Czech Republic: An Excluded Minority
Laura Cashman
E-Sharp , 2004,
Abstract: In May 2004 the Czech Republic became a member of the European Union (EU) and another boundary, which had separated the country from Western Europe since the middle of the twentieth century, was finally removed. Czechs never stopped considering themselves European, despite the invisible lines drawn on political maps. They regard the cold war as a blip in the nation's long history at the heart of Europe. However, Czech society is not homogenous and with EU accession another group of people, with an equally long history in Europe, have also been accepted as members of the EU family. These people are the Roma.
"Put Your Own House in Order First”: Local Perceptions of EU Influence on Romani Integration Policies in the Czech Republic
Laura Cashman
Journal of Contemporary European Research , 2008,
Abstract: This article examines the influence of the European Union (EU) on the development and implementation of Romani integration policy in the Czech Republic from the perspective of those responsible for policy delivery. Based on analysis of key policy documents and research conducted in the Czech Republic, this article first examines how Romani integration became a more important issue during membership negotiations and then discusses how the criticism of the European Commission’s Regular Reports was received by those responsible for implementing pro-Romani policies. Finally, the paper assesses how the status of full EU membership has impacted on integration policy. The article concludes that while funding for Romani integration projects has benefitted some groups, the overall impression of the EU is of a remote institution, quick to criticise and unwilling to practise what it preaches.
The role of vitamers and dietary-based metabolites of vitamin D in prevention of vitamin D deficiency
Kevin D. Cashman
Food & Nutrition Research , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v56i0.5383
Abstract: There is little doubt that vitamin D deficiency across all age groups in Europe is a problem. Low vitamin D status arises due to limited, if any, dermal synthesis during the winter months at latitudes above 40°N, putting increased importance on dietary supply of the vitamin. However, dietary intakes by most populations are low due to the limited supply of vitamin D-rich foods in the food chain. Thus strategies that effectively address this public health issue are urgently required. It has been emphasized and re-emphasized that there are only a limited number of public health strategies available to correct low dietary vitamin D intake: 1 improving intake of naturally occurring vitamin D-rich foods, 2 vitamin D fortification (mandatory or voluntarily) of food, and 3 vitamin D supplementation. Recent evidence suggests that the levels of vitamin D added to food would need to be high so as to ensure dietary requirements are met and health outcomes optimized. In addition, knowledge of the most effective forms of vitamin D to use in some of these preventative approaches is important. There is still uncertainty in relation to the relative efficacy of vitamin D2 versus D3, the two main food derived forms and those used in vitamin D supplements. The major metabolite of vitamin D with biological activity is 1,25(OH)2D; however, this is usually used for pharmacological purposes and is not typically used in normal, healthy people. The other major metabolite, 25(OH)D, which has also been used for pharmacological purposes is present in certain foods such as meat and meat products (particularly offal) as well as eggs. This metabolite may have the potential to boost vitamin D status up to five times more effectively that native vitamin D3 in foods. However, the exact bioactivity of this compound needs to be established.
Common processes at unique volcanoes—a volcanological conundrum
Katharine Cashman,Juliet Biggs
Frontiers in Earth Science , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/feart.2014.00028
Abstract: An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behavior over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behavior (or “personality”). In contrast, volcano classification schemes define eruption “styles” referenced to “type” volcanoes (e.g., Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian); this approach implicitly assumes that common processes underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual volcanoes. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type volcanoes may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, Hawaii, Fiske et al., 2009). The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of common processes. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to volcano research.
Nasal Birth Trauma: A Review of Appropriate Treatment
E. C. Cashman,Terence Farrell,M. Shandilya
International Journal of Otolaryngology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/752974
Abstract: The aetiology of nasal deformity has frequently included birth trauma. There is no consensus in the literature as to whether nasal surgery, in the form of closed reduction, is indicated in neonates. The majority of studies in the literature that advocate intervention have inadequate followup periods and there is a paucity of evidence for the adverse effects of conservative management. This case highlights the therapeutic dilemma posed by such nasal injuries in the neonate and, to the best of the authors' knowledge, at the time of writing, represents the earliest reported case in the literature of nasal deformity in the neonate. The term nasal deformity is used to denote deformity of the nasal pyramid, soft tissue, and septum. Three main aspects of neonatal nasal deformity are addressed including, firstly, if nasal deformity at birth needs to be addressed, secondly, if left unaltered, what the long-term effects are and, finally, if intervention alters the normal course of midfacial development.
The Natural History of Globus Pharyngeus
E. C. Cashman,M. J. Donnelly
International Journal of Otolaryngology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/159630
Abstract: Globus pharyngeus is a common disorder and accounts for 5% of all ENT referrals. Objectives. To evaluate the role of barium swallow and endoscopy in these patients, to ascertain the incidence, if any, of aerodigestive tract malignancy in this group and to assess the natural evolution of globus pharyngeus. Materials and Methods. Seventy-nine patients underwent barium swallow and rigid oesophagoscopy for globus pharyngeus between January 2005 and October 2008. Fifty-five patients were contacted by phone on average 5 years and 3 months after intervention and asked if their symptoms still persisted. Twenty-four patients were uncontactable or lost to followup, three patients were deceased, two of cardiac related disease and one of renal failure. Results. The majority of patients, 36 of 55 (65%), had a normal barium swallow. Forty-five of 55 (82%) of patients had normal rigid endoscopies. Thirty-one of 55 (56%) patients were at an average followup time of 5 years and 3 months. No patient developed a malignant lesion. Conclusion. Globus pharyngeus is a relatively common but benign condition of indeterminate origin. Our study demonstrates that many of these patients spontaneously improve with time.
Transient trimethylaminuria related to menstruation
Makiko Shimizu, John R Cashman, Hiroshi Yamazaki
BMC Medical Genetics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-8-2
Abstract: FMO3 metabolic capacity (conversion of trimethylamine to trimethylamine N-oxide) was defined as the urinary ratio of trimethylamine N-oxide to total trimethylamine.Self-reported Case (A) that was homozygous for inactive Arg500stop FMO3, showed decreased metabolic capacity of FMO3 (i.e., ~10% the unaffected metabolic capacity) during 120 days of observation. For Case (B) that was homozygous for common [Glu158Lys; Glu308Gly] FMO3 polymorphisms, metabolic capacity of FMO3 was almost ~90%, except for a few days surrounding menstruation showing < 40% metabolic capacity. In comparison, three healthy control subjects that harbored heterozygous polymorphisms for [Glu158Lys; Glu308Gly] FMO3 or homozygous for wild FMO3 showed normal (> 90%) metabolic capacity, however, on days around menstruation the FMO3 metabolic capacity was decreased to ~60–70%.Together, these results indicate that abnormal FMO3 capacity is caused by menstruation particularly in the presence, in homozygous form, of mild genetic variants such as [Glu158Lys; Glu308Gly] that cause a reduced FMO3 function.Trimethylaminuria, or fish odor syndrome, includes a transient or mild malodor caused by an excessive amount of malodorous trimethylamine as a result of body secretions [1,2]. The causal factor of excessive free trimethylamine is reduced enzyme capacity, or maybe substrate overload. The decreased enzyme capacity to form non-odorous trimethylamine N-oxide could be a result by an inherited deficiency (primary genetic trimethylaminuria) and/or by hormonal modulation or liver damage (transient trimethylaminuria) [2,3]. For trimethylaminuria, at least 40 genetic polymorphisms of the flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) gene have been reported [4,5]. For transient trimethylaminuria, a change of metabolic capacity in one individual around the time of menstruation has been reported [6]. Herein, we describe data to support the proposal that menses can be an additional factor causing transient trimethylaminuria in
La política exterior norteamericana desde la óptica educativa del vecino del sur
Cashman, Timothy G.,Rubio, Rene A.
Revista Electrónica Actualidades Investigativas en Educación , 2007,
Abstract: Resumen: En este estudio los investigadores analizan las percepciones de profesoras, profesores, personal administrativo y estudiantes en una ciudad norte a de México, en relación con la política exterior de los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica. Esta investigación tiene lugar en un momento en que las relaciones entre ambos países son tensas a raíz de la autorización de la construcción del muro fronterizo entre las dos naciones. El objetivo del estudio es generar una mayor comprensión acerca de las recientes políticas estadounidenses, y su impacto en el extranjero. Además, compara y contrasta la perspectiva de profesores y estudiantes mexicanos sobre los mensajes trasmitidos por los medios de comunicación norteamericanos. Finalmente, se presenta una serie de recomendaciones en las que se enfatiza en la construcción de puentes de entendimiento en un tiempo en el que al parecer los muros van ganando la batalla.Abstract: Researchers analyze the perceptions and pedagogies of educators and students in northern Mexico with regard to United States foreign policies. The key objective of the research is to provide additional insight to the impact abroad of recent actions taken by the United States government. Furthermore, this study compares and contrasts the viewpoints of Mexican educators and students with coverage provided by the mainstream United States media and United States educational systems. Educators and future teachers in both the United States and Mexico benefit from broader understandings of educators’ roles and students’ perceptions in a bi-national community.
Nasal Birth Trauma: A Review of Appropriate Treatment
E. C. Cashman,Terence Farrell,M. Shandilya
International Journal of Otolaryngology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/752974
Abstract: The aetiology of nasal deformity has frequently included birth trauma. There is no consensus in the literature as to whether nasal surgery, in the form of closed reduction, is indicated in neonates. The majority of studies in the literature that advocate intervention have inadequate followup periods and there is a paucity of evidence for the adverse effects of conservative management. This case highlights the therapeutic dilemma posed by such nasal injuries in the neonate and, to the best of the authors' knowledge, at the time of writing, represents the earliest reported case in the literature of nasal deformity in the neonate. The term nasal deformity is used to denote deformity of the nasal pyramid, soft tissue, and septum. Three main aspects of neonatal nasal deformity are addressed including, firstly, if nasal deformity at birth needs to be addressed, secondly, if left unaltered, what the long-term effects are and, finally, if intervention alters the normal course of midfacial development. 1. Introduction Nasal deformity occurs more frequently during childhood although it occurs at any age due to trauma. Birth trauma was first reported by Metzenbaum in 1929 as being a causative factor in nasal septal deviation [1]. Traditionally, surgery for nasal deformity in children is not usually preformed until an age close to 16 years. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, at the time of writing, this case represents the earliest reported case of nasal deformity in the neonatal setting. 2. Case Report This is the case of a 2-hour-old neonate delivered transvaginally at 38 weeks. His mother was a primigravida, with no comorbidities, and had an uneventful pregnancy. The delivery was forceps assisted. The Apgar score was 9 at 1?min and 10 at 5 minutes. On examination he had a markedly deviated nasal septum (Figure 1), and an X-ray of nasal bones (Figure 2) demonstrated a deviated nasal septum and compression of the midface. The patient demonstrated no signs of respiratory distress so closed reduction was not preformed. A decision was made to follow the patient up in the otolaryngology outpatient department at six weeks (Figure 3). Figure 1: At 2 hours after delivery. Figure 2: X-Ray demonstrating deviation nasal septum to right. Figure 3: At six weeks. 3. Discussion Nasal deformity in the newborn is said to arise due to various intrauterine and transnatal pressures operating on the fetus. In 1963, Klaff reported 12 cases of neonatal deformity and went on to discuss causative factors and methods of treatment [2]. Gray investigated septal deformities in 2,380
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