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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9502 matches for " Patricia Corby "
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Making Nothing Happen: Yeats, Heidegger, Pessoa, and the Emergence of Post-Romanticism
James Corby
Humanities , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/h1030117
Abstract: Through close readings of the work of two major poets of the twentieth century—W.B. Yeats and Fernando Pessoa—this paper identifies and attempts to make sense of an important shift in European modernism away from a broadly Romantic aesthetic toward what might be called “post-Romanticism.” Taking its cue from W.H. Auden’s “In Memory of W.B. Yeats,” where having stated that “poetry makes nothing happen” he asserts that it survives as “a way of happening,” and drawing on the philosophy of Heidegger and Jean-Luc Nancy, this paper argues that this shift from Romanticism to post-Romanticism hinges on a deep metaphysical reconceptualization of poetry understood as poiesis. In light of this reassessment of the aesthetics and philosophical affinities of poetic modernism, it is argued that post-Romanticism should be understood as offering a modest, salutary, phenomenological re-acquaintance with our involvement with the everyday world, in sharp contrast to the transcendental ambitions of the Romantic aesthetic that preceded it.
Issues of Recruitment and Rationale for Conducting Clinical Trials on Mutans Streptococci Suppression in Mothers
Walter A. Bretz,Odila P. S. Rosa,Salete M. B. Silva,Patricia Corby,Lisa Weissfeld,Walter J. Loesche
International Journal of Dentistry , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/107147
Abstract: The aims of this study are (1) to describe issues related to recruitment of mothers participating in a clinical trial of transmission of mutans streptococci (MS) from mother to child in Bauru, Brazil and (2) to perform cross-cultural and temporal comparisons of levels of infection of the MS in mothers of Bauru. A total of 1422 mothers were visited at their domiciles. Cutoff levels for the MS were established at ?CFU/mL saliva. The main reason for a mother not enrolling was not being highly infected by the MS, yet 76% of mothers presented with levels ?CFU/mL saliva. Recent studies in industrialized countries showed a negative coefficient for linear tests indicating significant decline overtime in the levels of MS in mothers. Intercountry comparisons for mothers' salivary levels of the MS with the Bauru study as the reference revealed significant differences with studies conducted in the last two decades. 1. Introduction Thirty years ago, Kohler and colleagues demonstrated that the suppression of high levels of the mutans streptococci ( 106 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL of saliva) by means of comprehensive and tailored regimens delivered to mothers of newly born babies was attainable [1]. This suppression of high levels of the mutans streptococci (MS) in mothers resulted in a lower prevalence of the MS and of dental decay in their children as far as when these children were 7 years of age, when compared to children of mothers receiving symptomatic dental treatment [2, 3]. These high levels of infection in mothers in Sweden at that time (1978) would likely not be found in most communities of industrialized countries nowadays, probably due to the widespread use of antibiotics, the use of fluoridated dentifrices, the introduction of dietary modifiers such as sugar substitutes, and public health efforts [4]. A number of investigators from industrialized countries have reported the levels of the MS in mothers and/or pregnant mothers throughout time [5–8]. Nonindustrialized countries have not fully experienced the benefits of measures that might interfere with the levels of the MS compatible with the diagnosis of an infection. In Brazil, high levels of the MS and of dental caries are still found in children and adults [9–15]. An inadequate sample can significantly alter the endpoints of clinical trials. The studies conducted by Kohler and colleagues suffered from methodological issues related to the design and implementation of clinical trials that include lack of randomization and of placebo-based groups which could have potentially biased study results. We
Identification of Microbial and Proteomic Biomarkers in Early Childhood Caries
Thomas C. Hart,Patricia M. Corby,Milos Hauskrecht,Ok Hee Ryu,Richard Pelikan,Michal Valko,Maria B. Oliveira,Gerald T. Hoehn,Walter A. Bretz
International Journal of Dentistry , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/196721
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to provide a univariate and multivariate analysis of genomic microbial data and salivary mass-spectrometry proteomic profiles for dental caries outcomes. In order to determine potential useful biomarkers for dental caries, a multivariate classification analysis was employed to build predictive models capable of classifying microbial and salivary sample profiles with generalization performance. We used high-throughput methodologies including multiplexed microbial arrays and SELDI-TOF-MS profiling to characterize the oral flora and salivary proteome in 204 children aged 1–8 years ( caries-free, caries-active). The population received little dental care and was deemed at high risk for childhood caries. Findings of the study indicate that models incorporating both microbial and proteomic data are superior to models of only microbial or salivary data alone. Comparison of results for the combined and independent data suggests that the combination of proteomic and microbial sources is beneficial for the classification accuracy and that combined data lead to improved predictive models for caries-active and caries-free patients. The best predictive model had a 6% test error, >92% sensitivity, and >95% specificity. These findings suggest that further characterization of the oral microflora and the salivary proteome associated with health and caries may provide clinically useful biomarkers to better predict future caries experience. 1. Introduction Dental caries, the most common disease of childhood, is a complex infectious disease with a multifactorial etiology. The caries process is characterized by interactions between a receptive host and microorganisms with the potential for colonization and pathogenesis. Microbial, genetic, immunological, behavioral, environmental, and socioeconomic factors contribute to risk and determine the occurrence and severity of clinical disease [1, 2]. Of the identified risk factors, the cariogenic oral microbial flora and saliva have received particular research attention. Microbiological studies conducted in the past four decades have shown that Streptococcus mutans is the chief pathogen associated with childhood dental caries onset and that lactobacilli are associated with dental caries progression [3, 4]. Much of this knowledge has been made possible with the use of traditional culturing methods employing selective media for these pathogens. Recent advances employing microbial molecular techniques have allowed for better understanding of the complexity of the flora associated with oral infections,
Association between Selected Oral Pathogens and Gastric Precancerous Lesions
Christian R. Salazar, Jinghua Sun, Yihong Li, Fritz Francois, Patricia Corby, Guillermo Perez-Perez, Ananda Dasanayake, Zhiheng Pei, Yu Chen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051604
Abstract: We examined whether colonization of selected oral pathogens is associated with gastric precancerous lesions in a cross-sectional study. A total of 119 participants were included, of which 37 were cases of chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, or dysplasia. An oral examination was performed to measure periodontal indices. Plaque and saliva samples were tested with real-time quantitative PCR for DNA levels of pathogens related to periodontal disease (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis, Treponema denticola, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) and dental caries (Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus). There were no consistent associations between DNA levels of selected bacterial species and gastric precancerous lesions, although an elevated but non-significant odds ratio (OR) for gastric precancerous lesions was observed in relation to increasing colonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans (OR = 1.36 for one standard deviation increase, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.87–2.12), P. gingivalis (OR = 1.12, 0.67–1.88) and T. denticola (OR = 1.34, 0.83–2.12) measured in plaque. To assess the influence of specific long-term infection, stratified analyses by levels of periodontal indices were conducted. A. actinomycetemcomitans was significantly associated with gastric precancerous lesions (OR = 2.51, 1.13–5.56) among those with ≥ median of percent tooth sites with PD≥3 mm, compared with no association among those below the median (OR = 0.86, 0.43–1.72). A significantly stronger relationship was observed between the cumulative bacterial burden score of periodontal disease-related pathogens and gastric precancerous lesions among those with higher versus lower levels of periodontal disease indices (p-values for interactions: 0.03–0.06). Among individuals with periodontal disease, high levels of colonization of periodontal pathogens are associated with an increased risk of gastric precancerous lesions.
I Stood Up: Social Design in Practice  [PDF]
Tom Corby, Dilys Williams, Vivek Sheth, Virkein Dhar
Art and Design Review (ADR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/adr.2016.42005
Abstract: Through practice-based research, we explore how interdisciplinary design projects can function to address social issues concerning environmental and social problems. Using two case studies developed between London in the United Kingdom, and Delhi and Ahmedabad in India, we discuss the importance of engagement with the people who the design ultimately serves. Finally, we argue that design concerned with complex social problems require equally complex, multidimensional responses, informed by bodies of knowledge, practices and approaches that lie outside of traditional design approaches.
Changes in Abundance of Oral Microbiota Associated with Oral Cancer
Brian L. Schmidt, Justin Kuczynski, Aditi Bhattacharya, Bing Huey, Patricia M. Corby, Erica L. S. Queiroz, Kira Nightingale, A. Ross Kerr, Mark D. DeLacure, Ratna Veeramachaneni, Adam B. Olshen, Donna G. Albertson, Muy-Teck Teh
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098741
Abstract: Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence.
The Wor1-like Protein Fgp1 Regulates Pathogenicity, Toxin Synthesis and Reproduction in the Phytopathogenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum
Wilfried Jonkers,Yanhong Dong,Karen Broz,H. Corby Kistler
PLOS Pathogens , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002724
Abstract: WOR1 is a gene for a conserved fungal regulatory protein controlling the dimorphic switch and pathogenicity determents in Candida albicans and its ortholog in the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, called SGE1, is required for pathogenicity and expression of key plant effector proteins. F. graminearum, an important pathogen of cereals, is not known to employ switching and no effector proteins from F. graminearum have been found to date that are required for infection. In this study, the potential role of the WOR1-like gene in pathogenesis was tested in this toxigenic fungus. Deletion of the WOR1 ortholog (called FGP1) in F. graminearum results in greatly reduced pathogenicity and loss of trichothecene toxin accumulation in infected wheat plants and in vitro. The loss of toxin accumulation alone may be sufficient to explain the loss of pathogenicity to wheat. Under toxin-inducing conditions, expression of genes for trichothecene biosynthesis and many other genes are not detected or detected at lower levels in Δfgp1 strains. FGP1 is also involved in the developmental processes of conidium formation and sexual reproduction and modulates a morphological change that accompanies mycotoxin production in vitro. The Wor1-like proteins in Fusarium species have highly conserved N-terminal regions and remarkably divergent C-termini. Interchanging the N- and C- terminal portions of proteins from F. oxysporum and F. graminearum resulted in partial to complete loss of function. Wor1-like proteins are conserved but have evolved to regulate pathogenicity in a range of fungi, likely by adaptations to the C-terminal portion of the protein.
Cellular Development Associated with Induced Mycotoxin Synthesis in the Filamentous Fungus Fusarium graminearum
Jon Menke, Jakob Weber, Karen Broz, H. Corby Kistler
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063077
Abstract: Several species of the filamentous fungus Fusarium colonize plants and produce toxic small molecules that contaminate agricultural products, rendering them unsuitable for consumption. Among the most destructive of these species is F. graminearum, which causes disease in wheat and barley and often infests the grain with harmful trichothecene mycotoxins. Synthesis of these secondary metabolites is induced during plant infection or in culture in response to chemical signals. Our results show that trichothecene biosynthesis involves a complex developmental process that includes dynamic changes in cell morphology and the biogenesis of novel subcellular structures. Two cytochrome P-450 oxygenases (Tri4p and Tri1p) involved in early and late steps in trichothecene biosynthesis were tagged with fluorescent proteins and shown to co-localize to vesicles we provisionally call “toxisomes.” Toxisomes, the inferred site of trichothecene biosynthesis, dynamically interact with motile vesicles containing a predicted major facilitator superfamily protein (Tri12p) previously implicated in trichothecene export and tolerance. The immediate isoprenoid precursor of trichothecenes is the primary metabolite farnesyl pyrophosphate. Changes occur in the cellular localization of the isoprenoid biosynthetic enzyme HMG CoA reductase when cultures non-induced for trichothecene biosynthesis are transferred to trichothecene biosynthesis inducing medium. Initially localized in the cellular endomembrane system, HMG CoA reductase, upon induction of trichothecene biosynthesis, increasingly is targeted to toxisomes. Metabolic pathways of primary and secondary metabolism thus may be coordinated and co-localized under conditions when trichothecene biosynthesis occurs.
The Bacterial Communities Associated with Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Foragers
Vanessa Corby-Harris, Patrick Maes, Kirk E. Anderson
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095056
Abstract: The honey bee is a key pollinator species in decline worldwide. As part of a commercial operation, bee colonies are exposed to a variety of agricultural ecosystems throughout the year and a multitude of environmental variables that may affect the microbial balance of individuals and the hive. While many recent studies support the idea of a core microbiota in guts of younger in-hive bees, it is unknown whether this core is present in forager bees or the pollen they carry back to the hive. Additionally, several studies hypothesize that the foregut (crop), a key interface between the pollination environment and hive food stores, contains a set of 13 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that inoculate collected pollen and act in synergy to preserve pollen stores. Here, we used a combination of 454 based 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the microbial communities of forager guts, crops, and corbicular pollen and crop plate counts to show that (1) despite a very different diet, forager guts contain a core microbiota similar to that found in younger bees, (2) corbicular pollen contains a diverse community dominated by hive-specific, environmental or phyllosphere bacteria that are not prevalent in the gut or crop, and (3) the 13 LAB found in culture-based studies are not specific to the crop but are a small subset of midgut or hindgut specific bacteria identified in many recent 454 amplicon-based studies. The crop is dominated by Lactobacillus kunkeei, and Alpha 2.2 (Acetobacteraceae), highly osmotolerant and acid resistant bacteria found in stored pollen and honey. Crop taxa at low abundance include core hindgut bacteria in transit to their primary niche, and potential pathogens or food spoilage organisms seemingly vectored from the pollination environment. We conclude that the crop microbial environment is influenced by worker task, and may function in both decontamination and inoculation.
Semantic Social Network Analysis
Guillaume Erétéo,Fabien Gandon,Olivier Corby,Michel Buffa
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: Social Network Analysis (SNA) tries to understand and exploit the key features of social networks in order to manage their life cycle and predict their evolution. Increasingly popular web 2.0 sites are forming huge social network. Classical methods from social network analysis (SNA) have been applied to such online networks. In this paper, we propose leveraging semantic web technologies to merge and exploit the best features of each domain. We present how to facilitate and enhance the analysis of online social networks, exploiting the power of semantic social network analysis.
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