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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 852 matches for " Patrice Tchendjou "
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Effectiveness of Multidrug Antiretroviral Regimens to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1 in Routine Public Health Services in Cameroon
Patrice Tchendjou,Chantal Same-Ekobo,Annie Nga,Mathurin Tejiokem,Anfumbom Kfutwah,Anne Njom Nlend,Landry Tsague,Anne Cécile Bissek,Daniel Ekoa,Joanna Orne-Gliemann,Dominique Rousset,Régis Pouillot,Fran?ois Dabis
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010411
Abstract: Multidrug antiretroviral (ARV) regimens including HAART and short-course dual antiretroviral (sc-dARV) regimens were introduced in 2004 to improve Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) in Cameroon. We assessed the effectiveness of these regimens from 6–10 weeks and 12 months of age, respectively.
Couple-oriented prenatal HIV counseling for HIV primary prevention: an acceptability study
Joanna Orne-Gliemann, Patrice T Tchendjou, Marija Miric, Mukta Gadgil, Maia Butsashvili, Fred Eboko, Eddy Perez-Then, Shrinivas Darak, Sanjeevani Kulkarni, George Kamkamidze, Eric Balestre, Annabel du Lo?, Francois Dabis
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-197
Abstract: Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used: direct observations of health services; in-depth interviews with women, men and health care workers; monitoring of the COC intervention and exit interviews with COC participants.In-depth interviews conducted with 92 key informants across the four sites indicated that men rarely participated in antenatal care (ANC) services, mainly because these are traditionally and programmatically a woman's domain. However men's involvement was reported to be acceptable and needed in order to improve ANC and HIV prevention services. COC was considered by the respondents to be a feasible and acceptable strategy to actively encourage men to participate in prenatal HIV counseling and testing and overall in reproductive health services.One of the keys to men's involvement within prenatal HIV counseling and testing is the better understanding of couple relationships, attitudes and communication patterns between men and women, in terms of HIV and sexual and reproductive health; this conjugal context should be taken into account in the provision of quality prenatal HIV counseling, which aims at integrated PMTCT and primary prevention of HIV.It is estimated that 2.5 million new HIV infections occurred worldwide in 2007 [1] and primary prevention remains a key intervention for mitigating the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Knowledge of one's HIV serostatus is critical not only for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) and the provision of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment to HIV-infected adults, but also for the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV. Although the coverage of HIV counseling and testing services is increasing, it remains insufficient. Population-based surveys conducted in low- and middle-income countries between 2005 and 2007 estimated that a median of 10.9% of women and 10.3% of men had ever had an HIV test and received their test results [2]. In these countries, expanding PMTCT programs have increased the
Low Birth Weight in Perinatally HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants: Observations in Urban Settings in Cameroon
Casimir Ledoux Sofeu, Josiane Warszawski, Francis Ateba Ndongo, Ida Calixte Penda, Suzie Tetang Ndiang, Georgette Guemkam, Nicaise Makwet, Félicité Owona, Anfumbom Kfutwah, Patrice Tchendjou, Ga?tan Texier, Maurice Tchuente, Albert Faye, Mathurin Cyrille Tejiokem, The ANRS-PEDIACAM study group
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093554
Abstract: Background The consequences of maternal HIV infection for fetal growth are controversial. Here, we estimated the frequency of small for gestational age and gender (SGAG) among neonates born to HIV-infected or uninfected mothers and assessed the contribution, if any, of maternal HIV to the risk of SGAG. Methods The data used were obtained from the ANRS-Pediacam cohort in Cameroon. Pairs of newborns, one to a HIV-infected mother and the other to an uninfected mother, were identified during the first week of life, and matched on gender and recruitment site from 2007–2010. SGAG was defined in line with international recommendations as a birth weight Z-score adjusted for gestational age at delivery and gender more than two standard deviations below the mean (?2SD). Considering the matched design, logistic regression modeling was adjusted on site and gender to explore the effect of perinatal HIV exposure on SGAG. Results Among the 4104 mother-infant pairs originally enrolled, no data on birth weight and/or gestational age were available for 108; also, 259 were twins and were excluded. Of the remaining 3737 mother-infant pairs, the frequency of SGAG was 5.3% (95%CI: 4.6–6.0), and was significantly higher among HIV-infected infants (22.4% vs. 6.3%; p<.001) and lower among HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (3.5% vs. 6.3%; p<.001) than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Similarly, SGAG was significantly more frequent among HIV-infected infants (aOR: 4.1; 2.0–8.1) and less frequent among HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (aOR: 0.5; 0.4–0.8) than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Primiparity (aOR: 1.9; 1.3–2.7) and the presence of any disease during pregnancy (aOR: 1.4; 1.0–2.0) were identified as other contributors to SGAG. Conclusion Maternal HIV infection was independently associated with SGAG for HIV-exposed uninfected infants. This provides further evidence of the need for adapted monitoring of pregnancy in HIV-infected women, especially if they are symptomatic, to minimize additional risk factors for SGAG.
Situating Cornerstone Propositions  [PDF]
Patrice Philie
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.24038
Abstract: Ostensibly, Wittgenstein’s last remarks published in 1969 under the title On Certainty are about epistemology, more precisely about the problem of scepticism. This is the standard interpretation of On Certainty. But I contend, in this paper, that we will get closer to Wittgenstein’s intentions and perhaps find new and illuminating ways to interpret his late contribution if we keep in mind that his primary goal was not to provide an answer to scepticism. In fact, I think that the standard reading (independently of its fruitfulness with dealing with scepticism) leads to a distorted view of Wittgenstein’s contribution in On Certainty. In order to see that, scepticism will first be briefly characterised, and then I will attempt to circumscribe more precisely the standard reading of On Certainty. In section 4, three exegetical arguments against the standard reading are offered – the hope being that the weight of these three arguments, taken together, instils doubt in the reader’s mind about the correctness of the standard reading. The paper concludes with an attempt to gesture at the philosophical significance of On Certainty once we set aside the standard reading.
Assessment of Polyamines and Trehalose in Wheat Microspores Culture for Embryogenesis and Green Regenerated Plants  [PDF]
Amina Redha, Patrice Suleman
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.411275
Abstract:

Most aspects of microspore culture protocol have the capacity to cause stress to microspores, hence, less stressful treatments might be required to avoid deleterious effects. In stressed plants, polyamines and trehalose can act as compatible solutes or osmoprotectants by stabilizing proteins and biological membranes. To improve green plant regeneration in wheat microspore culture, this study assessed the effects of polyamines (putrecine, spermidine, spermine) and trehalose on androgenic response namely embryogenesis, green plant regeneration and ploidy of green plants regenerated in three spring wheat genotypes. Microspores of the genotypes produced significant numbers of embryos and green plants among polyamine treatments but trehalose had no effect (P ≤ 0.05). Polyamine treatments for 30 min generally produced more green plants per 100 microspores than the 60 min treatments in all three genotypes. At least three out of twelve polyamine treatments in each genotype improved the production of double haploid plants and seed setting in regenerants. Wheat genotype, concentration and duration of polyamine treatment had significant impact on embryogenesis and regeneration of green plants in this study. The study also showed that polyamines could be used to accelerate cultivar development in wheat breeding.

Discounted Cash Flow Model 2.0  [PDF]
Patrice Gélinas
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.412087
Abstract:

Unexpected takeover premiums could be due to the limitations of traditional discounted cash flow models that do not take into account the synergetic potential of the valued assets, which should be acquired by another firm. The author offers a method to value a firm taking into account potential value sitting outside the firm due to synergetic potential. The magnitude of this value depends on the scale of potential synergies, on the willingness of third parties to acquire the firm and the post-acquisition use of the assets.

 

Pricing Equity-Indexed Annuities under Stochastic Interest Rates Using Copulas
Patrice Gaillardetz
Journal of Probability and Statistics , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/726389
Abstract: We develop a consistent evaluation approach for equity-linked insurance products under stochastic interest rates. This pricing approach requires that the premium information of standard insurance products is given exogenously. In order to evaluate equity-linked products, we derive three martingale probability measures that reproduce the information from standard insurance products, interest rates, and equity index. These risk adjusted martingale probability measures are determined using copula theory and evolve with the stochastic interest rate process. A detailed numerical analysis is performed for existing equity-indexed annuities in the North American market. 1. Introduction An equity-indexed annuity is an insurance product whose benefits are linked to the performance of an equity market. It provides limited participation in the performance of an equity index (e.g., S&P 500) while guaranteeing a minimum rate of return. Introduced by Keyport Life Insurance Co. in 1995, equity-indexed annuities have been the most innovative insurance product introduced in recent years. They have become increasingly popular since their debut and sales have broken the $20 billion barrier ($23.1 billion) in 2004, reaching $27.3 billion in 2005. Equity-indexed annuities have also reached a critical mass with a total asset of $93 billion in 2005 (2006 Annuity Fact Book (Tables 7-8) from the National Association for Variable Annuities (NAVA)). See the monograph by Hardy [1] for comprehensive discussions on these products. The traditional actuarial pricing approach evaluates the premiums of standard life insurance products as the expected present value of its benefits with respect to a mortality law plus a security loading. Since equity-linked products are embedded with various types of financial guarantees, the actuarial approach is difficult to extend to these products and often produces premiums inconsistent with the insurance and financial markets. Many attempts have been made to provide consistent pricing approaches for equity-linked products using financial and economical approaches. For instance, Brennan and Schwartz [2] and Boyle and Schwartz [3] use option pricing techniques to evaluate life insurance products embedded with some financial guarantees. Bacinello and Ortu [4, 5] consider the case where the interest rate is stochastic. More recently, M?ller [6] employs the risk-minimization method to evaluate equity-linked life insurances. Young and Zariphopoulou [7] evaluate these products using utility theory1. Particularly for equity-indexed annuities, Tiong [8] and
Neutrophils and interferon-α-producing cells: who produces interferon in lupus?
Patrice Decker
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/ar3345
Abstract: Serum interferon (IFN)-α concentrations are elevated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) [1] and contribute to the break of peripheral tolerance by sustaining the differentiation of myeloid dendritic cells [2]. IFN-α actually increases the differentiation of monocytes into dendritic cells that present antigens from dying cells to CD4+ lymphocytes, resulting in their proliferation. The involvement of IFN-α in SLE development is further supported by the IFN-inducible gene expression signature that characterizes a clinical subset of patients with SLE and more severe disease (for example, damage of the kidneys or the central nervous system) [3]. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) have been suggested to be the main cells producing IFN-α [4], and an inducer of IFN-α has been identified in the circulation of patients with SLE [5]. Currently, PDCs activated by DNA- and RNA-containing immune complexes are believed to be the main source of IFN-α in SLE upon triggering of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 and TLR7, respectively, in cooperation with CD32 [6-8]. Nevertheless, PDC depletion experiments suggest that other cell types produce IFN-α in SLE [2] and type I IFN production occurs independently of Fcγ receptors in a lupus mouse model [9], indicating that uptake of immune complexes is not required. In a different lupus mouse model, the double-stranded RNA analog poly I:C was shown to induce IFN-α production in spleen monocytes [10], confirming that - depending on the stimulus - cells other than PDCs may produce IFN-α independently of the presence of immune complexes.Interestingly, Fairhurst and colleagues [11] recently showed that type I IFNs are produced by resident renal cells, suggesting that locally produced IFN-α may promote glomerulonephritis development. Moreover, this mechanism seems to involve the recruitment of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes, or PMNs). In agreement with those results, granulocytes are activated in active SLE as suggested by t
LA REPúBLICA INDEPENDENTE, EL PODER CONSTITUYENTE Y EL HéROE DE LA EMANCIPACIóN
Vermeren,Patrice;
Revista de filosofía , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-43602011000100006
Abstract: who is a hero of emancipation? rousseau contrasted the ancient hero, a triumphant worrier who defeats the enemies of his country, with the true hero, the one who is able to surrender his singularity in order better to promote the collective agency of a sovereign people. the french revolution, according tomiguel abensour, redefines political heroism as the ability to initiate something in the unpredictability of the result, establishing therefore a new society in which the figures of the hero and the legislator coincide, broaching an enigmatic relationship between bondage and freedom, and establishing an order that supersedes the divisions generated by unjust desires. but if "the hero is the true subject of modernity" (walter benjamin quoting baudelaire) is not the possibility of heroism in a prosaic modern post-revolutionary society the key issue of the nineteenth century? what to think of a heroic figure like simon bolivar, - the usurper of the title libertador (benjamin constant)? the napoleon of the retreats (karl marx)? the accoucheur of the emancipation, (pierre leroux and jean reynaud's new encyclopedia)? the emancipating luminary of the american people fallen in bondage (juan montalvo)?.
Justice, culture and subjectivity
Schuch, Patrice;
Vibrant: Virtual Brazilian Anthropology , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1809-43412012000200002
Abstract: this paper examines the relationships between new legal technologies and the formation of new social sensibilities. based on ethnographic work on the implementation of restorative justice in brazil, it seeks to understand the connection between the mechanisms for diffusing new legal models and different forms of government. the article is primarily focused on understanding a particular constellation of new legal frameworks and subjectivities in a context where the rhetoric of rights is associated with a promotion of development and 'modernity.' the paper argues that focusing attention on subjectivities is essential to understanding how these transformations are currently unfolding.
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