A 68-year-old woman with intercondylar fracture of the femur suffers massive (high risk) pulmonary embolism (PE) during surgery and is suc-cessfully treated with systemic thrombolysis. After limb exsanguinations with Esmarch bandage, the patient presents with sudden oxygen desaturation (99% to 80%) with subsequent dyspnea and hypotension. She is intubated and requires continuous adrenalin perfusion while the surgery is finished and until she can be transferred to the reanimation ward. We decide to perform transthoracic echocardiogram (her general condition impedes transfer to tomography) which confirms right ventricular overload and pulmonary hypertension. These findings justify systemic thrombolysis, which is performed with good results. Surgery, and in particular orthopedic surgery, increase the risk of PE. When considering high risk PE, guidelines recommend primary reperfusion strategy through systemic thrombolysis (which can be contraindicated in surgery patients) or catheter-assisted thrombus removal (less widely available). Lately, surgical pulmonary embolectomy is being discussed as a treatment option for patients with contraindication to thrombolysis, but this practice is still uncommon.

Abstract:
Halo models of the large scale structure of the Universe are critically examined, focusing on the definition of halos as smooth distributions of cold dark matter. This definition is essentially based on the results of cosmological N-body simulations. By a careful analysis of the standard assumptions of halo models and N-body simulations and by taking into account previous studies of self-similarity of the cosmic web structure, we conclude that N-body cosmological simulations are not fully reliable in the range of scales where halos appear. Therefore, to have a consistent definition of halos is necessary either to define them as entities of arbitrary size with a grainy rather than smooth structure or to define their size in terms of small-scale baryonic physics.

Abstract:
We introduce new statistical methods for the study of cosmic voids, focusing on the statistics of largest size voids. We distinguish three different types of distributions of voids, namely, Poisson-like, lognormal-like and Pareto-like distributions. The last two distributions are connected with two types of fractal geometry of the matter distribution. Scaling voids with Pareto distribution appear in fractal distributions with box-counting dimension smaller than three (its maximum value), whereas the lognormal void distribution corresponds to multifractals with box-counting dimension equal to three. Moreover, voids of the former type persist in the continuum limit, namely, as the number density of observable objects grows, giving rise to lacunar fractals, whereas voids of the latter type disappear in the continuum limit, giving rise to non-lacunar (multi)fractals. We propose both lacunar and non-lacunar multifractal models of the cosmic web structure of the Universe. A non-lacunar multifractal model is supported by current galaxy surveys as well as cosmological $N$-body simulations. This model suggests, in particular, that small dark matter halos and, arguably, faint galaxies are present in cosmic voids.

Abstract:
The Landau potentials of $W_3$-algebra models are analyzed with algebraic-geometric methods. The number of ground states and the number of independent perturbations of every potential coincide and can be computed. This number agrees with the structure of ground states obtained in a previous paper, namely, as the phase structure of the IRF models of Jimbo et al. The singularities associated to these potentials are identified.

Abstract:
We consider relative entropy in Field Theory as a well defined (non-divergent) quantity of interest. We establish a monotonicity property with respect to the couplings in the theory. As a consequence, the relative entropy in a field theory with a hierarchy of renormalization group fixed points ranks the fixed points in decreasing order of criticality. We argue from a generalized $H$ theorem that Wilsonian RG flows induce an increase in entropy and propose the relative entropy as the natural quantity which increases from one fixed point to another in more than two dimensions.

Abstract:
We construct Landau-Ginzburg Lagrangians for minimal bosonic ($N=0$) $W$-models perturbed with the least relevant field, inspired by the theory of $N=2$ supersymmetric Landau-Ginzburg Lagrangians. They agree with the Lagrangians for unperturbed models previously found with Zamolodchikov's method. We briefly study their properties, e.g. the perturbation algebra and the soliton structure. We conclude that the known properties of $N=2$ solitons (BPS, lines in $W$ plane, etc.) hold as well. Hence, a connection with a generalized supersymmetric structure of minimal $W$-models is conjectured.

Abstract:
We present the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz as a way to factorize the partition function of a 2d field theory, in particular, a conformal field theory and we compare it with another approach to factorization due to K. Schoutens which consists of diagonalizing matrix recursion relations between the partition functions at consecutive levels. We prove that both are equivalent, taking as examples the SU(2) spinons and the 3-state Potts model. In the latter case we see that there are two different thermodynamic Bethe ansatz equation systems with the same physical content, of which the second is new and corresponds to a one-quasiparticle representation, as opposed to the usual two-quasiparticle representation. This new thermodynamic Bethe ansatz system leads to a new dilogarithmic formula for the central charge of that model.

Abstract:
We consider the relation between affine Toda field theories (ATFT) and Landau-Ginzburg Lagrangians as alternative descriptions of deformed 2d CFT. First, we show that the two concrete implementations of the deformation are consistent once quantum corrections to the Landau-Ginzburg Lagrangian are taken into account. Second, inspired by Gepner's fusion potentials, we explore the possibility of a direct connection between both types of Lagrangians; namely, whether they can be transformed one into another by a change of variables. This direct connection exists in the one-variable case, namely, for the sine-Gordon model, but cannot be established in general. Nevertheless, we show that both potentials exhibit the same structure of extrema.

Abstract:
Spherical accretion flows are simple enough for analytical study, by solution of the corresponding fluid dynamic equations. The solutions of stationary spherical flow are due to Bondi. The questions of the choice of a physical solution and of stability have been widely discussed. The answer to these questions is very dependent on the problem of boundary conditions, which vary according to whether the accretor is a compact object or a black hole. We introduce a particular, simple form of stationary spherical flow, namely, self-similar Bondi flow, as a case with physical interest in which analytic solutions for perturbations can be found. With suitable no matter-flux-perturbation boundary conditions, we will show that acoustic modes are stable in time and have no spatial instability at r=0. Furthermore, their evolution eventually becomes ergodic-like and shows no trace of instability or of acquiring any remarkable pattern.

Abstract:
The relative entropy in two-dimensional field theory is studied on a cylinder geometry, interpreted as finite-temperature field theory. The width of the cylinder provides an infrared scale that allows us to define a dimensionless relative entropy analogous to Zamolodchikov's $c$ function. The one-dimensional quantum thermodynamic entropy gives rise to another monotonic dimensionless quantity. I illustrate these monotonicity theorems with examples ranging from free field theories to interacting models soluble with the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz. Both dimensionless entropies are explicitly shown to be monotonic in the examples that we analyze.