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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6101 matches for " Pascal Diogène Bingui Outman "
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Socio-Demographic Profile of Adults Admitted in Emergency for Brain Trauma Injuries at the University Hospital of Brazzaville (Congo)  [PDF]
Hugues Brieux Ekouele Mbaki, Pascal Diogène Bingui Outman, Marie Elombila, Darius Eryx Mbou Essie, Christ Mayick Mpoy Emy Monkessa, Rel Gerald Boukaka Kala, Léon Boukassa, Gilbert Fabrice Otiobanda
Open Journal of Modern Neurosurgery (OJMN) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojmn.2019.91006
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate socio-demographic profile of adults admitted in emergency for Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) at the University Hospital of Brazzaville in the Republic of Congo. We performed a prospective study within a period of six months, into the surgical unit of the emergency department of the University Hospital of Brazzaville. A total of 2617 patients were recorded, among which 268 cases were TBI (10.25%) where 142 cases were sampled in our series. The average age was 36.7 ± 16.6 years. The sex ratio was 6.1. The TBI was mainly due to road accident in 121 cases (85.2%) described as follows: motorcycle accident about 48 cases (39.7%) and the pedestrian’s injuries about 42 (34.8%). In the majority of the cases, cautions were not taken by the drivers; during the case of the motorcycle accident, about 97.9% of the riders did not wear a helmet. The TBI remains a growing public health concern in the low-income countries, like in Africa. Measurements on the road traffic regulation are to be strengthened to reduce the growth of this silent epidemic.
Update on Methodologies Available for Ciguatoxin Determination: Perspectives to Confront the Onset of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Europe
Amandine Caillaud,Pablo De la Iglesia,H. Taiana Darius,Serge Pauillac,Katerina Aligizaki,Santiago Fraga,Mireille Chinain,Jorge Diogène
Marine Drugs , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/md8061838
Abstract: Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) occurs mainly when humans ingest finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The complexity and variability of such toxins have made it difficult to develop reliable methods to routinely monitor CFP with specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to describe the methodologies available for CTX detection, including those based on the toxicological, biochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of CTXs. Selecting any of these methodological approaches for routine monitoring of ciguatera may be dependent upon the applicability of the method. However, identifying a reference validation method for CTXs is a critical and urgent issue, and is dependent upon the availability of certified CTX standards and the coordinated action of laboratories. Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas. Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1]. The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised. The impact of ciguatera onset on European Union (EU) policies will be discussed with respect to EU regulations on marine toxins in seafood. Critical analysis and availability of methodologies for CTX determination is required for a rapid response to suspected CFP cases and to conduct sound CFP risk analysis.
New Computerized Method for the Geochemical Classification of Precambrian Carbonate Rocks: Case of a Set of African Cap Carbonates  [PDF]
Hélène Miche, Roland Simler, Pascal Affaton, Olivia Mickala, Florent Boudzoumou, Michel Mbina
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2013.410A005
Abstract:

Post-sedimentary transformations have masked or completely obliterated the structures and textures of Precambrian carbonate rocks. Therefore, methods of classification of the carbonate rocks founded on the observation of primary structures or textural characteristics are ill-adapted. Consequently, only certain geochemical classification methods allow us to distinguish the various rock-types in the case of Neoproterozoic carbonates. After presenting the most suitable geochemical classifications, we propose a new classification into 14 groups based on a regular ternary diagram with computerized data input. For each sample of carbonate rock, analysis of calcium and magnesium contents allows us to calculate the input data for our diagram i.e. the percentages of Calcite, Dolomite and Insoluble Residue. To automate the application of this diagram, input parameters are created in a descriptive file “Roches.ternaires.txt” using an option called “Ternaires” in the “Diagrammes” software developed by Roland Simler. Thirty cap carbonates of Africa are used to validate this new method.

Development and assignment of bovine-specific PCR systems for the Texas nomenclature marker genes and isolation of homologous BAC probes
Mathieu Gautier, Pascal Laurent, Hélène Hayes, André Eggen
Genetics Selection Evolution , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-33-2-191
Abstract: (To access the full article, please see PDF)
Performance of Statistical Tests for Single Source Detection using Random Matrix Theory
Pascal Bianchi,Merouane Debbah,Mylène Ma?da,Jamal Najim
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: This paper introduces a unified framework for the detection of a source with a sensor array in the context where the noise variance and the channel between the source and the sensors are unknown at the receiver. The Generalized Maximum Likelihood Test is studied and yields the analysis of the ratio between the maximum eigenvalue of the sampled covariance matrix and its normalized trace. Using recent results of random matrix theory, a practical way to evaluate the threshold and the $p$-value of the test is provided in the asymptotic regime where the number $K$ of sensors and the number $N$ of observations per sensor are large but have the same order of magnitude. The theoretical performance of the test is then analyzed in terms of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. It is in particular proved that both Type I and Type II error probabilities converge to zero exponentially as the dimensions increase at the same rate, and closed-form expressions are provided for the error exponents. These theoretical results rely on a precise description of the large deviations of the largest eigenvalue of spiked random matrix models, and establish that the presented test asymptotically outperforms the popular test based on the condition number of the sampled covariance matrix.
Comparison between CPBPV, ESC/Java, CBMC, Blast, EUREKA and Why for Bounded Program Verification
Hélène Collavizza,Michel Rueher,Pascal Van Hentenryck
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: This report describes experimental results for a set of benchmarks on program verification. It compares the capabilities of CPBVP "Constraint Programming framework for Bounded Program Verification" [4] with the following frameworks: ESC/Java, CBMC, Blast, EUREKA and Why.
CPBVP: A Constraint-Programming Framework for Bounded Program Verification
Hélène Collavizza,Michel Rueher,Pascal Van Hentenryck
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: This paper studies how to verify the conformity of a program with its specification and proposes a novel constraint-programming framework for bounded program verification (CPBPV). The CPBPV framework uses constraint stores to represent the specification and the program and explores execution paths nondeterministically. The input program is partially correct if each constraint store so produced implies the post-condition. CPBPV does not explore spurious execution paths as it incrementally prunes execution paths early by detecting that the constraint store is not consistent. CPBPV uses the rich language of constraint programming to express the constraint store. Finally, CPBPV is parametrized with a list of solvers which are tried in sequence, starting with the least expensive and less general. Experimental results often produce orders of magnitude improvements over earlier approaches, running times being often independent of the variable domains. Moreover, CPBPV was able to detect subtle errors in some programs while other frameworks based on model checking have failed.
A Review of the Epidemiological Methods Used to Investigate the Health Impacts of Air Pollution around Major Industrial Areas
Mathilde Pascal,Laurence Pascal,Marie-Laure Bidondo,Amandine Cochet,Hélène Sarter,Morgane Stempfelet,Vérène Wagner
Journal of Environmental and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/737926
Abstract: We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies), morbidity (25 studies), mortality (7 studies), and birth outcome (7 studies). Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majority of papers came from the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain. Several studies were motivated by concerns from the population or by previous observations of an overincidence of cases. Geographical ecological designs were largely used for studying cancer and mortality, including statistical designs to quantify a relationship between health indicators and exposure. Morbidity was frequently investigated through cross-sectional surveys on the respiratory health of children. Few multicenter studies were performed. In a majority of papers, exposed areas were defined based on the distance to the industry and were located from <2?km to >20?km from the plants. Improving the exposure assessment would be an asset to future studies. Criteria to include industries in multicenter studies should be defined. 1. Introduction Industrial areas are characterized by a high density of industries, sharing common infrastructures, such as transport networks, waste water treatment plants, and waste incineration plants. These areas cluster at-risk activities and pollution sources. They have historically attracted, and may still attract, hundreds of employees who have settled in the vicinity of the plants. With extensive urbanization, industrial areas have been embedded in the urban landscape, increasing the nuisances and the exposure of the population. For instance, in the South of France, the industrial area of l’etang de Berre hosts 430 industries classified for the protection of the environment and more than 60% of the Seveso II (referring to the European directive 96/82/CE) plants of the region. About 16 towns representing more than 300,000 inhabitants are exposed to the plumes produced by these plants [1]. People living near major industrial areas are facing complex situations of exposure: occupational and environmental exposure, multiexposure to chemicals combined with exposure to noise, dusts, visual pollution, stress, and so forth The possible associated health risks are of the highest concern to the population. Quantitative health risk assessments, based on the comparison of a
Early Gene Expression in Wounded Human Keratinocytes Revealed by DNA Microarray Analysis
Manal A. Dayem,Chimène Moreilhon,Laurent Turchi,Virginie Magnone,Richard Christen,Gilles Ponzio,Pascal Barbry
Comparative and Functional Genomics , 2003, DOI: 10.1002/cfg.239
Abstract: Wound healing involves several steps: spreading of the cells, migration and proliferation. We have profiled gene expression during the early events of wound healing in normal human keratinocytes with a home-made DNA microarray containing about 1000 relevant human probes. An original wounding machine was used, that allows the wounding of up to 40% of the surface of a confluent monolayer of cultured cells grown on a Petri dish (compared with 5% with a classical ‘scratch’ method). The two aims of the present study were: (a) to validate a limited number of genes by comparing the expression levels obtained with this technique with those found in the literature; (b) to combine the use of the wounding machine with DNA microarray analysis for large-scale detection of the molecular events triggered during the early stages of the wound-healing process. The time-courses of RNA expression observed at 0.5, 1.5, 3, 6 and 15 h after wounding for genes such as c-Fos, c-Jun, Egr1, the plasminogen activator PLAU (uPA) and the signal transducer and transcription activator STAT3, were consistent with previously published data. This suggests that our methodologies are able to perform quantitative measurement of gene expression. Transcripts encoding two zinc finger proteins, ZFP36 and ZNF161, and the tumour necrosis factor α-induced protein TNFAIP3, were also overexpressed after wounding. The role of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) in wound healing was shown after the inhibition of p38 by SB203580, but our results also suggest the existence of surrogate activating pathways.
Substitution of exudative trace element losses in burned children
Pascal Stucki, Marie-Hélène Perez, Jacques Cotting, Alan Shenkin, Mette M Berger
Critical Care , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/cc9198
Abstract: Major burn injuries are associated with trace element deficiencies, which lead to impaired wound healing and infectious complications. Low plasma levels of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) are inadequately compensated for during hospitalization [1], and enteral supplements are unsuccessful in correcting the status [2]. Additionally, there are currently no clear recommendations regarding trace element requirements in children. The aim of the present study was to determine if our trace element supplementation policy for adults adapted to total body surface area would achieve normalization of plasma concentrations of trace elements in burned children.Burned children admitted to the paediatric and adult ICU were enrolled after approval by the Institutional Ethics Committee and parental informed consent. Park-land formula was used for fluid resuscitation during the first 24 hours in addition to basal fluid requirements (1,800 ml/m2). Target nutrition from 36 to 48 hours was: 3 to 5 year olds, 70 to 90 kcal/kg/day; over 5 year olds, 50 to 70 kcal/kg/day; teenagers, 40 kcal/kg/day. A normal saline solution containing Cu, selenium (Se), and Zn (Table 1) [3] was infused continuously first within 12 hours of injury and then over 8 hours per day for 7 to 15 days at a dose of 250 ml/1.70 m2/day along with a standard parenteral multi-trace element preparation. In addition, children admitted to the paediatric ICU received vitamin C 30 mg/kg/day and vitamin E 1.5 mg/kg/day; teenagers managed in the adult ICU received vitamin C 10.8 mg/kg/day and vitamin E 8.3 mg/kg/day (Table 1). The length of mechanical ventilation, and ICU and hospital length of stay were recorded.The characteristics of all those enrolled, mean daily total trace element dose, per kilogram dose, and duration of supplementation are shown in Table 2. Figure 1 shows the individual plasma values of the four patients while in the ICU. Both teenagers (patients 3 and 4) who received additional enteral trace elements had the lo
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