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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9463 matches for " Patricia "
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Monitoring Recreational Waters: How to Integrate Environmental Determinants  [PDF]
Patricia Turgeon
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.328095
Abstract: Recreational waters are associated with a higher risk of disease for people engaged in activities that bring them into contact with these waters. The primary cause of contamination of recreational waters is fecal microorganisms, which may originate from various sources and involve several modulating factors, making it a complex public health and en- vironmental issue. Monitoring recreational water quality should include two key components: Microbial water testing and monitoring environmental determinants associated with higher risks of contamination. Conducting both activities provides the foundation for a comprehensive assessment according to risk and the actual level of fecal pollution and thus could promote good management actions to ensure safe water quality. Nevertheless, monitoring of environmental determinants is rarely fully integrated in monitoring programs and is also harder to achieve, especially when water pol- lution is mainly associated with nonpoint sources. In order to achieve identification and monitoring of environmental determinants associated with fecal contamination of recreational waters, some specific steps should be followed and some questions must be answered. The objective of this review article is to present current knowledge on this topic and to suggest and discuss recommendations. Potential sources of contamination and factors able to modulate them should be identified and measured after the geographical area influencing fecal contamination of recreational water has been delineated. Statistical models have been developed to identify the relative importance of these environmental characteristics on fecal pollution of recreational waters but they do not allow for a full comprehension of the exact processes leading to this pollution, thus other methods should also be used to better understand these processes.
Availability and accessibility of diabetes clinics on Trinidad: An analysis using proximity tools in a GIS environment  [PDF]
Patricia Boda
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.511A2006
Abstract:

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), account for a growing number of deaths worldwide. The English-speaking Caribbean has the highest per capita burden of NCDs in the region of the Americas [1]. This paper presents an overview of availability and accessibility based on clinic hours and physician fulltime equivalents (FTE) on the island of Trinidad devoted to diabetes and wound care. The project integrates a Geographic Information System (GIS) with epidemiologic and bio-statistical data to provide a necessary spatial analysis not otherwise possible. It examines the island’s ability to effectively deliver treatment to residents with diabetes by providing a geographic perspective to data published on the internet by the Trinidad-Tobago Ministry of Health and the Central Statistical Office. Results indicate a significant regional variability in both numbers of physicians and office hours devoted to diabetes treatment.

Survivors’ Perspectives of Organizational Downsizing on Knowledge Sharing in a Downsized Environment  [PDF]
Patricia Michelle Hall
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2012.14004
Abstract: Organizational workforce reductions can negatively affect a company’s ability to preserve its knowledge base. The problem researched in this study was the perceived effect of downsizing on knowledge sharing among surviving employees. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived effect of downsizing on knowledge sharing. Survivors’ knowledge sharing behavior was examined in relation to 1) survivor syndrome, 2) attitude towards knowledge sharing, and 3) perceived loss of knowledge power. A quantitative correlation research design was used to investigate the relationship between downsizing and knowledge sharing. A web-based survey was used to collect data. The convenience sample consisted of 37 management employees in the Texas region of a management consultant organization. Three sets of variables were examined: 1) survivor syndrome and actual knowledge sharing behavior, 2) survivors’ attitudes toward knowledge sharing and actual knowledge sharing behavior, and 3) perceived loss of knowledge power and actual knowledge sharing behavior. Findings from a Spearman rank order correlation revealed a statistically significant positive correlation between perceived loss of knowledge power and actual knowledge sharing behavior. Understanding survivors’ reactions can assist with planning for future reductions, and lead to the development of training programs to counter the challenges.
Medications in Mexico: The Growth and Distribution of Pharmacies in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico from 1996-2011  [PDF]
Patricia J. Boda
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2013.46A2008
Abstract:

US pharmacies tend to be located at intersections of major cross streets throughout a city, while in the case of Mexican border cities pharmacies are clustered close to US-Mexico border crossings. Presumably this is due to the volume of US clients who frequent the pharmacies. Although the precise number of border crossings to purchase medications is unclear, it is thought to be significant. In the past, patient-based surveys were the primary source for information regarding US residents crossing the border into Mexico for prescription medications. The current study examines the distribution of pharmacies throughout Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico, recording the change in the number of pharmacies over a 15-year period and suggesting the scale of US residents who use Mexican pharmacies. Field research was conducted in 1996 and 2011. Maps showing the location of pharmacies for these two years indicate a clustering of pharmacies within one and one-half miles of the city’s two principal border-crossings between the United States and Mexico. Provider-based surveys revealed that the majority of patients who use pharmacies closest to the border were US residents.

The challenge of combatting non-communicable diseases in Trinidad: Access to hospital care  [PDF]
Patricia J. Boda
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.511A2003
Abstract: Chronic illnesses, or non-communicable diseases (NCDs), account for a growing number of deaths worldwide. The English-speaking Caribbean has the highest per capita burden of NCDs in the region of the Americas [1]. This paper presents an overview of hospital availability on the island of Trinidad in the West Indies and examines rates of NCDs as reported in hospital discharge summaries. The project integrates a Geographic Information System (GIS) with epidemiologic and bio-statistical data to provide essential spatial analysis not otherwise possible. It examines the island’s ability to effectively deliver treatment to residents with NCDs by providing a geographic perspective to public data published on the internet by the Trinidad-Tobago Ministry of Health and the Central Statistical Office. The study reveals a significant variability in several dimensions of access to health care.
Mujeres tenían que ser: Historia de nuestras desobedientes, incorrectas, rebeldes y luchadoras. Desde los orígenes hasta 1930
Patricia Rabossi,Patricia Talani
La Aljaba (Luján) , 2012,
Abstract:
Health Effects of Climate and Air Pollution in Buenos Aires: A First Time Series Analysis  [PDF]
Rosana Abrutzky, Laura Dawidowski, Patricia Matus, Patricia Romero Lankao
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.33033
Abstract: Background: The impact of urban air pollution and temperature changes over health is a growing concern for epidemiologists all over the world and particularly for developing countries where fewer studies have been performed. Aim: The main goal of this paper is to analyze the short term effects of changes in temperature and atmospheric carbon monoxide on daily mortality in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Methods: We conducted a time series study focused on three age groups, gender, and cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, with lags up to four days and temporal variables as modifiers. Results: Temperature correlates positively with total mortality for summer months, with a RR = 1.0184 (95%, CI 1.0139, 1.0229) on the same day for each 1℃ increase. In winter this relationship reverses, as 1?C temperature increase exhibit a protective effect with a RR = 0.9894 (95%, CI 0.9864, 0.9924) at the 3 day lag. Carbon monoxide correlates always positively with mortality, with a RR = 1.0369 (95%, CI 1.0206, 1.0534) for each 1 ppm increase, on the previous day. Conclusions: Climate and pollution parameters measured in Buenos Aires City exhibit a correlation with health outcomes. The impacts of temperature and carbon monoxide vary with age and gender, being elderly the most susceptible subgroup. One day after an increase in CO of 1 ppm, about 4% extra deaths can be expected. The correlation found between increases in CO and mortality for greater lags may be ascribed to the role of CO as a chemical marker of urban air pollution, indicating the co-presence of other pollutants.
Newcomers in Educational System: The Case of French-Speaking Part of Belgium  [PDF]
Altay A. Manco, Patricia Alen
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2012.21015
Abstract: According to the Lisbon strategy for a knowledge society, entering school plays a significant role for any young immigrant. In Belgium, this issue is very worrying, as equity between native born students and those of foreign origin seems to be lacking. Finally, the situation in French-speaking Belgium is even more difficult than in the Flemish part of the country. Also, this paper aims to explore the strategies in place to welcome and integrate these children. It portrays specific guidance devices for young newcomers and analyzes possible correlations between them and the rate of academic success. In light of particularities of the Belgian educational system especially linked to the fact that we are in a federal state with different languages of reference, our study covers the portion of the federal state where French is the official language. The targeted group is that of newcomers of age to attend secondary school. The method of analysis and synthesis of available information includes both quantitative and qualitative data. Our approach was based on the description and analysis of the context of recognition and knowledge acquisition of young students of foreign origin in secondary education. Our analysis focuses on: accessibility to education and equality of success; adequacy to requirements, consistency and efficiency, as well as effectiveness of the education system; the relevance and specific training of teachers adapted to the newcomers; sustainability of the results: the insertion and future integration of youth; and finally, various linguistic, social and psychological dimensions, as well as citizenship. The report identifies some key elements of the context of schooling for young newcomers and offers brief elements of understanding of the history of immigration in this region. Specific and general practices for integration and schooling of young migrants, including accompanied or unaccompanied minor asylum seekers, are described. Finally, these elements are analyzed in terms of accessibility standards to school education, criteria for adequacy of such education to the specificity of immigrant children and finally, criteria for system effectiveness, and practical tracks are proposed.
Understanding RFID Technology within a Business Intelligence Framework  [PDF]
Richard Herschel, Patricia D. Rafferty
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2012.46046
Abstract: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology provides new and exciting opportunities for increasing organiza- tional, financial, and operational performance. With its focus on organizational efficiency and effectiveness, RFID technology is superior to barcodes in its ability to provide source automation features that increase the speed and volume of data collection for analysis. Today, applications that employ RFID are growing rapidly and this technology is in a continuous state of evolution and growth. As it continues to progress, RFID provides us with new opportunities to use business intelligence (BI) to monitor organizational operations and learn more about markets, as well as consumer attitudes, behaviors, and product preferences. This technology can even be used to prevent potentially faulty or spoiled products from ending up in the hands of consumers. However, RFID offers significant challenges to organizations that attempt to employ this technology. Most significantly, there exists the potential for RFID to overwhelm data collection and BI analytic efforts if organizations fail to effectively address RFID data integration issues. To this end, the purpose of this article is to explicate the dynamic technology of RFID and how it is being used today. Additionally, this article will provide insights into how RFID technology is evolving and how this technology relates to BI and issues related to data integration. This knowledge has never been more essential. While IT academic research into RFID development and issues has declined in recent years, RFID continues to be a vital area of exploration, especially as it relates to BI in the 21st century.
Root Canals and Crowns: An Analysis of the Spatial Distribution of Dental Offices in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico, 1996-2011  [PDF]
Patricia J. Boda, James Harris
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2013.46A2005
Abstract:

Every city above a certain size has health services that are located, to a large extent, close to their patients. This study analyzes the spatial distribution of dental office and the change in the number of dental offices in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico over a 15-year time period. Research was conducted in 1996 and 2011. Maps showing the location of dental offices for these two years indicate a clustering of dental offices within one and one-half miles of the city’s two principal border-crossing points between the United States and Mexico. Provider-based surveys were also used to determine the mix of patients (US or Mexican citizens) at the dental offices found throughout the city. By 2011, nearly all of the dental offices clustered within one and one-half miles of the two principal US-Mexico border crossings had 100% of their patients from the United States.

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