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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 201551 matches for " Pasquale P Pompilio "
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Optimizing positive end-expiratory pressure by oscillatory mechanics minimizes tidal recruitment and distension: an experimental study in a lavage model of lung injury
Emanuela Zannin, Raffaele L Dellaca, Peter Kostic, Pasquale P Pompilio, Anders Larsson, Antonio Pedotti, Goran Hedenstierna, Peter Frykholm
Critical Care , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/cc11858
Abstract: We studied six pigs in which lung injury was induced by bronchoalveolar lavage. The animals were ventilated with a tidal volume of 6 ml/kg. Forced oscillations at 5 Hz were superimposed on the ventilation waveform. Pressure and flow were measured at the tip and at the inlet of the endotracheal tube respectively. Respiratory system reactance (Xrs) was computed from the pressure and flow signals and expressed in terms of oscillatory elastance (EX5). Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was increased from 0 to 24 cm H2O in steps of 4 cm H2O and subsequently decreased from 24 to 0 in steps of 2 cm H2O. At each PEEP step CT scans and EX5 were assessed at end-expiration and end-inspiration.During deflation the relationship between both end-expiratory and end-inspiratory EX5 and PEEP was a U-shaped curve with minimum values at PEEP = 13.4 ± 1.0 cm H2O (mean ± SD) and 13.0 ± 1.0 cm H2O respectively. EX5 was always higher at end-inspiration than at end-expiration, the difference between the average curves being minimal at 12 cm H2O. At this PEEP level, CT did not show any substantial sign of intra-tidal recruitment/derecruitment or expiratory lung collapse.Using FOT it was possible to measure EX5 both at end-expiration and at end-inspiration. The optimal PEEP strategy based on end-expiratory EX5 minimized intra-tidal recruitment/derecruitment as assessed by CT, and the concurrent attenuation of intra-tidal variations of EX5 suggests that it may also minimize tidal mechanical stress.Current strategies for mechanical ventilation of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) include low tidal volumes and increased positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) [1]. The physiological basis for these strategies is still under debate, but may involve the reduction of forces of stress and strain on the parenchyma [2]. The ARDSNet protocol is a table-based approach of setting PEEP and the fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) levels to achieve an oxygenation target [3]. The a
Positive end-expiratory pressure optimization with forced oscillation technique reduces ventilator induced lung injury: a controlled experimental study in pigs with saline lavage lung injury
Peter Kostic, Emanuela Zannin, Marie Andersson Olerud, Pasquale P Pompilio, G?ran Hedenstierna, Antonio Pedotti, Anders Larsson, Peter Frykholm, Raffaele L Dellaca
Critical Care , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/cc10236
Abstract: 17 pigs, in which acute lung injury (ALI) was induced by saline lavage, were studied. Animals were randomized into two groups: in the first PEEP was titrated according to Xrs (FOT group), in the control group PEEP was set according to the ARDSNet protocol (ARDSNet group). The duration of the trial was 12 hours. In both groups recruitment maneuvers (RM) were performed every 2 hours, increasing PEEP to 20 cmH2O. In the FOT group PEEP was titrated by monitoring Xrs while PEEP was reduced from 20 cmH2O in steps of 2 cmH2O. PEEP was considered optimal at the step before which Xrs started to decrease. Ventilatory parameters, lung mechanics, blood gases and hemodynamic parameters were recorded hourly. Lung injury was evaluated by histopathological analysis.The PEEP levels set in the FOT group were significantly higher compared to those set in the ARDSNet group during the whole trial. These higher values of PEEP resulted in improved lung mechanics, reduced driving pressure, improved oxygenation, with a trend for higher PaCO2 and lower systemic and pulmonary pressure. After 12 hours of ventilation, histopathological analysis showed a significantly lower score of lung injury in the FOT group compared to the ARDSNet group.In a lavage model of lung injury a PEEP optimization strategy based on maximizing Xrs attenuated the signs of ventilator induced lung injury. The respiratory system reactance measured by FOT could thus be an important component in a strategy for delivering protective ventilation to patients with ARDS/acute lung injury.Mechanical ventilation is a mainstay of intensive care for patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A ventilation strategy based on tidal volumes of 6 ml.kg-1 and pre-defined positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) settings has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality probably due to less ventilation-induced lung injury (VILI) [1-3]. Various protocols using higher levels of PEEP in combination
The relationship between volatile content and the eruptive style of basaltic magma: the Etna case
P. Del Carlo,M. Pompilio
Annals of Geophysics , 2004, DOI: 10.4401/ag-4402
Abstract: Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic analyses of melt inclusions from four explosive eruptions of Etna (Italy) were conducted to determine pre-eruptive dissolved volatile concentrations. The studied eruptions include the 3930 BP subplinian, the 122 B.C. plinian, and the 4 January 1990 and the 23 December 1995 fountain fire eruptions. Preliminary results indicate that H2O varies between 3.13 and 1.02 wt% and CO2 between 1404 and 200 ppm. The most basic products (3930 BP tephra) contain the highest concentrations of CO2 (1404 ppm), whereas fire fountain hawaiitic tephra present the lowest values (< 200 ppm) indicating a continuous degassing process during the differentiation and rising of the magma. Generally, similar behavior has been found for water, characterized by a decreasing content during the differentiation that is mainly found in the 3930 BP eruption, 1990 and 1995 fire fountain products. Considering the relevance of volatile content and behaviour in determining the eruptive style, we made some inferences on the eruptive mechanisms based on the initial high volatile content and the degassing dynamics inside the plumbing system. These two factors suggest the cause of the high explosive activity in this basaltic volcano.
XY model on the circle: diagonalization, spectrum, and forerunners of the quantum phase transition
A. De Pasquale,P. Facchi
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.80.032102
Abstract: We exactly diagonalize the finite-size XY model with periodic boundary conditions and analytically determine the ground state energy. We show that there are two types of fermions: singles and pairs, whose dispersion relations have a completely arbitrary gauge-dependent sign. It follows that the ground state is determined by a competition between the vacuum states (with a suitable gauge) of two parity sectors. We finally exhibit some points in finite size systems that forerun criticality. They are associated to single Bogoliubov fermions and to the level crossings between physical and unphysical states. In the thermodynamic limit they approach the ground state and build up singularities at logarithmic rates.
Cereal-forage crop rotations and irrigation treatment effect on water use efficiency and crops sustainability in Mediterranean environment  [PDF]
Pasquale Martiniello
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.31007
Abstract: Agricultural systems based on crop rotations favour sustainability of cultivation and productivity of the crops. Wheat-forage crops rotations (annual winter binary mixture and perennial alfalfa meadow) combined with irrigation are the agronomical techniques able to better exploit the weather resources in Mediterranean environments. The experiment aimed to study the effect of 18 years of combined effect of irrigation and continuous durum wheat and wheat-forage rotations on productivities of crops and organic matter of topsoil. The experiments were established through 1991-2008 under rainfed and irrigated treatments and emphasized on the effect of irrigation and continuous wheat and wheat-forage crop rotations on water use efficiency and sustainability of organic matter. The effect of irrigation increased 49.1% and 66.9% the dry matter of mixture and meadow, respectively. Continuous wheat rotation reduced seed yield, stability of production, crude protein characteristics of kernel and soil organic matter. The yearly gain in wheat after forage crops was 0.04 t (ha·yr)-1 under rainfed and 0.07 t (ha·yr)-1 under irrigation treatments. The crude protein and soil organic matter of wheat rotations, compared to those of continuous wheat under rainfed and irrigated was increase in term of point percentage by 0.8 and 0.5 in crude protein and 5.1 and 4.4 in organic matter, respectively. The rotations of mixture and meadow under both irrigated treatments increased the point of percentage of organic matter over continuous wheat (9.3.and 8.5 in mixture and 12.5 and 9.5 meadow under rainfed and irrigation, respectively). Irrigation reduce the impact of weather on crop growing reducing water use efficiency (mean over rotations) for dry mater production (15.5 in meadow and 17.5 in mixture [L water (kg·dry·matter)-1 ]) and wheat seed yield. The effect of agronomic advantages achieved by forage crops in topsoil expire its effect after three years of continuous wheat rotation.
Thermal log analysis for recognition of ground surface temperature change and water movements
M. Verdoya, P. Chiozzi,V. Pasquale
Climate of the Past (CP) & Discussions (CPD) , 2007,
Abstract: A joint analysis of surface air temperature series recorded at meteorological stations and temperature-depth profiles logged in nearby boreholes was performed to estimate conditions existing prior to the beginning of the instrumental record in central-northern Italy. The adopted method considers conductive and advective heat transport in a layered medium and provides simultaneous estimates of the pre-observational temperatures and the Darcy velocities. The reconstruction of the ground surface temperature history using a generalised least-squares inversion method was performed for boreholes where hydrological disturbances to measured temperature logs were proved negligible. Both methods revealed generally coherent climatic changes in the whole investigated area. Climatic conditions were generally warm and comparable with the reference period 1960–1990. The absence of the Little Ice Age seems to be a generic feature of the climate in central-northern Italy. Climate change of the 19th century was generally insignificant with well-balanced periods of cold and warmth. The investigated area became significantly colder only at the end of the 19th century. Cooling culminated around 1950 when it was replaced by rapid warming. Recent warming was not inferred only for one of the investigated holes.
Some geophysical constraints to dynamic processes in the Southwestern Mediterranean
V. Pasquale,M. Verdoya,P. Chiozzi
Annals of Geophysics , 1996, DOI: 10.4401/ag-4047
Abstract: The total tectonic subsidence, thermal state and seismotectonic regime have been analysed to better constrain the dynamic processes which originated the basins of the Southwestern Mediterranean. It is argued that backarc extension and oceanic spreading are the possible and main processes which took place within a compressional framework, driven by the interaction between the African and European plates. As inferred by both subsidence and heat-flux data, in the central part of the Algerian-Balearic basin the crust is oceanic, 20 Ma old on average, originated by a spreading phase, which also affected the Ligurian-Proven al basin. The Alboran basin, which is underlain by stretched continental crust, shows an intermediate seismic activity and a few deep events, explainable by a gravitational collapse of cold lithosphere. After a review of the most recent geodynamical hypotheses, an evolutionary scheme is attempted envisaging the lateral continental escape of the Gibraltar arc. Within a convergent tectonic framework, some lithospheric material could translate almost perpendicular to the convergence direction, and undergo a lateral subduction process, secondary to the main boundary between plates.
Rifting and thermal evolution of the Northwestern Mediterranean
V. Pasquale,M. Verdoya,P. Chiozzi
Annals of Geophysics , 1995, DOI: 10.4401/ag-4131
Abstract: The structural setting of the Northwestern Mediterranean stems from tectonothermal processes which reflect on the nature of the crust. The Oligocene to Present evolution is here analysed with a thermal model which takes into account the significant extension of the continentallithosphere before the onset of sea-floor spread- ing in the bathyal zone. Subsidence data were used to set the boundaries of the oceanic realm which was com- pared with previous reconstructions inferred from other geophysical evidence. The thermal features of the transitional crust that lies between the oceanic crust and the stretched continental margins were also outlined. The Ligurian-Proven~al basin is a marginaI basin, whereas only the continental crust is expected in the Valen- cia trough. An evolutionary sketch of the study area that accounts for the observed subsidence and heat flux is proposed.
Thermal effects of the dynamic activity from the Ligurian Sea to the Eastern Alps
V. Pasquale,M. Verdoja,P. Chiozzi
Annals of Geophysics , 1993, DOI: 10.4401/ag-4248
Abstract:
Thermal log analysis for recognition of ground surface temperature change and water movements
M. Verdoya,P. Chiozzi,V. Pasquale
Climate of the Past Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: A joint analysis of surface air temperature series recorded at meteorological stations and temperature-depth profiles logged in near-by boreholes was performed to estimate conditions existing prior to the beginning of the instrumental record in central-northern Italy. The adopted method considers conductive and advective heat transport in a horizontally layered medium and provides simultaneous estimates of the pre-observational temperatures and the Darcy velocities. The reconstruction of the ground surface temperature history using an inversion method was performed for boreholes where hydrological disturbances to measured temperature logs were proved to be negligible. Both methods revealed generally coherent climatic changes in the whole investigated area. Climatic conditions were generally warm and comparable with the reference period 1960–1990. The absence of the Little Ice Age in the middle ages seems to be a generic feature of the climate in central-northern Italy. Climate change of the 19th century was generally insignificant with well balanced periods of cold and warmth. The investigated area became significantly colder only at the end of the 19th century. Cooling culminated around 1950 when it was replaced by rapid warming. Recent warming was not inferred only for one of the investigated holes. This discrepancy can be attributed to local environmental conditions.
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