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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 608 matches for " Pathogenesis "
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I.A. Utts,N.B. Zaharova,M.L. Kostinа
Saratov Journal of Medical Scientific Research , 2007,
Abstract: Nowadays the researchers become more interested in the mechanisms of the intercellular interactions and imbalance of the chemical reactions as the bases of development of any disease. According to the laws of the general pathology, after insulting (mechanically or infectiously) cells produce a complex of vasoactive, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory, prosclerous, apoptosis mediators - cytokines. Numerous researches are devoted to studying of the pathogenetic role of these messengers in the mechanisms of the damage of tubules and interstices, in development and progressing of proliferative processes in the tubulointersticial tissues. The results of these works allow to understand the pathogenesis of tubulointersticial nephropathies from the modern point of view, to determine the basic mechanisms of realization of pathological influence and progressing of changes in the tubulointersticial tissues. This knowledge enables to use cytokines and factors of growth as the early markers of inflammatory as well as fibrotical processes in the damaged tubulointersticial tissues which are especially important with children's nephropathies.
Investigation of amyloid deposition in uterine leiomyoma patients  [PDF]
Jinping Liu, Fei Zhai, Peng Ge, Jinhai Lu, Xuguo Sun, Yi Qin
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.48083
Abstract: Objects: To investigate the pathogenesis of amyloid presented in uterine leiomyoma. Methods: 36 uterine leiomyoma patients were recruited and divided into two groups according to Congo red staining results. 6 cases are Congo red staining-positive, and 30 cases Congo red staining-negative which represented amyloid positive and amyloid negative respectively. All patients’ serum total protein (TP), albumin (Alb) and prealbumin (PA) levels were measured as well as blood hemoglobin (Hb), cell counts of white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils (NEU) and lymphocyte (LYM). Glycogen in tissue was compared between amyloid accumulated and amyloid negative sections with periodic acid schiff staining (PAS) in leiomyoma patients. Results: All of blood Hb concentration, WBC, NEU and LYM have not been found significant differences between two groups. Also no obvious infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in tissue with amyloid deposition in uterine leiomyoma patients. And levels of TP, Alb and prealbumin have not been found significant differences between two groups. The amyloid was negative in leiomyoma entity cells range by Congo red staining, while small blood vessels in myoma tissues were positively detected with high rate. Amyloid was found in normal tissue around myoma as well as in blood vessel of pseudo-capsule. Increased PAS-positive material induced by leiomyoma was not correlated with amyloid deposition. Conclusions: Metabolic changes in the setting of functional alterations of cell in local microenvironment with uterine leiomyoma, may be related to the amyloid deposition.
Molecular Significance of lon and cpxR Genes in the Pathogenicity of Salmonella  [PDF]
Rahul M. Nandre, Preeti Mahajan
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2015.54045
Abstract: The important foodborne zoonotic pathogen Salmonella causes gastroenteritis. The dynamics of host-pathogen Salmonella interaction and infection might enhance the development of novel tar-geted preventative measures and drug regimens. The lon and cpxR are virulence associated genes, which have an important role in the Salmonella pathogenesis. However, the deletions of lon and cpxRlead to the construction of genetically engineered live Salmonella vaccine candidate. In this review, lon and cpxR genes are focused for their involvement in Salmonella pathogenesis. Furthermore, the importance of these genes was briefly emphasized during the construction of Salmonella vaccine candidate.
Overview on the Fungal Metabolites Involved in Mycopathy  [PDF]
Abdulkawi Ali Al-Fakih
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2014.41006
This review presents several types of metabolites produced by the most common fungal pathogens and their roles in fungal pathogenesis. Toxic metabolites from toxigenic fungi include compounds such as aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxins, fumonisins, zearalenone and ergot alkaloids, which display hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity and genotoxicity. The ability of fungi to produce and elaborate hydrolytic enzymes is associated with virulence of several pathogenic fungi. The biogenesis of siderophores is investigated as it is a mechanism of iron acquisition. In particular, these metabolites act as iron chelators and storage compounds to support pathogenic fungi to survive in mammalian hosts whose iron homeostasis is strictly regulated and prevent the formation of free radicals which are formed by free iron. Melanins clearly promote infectivity in a number of species of fungal pathogens. They interfere with oxidative metabolism of phagocytosis making the fungus relatively resistant to phagocyte attack. Several metabolies such as pullulan, mannitol, β-(1,3)-glucan, hem-binding proteins, estrogen-binding proteins, farnesol, agglutinin-like sequence proteins, glucuronoxylomannan and others also have advantages in fungal pathogenicity. The identification of fungal metabolites involved in pathogenesis, and recognition of mechanisms of pathogenesis may lead to development of new efficient anti-fungal therapies.
Pathogenesis and Prevention of Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease  [PDF]
Anil K. Mandal
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2015.53010
Abstract: This treatise of chronic kidney disease (CKD) describes association of hypertension, diabetes and congestive heart failure (CHF) with CKD. CKD is defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of less than 60 ml/min for three months or more. CKD is generally irreversible but not necessarily progressive. Thus progression of CKD into end stage renal disease (ESRD) is the concern here and what can be done to reduce the progression of CKD. Exact data of CKD with progression are unavailable but high incidence of ESRD (dialysis) eleven times more in 2011 than in 1980 accordingly to United States (US) Renal Data System is a testimonial to progression of CKD in patients with diabetes, hypertension, CHF and other renal diseases. US Renal Data System reveals that ESRD has soared in parallel with marketing of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) drugs, providing strong indirect evidence that these drugs are someway instrumental in the progression of CKD into ESRD. These drugs produce acute renal failure which is an independent risk factor for CKD. Thus shift in therapy with enthusiastic use of ACEI/ARB drugs has led to dialysis bonanza throughout the world benefiting the professionals and corporations at the expense of vegetative life of the patients associated with family and societal burdens. The ways to turn the pendulum is to treat diabetes with insulin and hypertension with beta blocker, calcium channel blocker and diuretic therapy, and avoid the use of ACEI/ARB drugs. It is important to understand that diuretic orally, by intravenous boluses or by continuous infusion, is the cornerstone of therapy for CHF, whereas ACEI/ARB drugs markedly impair the efficacy of diuretics by lowering the blood pressure to a very low level thereby reducing renal perfusion. An evidence for that is marked elevation of BUN with comparatively slight increase of serum creatinine. Thus with the approaches stated above, CKD is less likely to progress; hence rate of ESRD is likely to decrease.
Renal Replacement Lipomatosis—A Rare Benign Condition  [PDF]
Vishal Kadeli, Rajendra Nerli, Shridhar Ghagane, Murigendra B. Hiremath, Neeraj Dixit
Surgical Science (SS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2018.99037
Abstract: Introduction: Renal replacement lipomatosis is a rare condition that occurs at the end of the spectrum of renal tissue replacement by fat. It is usually unilateral and occurs as a result of severe renal atrophy or destruction usually due to chronic calculus disease, chronic pyelonephritis and renal tuberculosis. The most commonly used diagnostic investigation remains CECT (contrast enhanced computed tomography) scan. Herein we report our series of patients with total renal replacement lipomatosistreated by nephrectomy. Materials & Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our hospital data for cases of RRL, presented and treated during the period Jan. 2006-Dec. 2015. The age, gender, presenting symptoms, clinical and laboratory findings were noted. The indications for surgery, postoperative outcomes and complications were similarly noted and analyzed. Results: Five patients (three females and two males) with a mean age of 48.4 ± 3.2 years presented with symptoms of pain. Computed tomography (CT) in these patients showed the affected kidney to be completely distorted and replaced by ill-defined fatty attenuating lesion. Open nephrectomy was done in all these patients. Histo-pathological report (HPR) revealed features of RRL with renal calculi. Conclusions: Renal replacement lipomatosis is an uncommon entity, and one should have a high index of suspicion when dealing with suspicious lesions similar to xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Specific imaging, operative, and pathological differences may provide clues for the differential diagnosis.
Advances in Research on the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Complicated with Gallstone  [PDF]
Jianchu Tan, Jiguang Kou
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2019.103016
Abstract: At present, the incidence of diabetes complicated with gallstones is increasing rapidly, and there are still many problems in the pathogenesis of the disease. Diabetes complicated with gallstones is a chronic complication of diabetes, with diabetes-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, gallbladder emptying disorders, Oddis sphincter dysfunction, gastrointestinal hormone disorders, gastrointestinal dyskinesia, fat metabolism disorders, bile Bacterial infection and other factors are related. In recent years, it has been found that in diabetic patients, Telocytes (TC) and Cajal interstitial cells (ICC) are reduced in the biliary system. In addition, the contact between ICC cells and smooth muscle cells and nerve endings is significantly reduced, so it is considered that bile Stone formation has a certain relationship with TC and ICC reduction. This article reviews recent research progress.
Beatrice Autino,Yolanda CORBETT,Francesco Castelli,Donatella TARAMELLI
Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.4084/mjhid.2012.
Abstract: The clinical manifestations of severe malaria are several and occur in different anatomical sites. Both parasite- and host-related factors contribute to the pathogenicity of the severe forms of the disease. Cytoadherence of infected red blood cells to the vascular endothelium of different organs and rosetting are unique features of malaria parasites which are likely to contribute to the vascular damage and the consequent excessive inflammatory/immune response of the host. In addition to cerebral malaria or severe anaemia, which are quite common manifestation of severe malaria, clinical evidences of thrombocytopenia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), liver and kidney disease, are reported. In primigravidae from endemic areas, life threatening placental malaria may also be present.In the following pages, some of the pathogenetic aspects will be briefly reviewed and then data on selected and less frequent manifestation of severe malaria, such as liver or renal failure or ARDS will be discussed
The pathogenesis of primary pouchitis following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis: a review of current hypotheses  [PDF]
Sally Bath, Christian P. Selinger, Rupert W.L. Leong
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2011.12002
Abstract: Primary pouchitis is a common complication of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis following proctocolectomy in patients treated for ulcerative colitis (UC), but is un-usual for those treated for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). While a number of theories as to the pathogenesis of this inflammatory condition have been proposed, no single one has been wholly satis-factory. Much research has been devoted to investi-gating a link between the pathogenic factors involved in UC, but not FAP, and those underlying pouchitis. The contribution of sulfate-producing bacteria has also been explored. The role of other intraluminal factors, such as short chain fatty acids and unconju-gated bile salts, has also been investigated. A unifying theory of a multi-step process might explain the pathogenesis of pouchitis, but further research is re-quired to proof causation. It is likely that pouchitis develops as a result of a combination of genetic, im-munological, microbial and metabolic factors. Future insight into the causes of pouchitis may eventually allow for the development of more effective treat-ments.
Effect of Growth Media, pH and Temperature on Yeast to Hyphal Transition in Candida albicans  [PDF]
Sayyada Ghufrana Nadeem, Amna Shafiq, Shazia T. Hakim, Yasmeen Anjum, Shahana U. Kazm
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2013.33028
Abstract: The transition of C. albicans from unicellular yeast form to filamentous form i.e., pseudohyphae and hyphae is referred to as morphogenesis. C. albicans has the ability to respond to environmental conditions and accordingly changing its cell morphology. Three main morphological forms of C. albicans are unicellular yeast, pseudohyphae and hyphae. The effect of different growth media (Horse serum medium, RPMI-1640, MSGB), incubation temperatures (34°C, 37°C, 40°C) and pH values (5.4, 6.4, 7.4) on germ tube production by C. albicans was evaluated. Horse serum medium noticeably promotes filamentation while RPMI-1640 medium shows moderate filamentation and MSGB media shows moderately low filamentation. The germ tube of C. albicans developed early in 1.5 hr at high temperature i.e., 40°C. Incubation temperature of 37°C was associated with highest germ tube formation while 34°C shows low filamentation. A pH of 5.4 also induces low filamentation, pH 6.4 gives moderately lower than pH 7.4. A pH of 7.4 was best suited for germ tube induction. The peak of mycelium production appears between 1.5 and 6 hr after inoculation of C. albicans culture. These results suggested that environmental factors are important in selectively favoring yeast or hyphal form, most important being the growth medium, incubation temperature and external pH value.
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