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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4433 matches for " Paola Casanello "
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CONGRESO MUNDIAL DE LA FEDERACIóN INTERNACIONAL DE ASOCIACIONES DE PLACENTA, IFPA CHILE 2010
Luis Sobrevia L,Paola Casanello T
Revista Chilena de Obstetricia y Ginecología , 2009,
Abstract:
Fetoplacental Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction as an Early Phenomenon in the Programming of Human Adult Diseases in Subjects Born from Gestational Diabetes Mellitus or Obesity in Pregnancy
Andrea Leiva,Fabián Pardo,Marco A. Ramírez,Marcelo Farías,Paola Casanello,Luis Sobrevia
Experimental Diabetes Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/349286
Abstract: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and obesity in pregnancy (OP) are pathological conditions associated with placenta vascular dysfunction coursing with metabolic changes at the fetoplacental microvascular and macrovascular endothelium. These alterations are seen as abnormal expression and activity of the cationic amino acid transporters and endothelial nitric oxide synthase isoform, that is, the “endothelial L-arginine/nitric oxide signalling pathway.” Several studies suggest that the endogenous nucleoside adenosine along with insulin, and potentially arginases, are factors involved in GDM-, but much less information regards their role in OP-associated placental vascular alterations. There is convincing evidence that GDM and OP prone placental endothelium to an “altered metabolic state” leading to fetal programming evidenced at birth, a phenomenon associated with future development of chronic diseases. In this paper it is suggested that this pathological state could be considered as a metabolic marker that could predict occurrence of diseases in adulthood, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes mellitus (including gestational diabetes), and metabolic syndrome.
Fetoplacental Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction as an Early Phenomenon in the Programming of Human Adult Diseases in Subjects Born from Gestational Diabetes Mellitus or Obesity in Pregnancy
Andrea Leiva,Fabián Pardo,Marco A. Ramírez,Marcelo Farías,Paola Casanello,Luis Sobrevia
Journal of Diabetes Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/349286
Abstract: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and obesity in pregnancy (OP) are pathological conditions associated with placenta vascular dysfunction coursing with metabolic changes at the fetoplacental microvascular and macrovascular endothelium. These alterations are seen as abnormal expression and activity of the cationic amino acid transporters and endothelial nitric oxide synthase isoform, that is, the “endothelial L-arginine/nitric oxide signalling pathway.” Several studies suggest that the endogenous nucleoside adenosine along with insulin, and potentially arginases, are factors involved in GDM-, but much less information regards their role in OP-associated placental vascular alterations. There is convincing evidence that GDM and OP prone placental endothelium to an “altered metabolic state” leading to fetal programming evidenced at birth, a phenomenon associated with future development of chronic diseases. In this paper it is suggested that this pathological state could be considered as a metabolic marker that could predict occurrence of diseases in adulthood, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes mellitus (including gestational diabetes), and metabolic syndrome. 1. Introduction Pregnancy is a physiological state with a complex anatomical and functional interaction between mother and fetus [1]. When this interaction is not a success, the mother, the fetus, or both exhibit functional impairments. Complications of pregnancy are important causes of maternal mortality, where gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and obesity of the mother in pregnancy (OP) are major obstetric pathologies. Fetal-maternal interaction could result in metabolic disturbances leading, for example, to placental and endothelial dysfunction [2, 3]. Endothelial dysfunction is defined as an altered capacity of the endothelium to take up and metabolize the cationic amino acid L-arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis via NO synthases (NOS) [4, 5]. Interestingly, it is reported that GDM and OP are pathological conditions associated with altered L-arginine transport and NO synthesis (i.e., the “L-arginine/NO signalling pathway”), probably due to altered uptake and metabolism of adenosine [6, 7], an endogenous nucleoside acting as vasodilator in most vascular beds [8, 9]. These pathophysiological characteristics are considered key in the establishment of a “programmed state” of the developing fetus (i.e., “fetal programming”). This concept refers to the impact of abnormal intrauterine conditions on the development of diseases in adulthood and becomes a key mechanism
Gestational Diabetes Reduces Adenosine Transport in Human Placental Microvascular Endothelium, an Effect Reversed by Insulin
Carlos Salomón, Francisco Westermeier, Carlos Puebla, Pablo Arroyo, Enrique Guzmán-Gutiérrez, Fabián Pardo, Andrea Leiva, Paola Casanello, Luis Sobrevia
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040578
Abstract: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) courses with increased fetal plasma adenosine concentration and reduced adenosine transport in placental macrovascular endothelium. Since insulin modulates human equilibrative nucleoside transporters (hENTs) expression/activity, we hypothesize that GDM will alter hENT2-mediated transport in human placental microvascular endothelium (hPMEC), and that insulin will restore GDM to a normal phenotype involving insulin receptors A (IR-A) and B (IR-B). GDM effect on hENTs expression and transport activity, and IR-A/IR-B expression and associated cell signalling cascades (p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p42/44mapk) and Akt) role in hPMEC primary cultures was assayed. GDM associates with elevated umbilical whole and vein, but not arteries blood adenosine, and reduced hENTs adenosine transport and expression. IR-A/IR-B mRNA expression and p42/44mapk/Akt ratios (‘metabolic phenotype’) were lower in GDM. Insulin reversed GDM-reduced hENT2 expression/activity, IR-A/IR-B mRNA expression and p42/44mapk/Akt ratios to normal pregnancies (‘mitogenic phenotype’). It is suggested that insulin effects required IR-A and IR-B expression leading to differential modulation of signalling pathways restoring GDM-metabolic to a normal-mitogenic like phenotype. Insulin could be acting as protecting factor for placental microvascular endothelial dysfunction in GDM.
The Employment of Young Graduates in the Period 2000-2010: A Comparison between Six European Countries  [PDF]
Paola Potestio
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.25099
Abstract: The paper aims to assess the relative importance of participation and unemployment and the interaction between them in affecting the evolution of employment rates of young graduates in selected European countries. The Taylor formula is used to read the behaviour of employment rates in terms of movements in activity and unemployment rates. Using this analytical procedure, the comparison between the selected countries underscores two aspects in particular: the progressive isolation of Italy, due to the poor results of the reform of the higher education system at the end of the 1990s, and the widespread progress within the female segments. On a more general plane, the heterogeneity of European labour markets for young graduates assumes new characteristics in the decade but—it is argued—it remains significant. The relative importance of participation and unemployment, the impact of the reforms of the higher education system, the reaction to the crisis of the late 2000s, and the gender aspects sharply differentiate the evolution of young graduate employment in the individual countries.
An Integrated Statistical Model to Measure Academic Teaching Quality  [PDF]
Paola Cerchiello, Paolo Giudici
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2012.25063
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present a new proposal for the classification of Academic institutions in terms of quality of teaching. Our methodological proposal borrows concepts from operational risk, such as scorecard models, employed to assess University performances, on the basis of both the perceived and the actual quality. We propose to summarize opinion data using new non parametric indexes able to exploit efficiently the ordinal nature of the analysed variables and to integrate different sources of data. In particular we show how web survey methods can improve the quality and robustness of collected data, especially when integrated with students career data. Empirical evidence is given on the basis of real data from the University of Pavia.
Dirichlet Compound Multinomials Statistical Models  [PDF]
Paola Cerchiello, Paolo Giudici
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.312A288
Abstract:

This contribution deals with a generative approach for the analysis of textual data. Instead of creating heuristic rules forthe representation of documents and word counts, we employ a distribution able to model words along texts considering different topics. In this regard, following Minka proposal (2003), we implement a Dirichlet Compound Multinomial (DCM) distribution, then we propose an extension called sbDCM that takes explicitly into account the different latent topics that compound the document. We follow two alternative approaches: on one hand the topics can be unknown, thus to be estimated on the basis of the data, on the other hand topics are determined in advance on the basis of a predefined ontological schema. The two possible approaches are assessed on the basis of real data.

Intraplate Transtensional Tectonics in the East Antarctic Craton: Insight from Buried Subglacial Bedrock in the Lake Vostok—Dome C Region  [PDF]
Paola Cianfarra, Francesco Salvini
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2013.49122
Abstract:

This study presents the results of forward numerical models of a series of sections of the Aurora Trench (East Antarctica) derived from radio echo-sounding data that allowed to reconstruct the 3D shape of the Aurora Fault, a crustal listric normal fault characterized by a length exceeding 100 km. A similar extensional fault setting allows to replicate the asymmetric buried morphology of the magnetic basement at the Lake Vostok depression derived by the available gravity and magnetic profiles. Both the Aurora and Vostok listric fault reach their basal decollment at 34 km depth, possibly the base of the crust in this intracratonic environment. Integration of these results with the existing geologic interpretations of the tectonic origin of the Concordia Trench by normal faulting allowed to frame the Concordia, Aurora and Vostok normal faults within an intraplate transtensional corridor with a left-lateral movement component. The westward projection of the proposed strike-slip deformation belt may develop in correspondence of an older tectonic lineament stretching from the Eastern flanks of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mts to the Lambert rift and characterized by a poly-phased complex tectonic history. The possible Cenozoic reactivation of these structures is discussed in the paper.

Creativity & Innovation: Four Key Issues from a Literature Review  [PDF]
Francesco Pisanu, Paola Menapace
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.53023
Abstract:

This paper is about creativity and innovation in the educational field. Through a literature review, we describe the results of two decades of research on creativity and innovation in the educational and organizational field, to underline what seemed to work and what did not, to enable these processes functioning effectively. In this literature review, a search of publications dealing with the issues of innovation and creativity and the links between these two issues has been made. We decided to put these studies in four theoretical, ex-post created, dimensions: organizational structures, individual characteristics, training methods and pedagogical practices and training content. The content of this article is based on one of the outputs of the European Commission funded project, named CLEAR (Creativity and innovation: pedagogical framework for the learning chain).

Barriers to Entry in Italian Political Parties: Understanding Why Party Leaders Hand over Governments to Technical Experts  [PDF]
Paola Bordandini, Rosa Mulè
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2016.62020
Abstract: Why are some party governments suspended and replaced by technical governments? There are surprisingly few answers to this important question in the literature. This article contributes to the literature by analyzing the demographic profiles of the parties’ most committed activists, the party delegates. There is very little in the way of comparative, synchronic and diachronic research that seeks to explore similarities and differences in the demographic profile of middle level elites within radically different political and institutional environments. This article aims at filling such void in empirical research. It draws upon an original dataset based on about 4000 interviews to party national delegates of 15 political parties in Italy between 2004 and 2009, and compares the results with those of the first European comparative research of party delegates that dates back to the seventies, the EPPMLE (European Political Parties Middle Level Elites). Our research findings suggest the presence of high entry barriers that prevent young individuals and women fully to participate in the party’s life. This demographic bias may be a key factor in accounting for the advent of technical governments in Italy because it dwarfs the possibility that new human capital helps developing innovative party programmes.
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