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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3056 matches for " Pascal ; ROZAN "
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Gestion patrimoniale des réseaux d’assainissement : de l’état des réseaux à la planification de leur réhabilitation Outils, méthodes et perspectives
WEREY, Cathy ; LE GAT, Yves ; LE GAUFFRE, Pascal ; ROZAN, Anne ; WITTNER, Christophe ; NIRSIMLOO, Kévin ; LECLERC, Cyril
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du IRSTEA , 2012,
Abstract: En France, la gestion patrimoniale des réseaux d’assainissement est une préoccupation croissante. Certains réseaux commencent en effet à dater et vont nécessiter des renouvellements importants et co teux pour les décennies à venir. à travers leur mise en uvre sur les réseaux de Caen et de Bordeaux, cet article présente deux modèles complémentaires, Indigau et GompitZ, permettant de décrire l’état du réseau et de prioriser les tron ons à réhabiliter.
A systemic method for evaluating the potential impacts of floods on network infrastructures
J. Eleutério,C. Hattemer,A. Rozan
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-13-983-2013
Abstract: Understanding network infrastructures and their operation under exceptional circumstances is fundamental for dealing with flood risks and improving the resilience of a territory. This work presents a method for evaluating potential network infrastructure dysfunctions and damage in cases of flooding. In contrast to existing approaches, this method analyses network infrastructures on an elementary scale, by considering networks as a group of elements with specific functions and individual vulnerabilities. Our analysis places assets at the centre of the evaluation process, resulting in the construction of damage-dysfunction matrices based on expert interviews. These matrices permit summarising the different vulnerabilities of network infrastructures, describing how the different components are linked to each other and how they can disrupt the operation of the network. They also identify the actions and resources needed to restore the system to operational status following damage and dysfunctions, an essential point when dealing with the question of resilience. The method promotes multi-network analyses and is illustrated by a French case study. Sixty network experts were interviewed during the analysis of the following networks: drinking water supply, waste water, public lighting, gas distribution and electricity supply.
Metal–organic complexation in the marine environment
George W Luther, Timothy F Rozan, Amy Witter, Brent Lewis
Geochemical Transactions , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/1467-4866-2-65
Abstract: In the last two decades, our knowledge of trace metal speciation has grown tremendously. With the advent of trace metal clean sampling techniques[1] and sensitive voltammetric techniques, [2-4] the marine community now recognizes that metal speciation in seawater and estuarine waters is dominated by complexation with organic compounds of unknown composition and origin. [5-12] Recent culture work [13-18] has shown that microorganisms produce a variety of low molecular weight organic compounds that complex metals with high stability constants. These compounds have a variety of functional groups that include phosphate, carboxylic acids, amines, thiol and hydroxy groups. Specific functional groups such as hydroxamate, catecholate and β-hydroxyaspartate are bidentate groups and organisms make molecules with three bidentate groups in a molecule.[14,19-21] In addition, plant degradation products [22-30] such as porphyrins are significant organic ligands that bind metals through four N atoms in a square planar arrangement. These latter multidentate molecules have very high stability constants with metals and are also kinetically inert to metal–ligand dissociation processes. [31-34] For this reason, organisms generally uptake the free metal ion rather than a metal–ligand form.[35,36] Thus, an understanding of metal–organism interactions requires an understanding of the amount of dissolved free ion present relative to the total dissolved metal concentration as well as the metal acquisition methods that an organism can use. [35-37]In this paper we review and compare the principal voltammetric methods, which provide evidence for metal–organic complexes. Most voltammetric work is performed with the hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) or the rotating disk electrode (RDE) with a thin mercury film (TMF) because these permit the measurement of metal–organic complexation at (sub)nanomolar levels directly in the solution of interest. The actual experimental methods can be broken int
The End of Voters in Europe? Electoral Turnout in Europe since WWII  [PDF]
Pascal Delwit
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2013.31007

Over the past twenty years, the scientific community and politicians in consolidated democracies have been regularly alarmed by political and electoral participation, portrayed as undergoing a brutal and linear decline. Each election is now scrutinized in terms not only of its results but also of its level of electoral turnout. This paper deals with two important issues—the reality of changes in electoral turnout in Europe and the impact of the institutional constraint of compulsory voting in voter turnout levels—through an analysis of 402 elections held in thirty-five States from 1944 until December, the 31st 2009. We do observe a contemporary erosion of voter turnout but at this stage voters are not so impossible to find as some claim they are. Furthermore, the assumption that interest in, and the importance of, compulsory voting as an institutional constraint encouraging voter turnout is confirmed.


The Catastrophe Map of a Two Period Production Model with Uncertainty  [PDF]
Pascal Stiefenhofer
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.48A016

This paper shows existence and efficiency of equilibria of a two period production model with uncertainty as a consequence of the catastrophe map being smooth and proper. Its inverse mapping defines a finite covering implying finiteness of equilibria. Beyond the extraction of local equilibrium information of the model, the catastrophe map renders itself well for a global study of the equilibrium set. It is shown that the equilibrium set has the structure of a smooth submanifold of the Euclidean space which is diffeomorphic to the sphere implying connectedness, simple connectedness, and contractibility.

Topological Properties of the Catastrophe Map of a General Equilibrium Production Model with Uncertain States of Nature  [PDF]
Pascal Stiefenhofer
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.517259
Abstract: This paper shows existence and efficiency of equilibria of a production model with uncertainty, where production is modeled in the demand function of the consumer. Existence and efficiency of equilibria are a direct consequence of the catastrophe map being smooth and proper. Topological properties of the equilibrium set are studied. It is shown that the equilibrium set has the structure of a smooth submanifold of the Euclidean space which is diffeomorphic to the sphere implying connectedness, simple connectedness, and contractibility. The set of economies with discontinuous price systems is shown to be of Lebesgue measure zero.
A New Interpretation of the Hubble Law  [PDF]
Pascal Churoux
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.69127
Abstract: We propose a new interpretation of Hubble law. Waves are observed in the observer space-time. It defines the observer proper time T. Space-time is composed of three spatial dimensions and three temporal parameters: proper-time s of the observed object, proper time T of the observer and integration time t (currently considered as relative time). Time origin is the birth of the universe. So, universe is stable; it can be seen as the comobile space of expansion theory. When changing space-time from the source to the observer, waves are seen cooling; this explains the redshift effect. The distance is defined as the product of the delay time with the local speed of light of the observer. The mistake between t and T can explain why universe is viewed as not only in expansion but also in acceleration whereas we think it is stable.
Production in General Equilibrium with Incomplete Financial Markets  [PDF]
Pascal Stiefenhofer
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2016.62025
Abstract: This paper considers a general equilibrium model with incomplete financial markets where production sets depend on the financial decisions of the firms. In the short run, firms make financial choices in order to build up production capacity. Given production capacity firms make profit maximizing production decisions in period two. We provide the conditions of existence of equilibria.
The Relativity of Cosmic Time: The Universe Is a Black Hole  [PDF]
Pascal Churoux
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.613188
Abstract: Up to now, cosmology metrics have been based on Einstein relativity, established in 1905. Hubble has discovered the correlation between redshift and distance. Cosmology interprets the redshift as an expansion effect a(t) through the ΛCDM model. We have proposed a new theory to explain Hubble law. The theory has been validated against observation data. It proposes a new approach of time which introduces the cosmic time tc. Cosmic time is an absolute reference to universe. It is zero at the edge with tc = 0, tc = T at the observer position and tc = s for any source between the edge and the observer, with T > s > 0. This theory acts like the relativity of space-time. The redshift is interpreted as a perspective parameter p(tc) = tc/T. Using gravitation, it is the Einstein effect applied to the uni-verse. This paper comments and interprets further consequences of this new theory. We emphasize the difference between duration (as usually used in classical cosmologic metrics) and the cosmic time tc as a notion of date. It induces two related effects: relativity of speed of light and time stretching. We explain why the cosmological standard model is not well suited to describe the Hubble law, to describe the universe. We also explain why gravitation and temperature increase when going from the center to the edge of the universe, when going from present to birth. The model has no use of black energy. As a consequence, the universe is seen as a black hole created by the cosmic time shock wave when tc = 0.
Existence of Financial Equilibria in a General Equilibrium Model with Piece-Wise Smooth Production Manifolds  [PDF]
Pascal Stiefenhofer
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2017.73035
Abstract: This paper considers a general equilibrium model with production and uncertainty. It is postulated that the firm finances its production capacity through the stock market and that its operational costs are covered through revenues. It is assumed that firms have linear technologies exhibiting constant returns to scale. Their production sets are piece-wise smooth convex manifolds. By method of regularization, it is shown using transversally theory that financial equilibria exists.
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