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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1978 matches for " Pamela Roach "
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Psychotherapy mediated by remote communication technologies: a meta-analytic review
Penny E Bee, Peter Bower, Karina Lovell, Simon Gilbody, David Richards, Linda Gask, Pamela Roach
BMC Psychiatry , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-8-60
Abstract: Systematic review (including electronic database searching and correspondence with authors) of randomised trials of individual remote psychotherapy. Electronic databases searched included MEDLINE (1966–2006), PsycInfo (1967–2006), EMBASE (1980–2006) and CINAHL databases (1982–2006). The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register (CCDAN-CTR). All searches were conducted to include studies with a publication date to July 2006.Thirteen studies were identified, ten assessing psychotherapy by telephone, two by internet and one by videoconference. Pooled effect sizes for remote therapy versus control conditions were 0.44 for depression (95%CI 0.29 to 0.59, 7 comparisons, n = 726) and 1.15 for anxiety-related disorders (95%CI 0.81 to 1.49, 3 comparisons, n = 168). There were few comparisons of remote versus face-to-face psychotherapy.Remote therapy has the potential to overcome some of the barriers to conventional psychological therapy services. Telephone-based interventions are a particularly popular research focus and as a means of therapeutic communication may confer specific advantages in terms of their widespread availability and ease of operation. However, the available evidence is limited in quantity and quality. More rigorous trials are required to confirm these preliminary estimates of effectiveness. Future research priorities should include overcoming the methodological shortcomings of published work by conducting large-scale trials that incorporate both clinical outcome and more process-orientated measures.Psychological disorders account for over 15% of the total burden of disease within established economies, a significant proportion of which manifests in depressive and anxiety-related disorders [1]. For these disorders, effective treatment options often include non-pharmacological as well as pharmacological interventions. Consensus guidelines recommend the
Evolution and the Prevention of Violent Crime  [PDF]
Jason Roach, Ken Pease
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.24062
Abstract: This paper suggests how violence prevention can be better informed by embracing an evolutionary approach to understanding and preventing violent crime. Here, ethical crime control through an evolutionary lens is considered and speculation is offered as to what an evolution-evidenced crime reduction programme might look like. The paper begins with an outline of the current landscape of crime prevention scholarship within criminology and presents some possible points of contact with actual or possible violence reduction practice, including child homicide and violence against women. The paper concludes with suggestions for an ethical research agenda for reducing violence, whereby it is hoped that an audience of open-minded criminologists and diverse students of evolution may lend a hand in increasing the sophistication of the criminological study of violence prevention.
An Application of Principal Agent Theory to Contractual Hiring Arrangements within Public Sector Organizations  [PDF]
Charlene M. L. Roach
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.61004
Abstract: This paper critically examines the application of principal agent theory to contractual hiring arrangements of employees in public sector organizations as a contemporary alternative recruitment strategy. Globally, developed and developing nations within the public sector are seeking ways where they can reduce public expenditure and debt while at the same time attempting to increase productivity and efficiency gains by using cost containment initiatives. Thus, private sector methods of outsourcing and contracting are identified as more economically feasible strategies given global recessions and other budgetary constraints within these public agencies. Hence, public management and administration scholars have alluded to the catchy phrase of “doing more with less” (see [1]). Thus, the paper from a theoretically exploratory perspective analyzes how principal agent theory can be applied to the hiring of contingent employees within this sector and the agency problems that may likely arise as a result of these arrangements and their probable economic implications for the said sector.
An Assessment of the English Proficiency of the Thai Workforce and Its Implication for the ASEAN Economic Community: An Empirical Inquiry  [PDF]
Alexander Franco, Scott S. Roach
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2018.63050
Abstract:
The ten nation members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) utilize English as the official working language for the organization. This study focused on the nation of Thailand to examine the assessed level of English proficiency of its workforce in relation to its ability to interact within ASEAN’s economic community (AEC). This is the first academic study to utilize a sample population consisting of human resources personnel from the top 100 private companies in Thailand who are in charge of employee training for learning English. Self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain self-assessments on the issues of level of English proficiency, language training, resource allocation for communication preparedness in AEC, and overall perceptions of the importance of mastering English within their respective companies. The results indicate that the acquisition of English as an economic lingua franca was considered important regardless of the demographic factors of the company examined. A majority of the respondents expressed the belief that their businesses had provided adequate resource allocation for English preparedness and a majority also indicated that their respective workforces possessed adequate English skills. However, a majority also expressed assessments that the employees in their companies did not find it easy to learn English and that Thais in general, and their employees in particular, did not like learning the language.
A new mechanism for hypertension
Jason Roach
Genome Biology , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20010813-02
Abstract: Wilson et al. began to unravel the genetics of this new pathway by identifying two types of families affected with hypertension. Each carried a specific genetic mutation, one on chromosome 12, and the other on chromosome 17. The breakthrough came when it was noticed that a genetic marker present in the normal chromosome 12 was absent in the mutated disease gene. Genomic analysis showed that the deletion was within a gene called WNK1, expressed at high levels in the kidney, heart and skeletal muscle. WNK1 codes for serine-threonine kinase, an enzyme that acts as a metabolic switch in cells.The second group was found to have different, but overlapping deletions in WNK1, confirming the previous findings. Lifton acknowledged that the researcher who noticed the mutation had "an incredibly fortunate stroke of luck, without which we would still be searching". The WNK1 gene was subsequently found to have five times as high expression in affected family members.A second gene - WNK4 - was identified by searching the human genome database for WNK1-related genes on chromosome 17 and is located in the center of the region containing the PHAII gene. After screening several families, a section liable to small missense mutations was identified. The group hypothesizes that the mutations may increase the activity of the gene or its enzyme.Both genes were localized to the kidney where the enzymes they produced were found in areas regulating the reabsorption or secretion of salt, potassium and hydrogen ions. One of them appeared in tight junctions, the junctions between cells that regulate the transport of certain molecules, such as chloride. Lifton and his colleagues suggest these studies show that the enzymes could be important in the regulatory pathway by which the kidney determines reabsorption of sodium, chloride, potassium, and hydrogen ions. Enzyme overactivity could increase reabsorption, expand blood volume and raise blood pressure.The WNK4 gene also maps to the same region as
HIGH ECCENTRICITY EOQ TOTAL COST FUNCTION YIELDS JIT RESULTs
Willian Roach
Revista de Administra??o FACES Journal , 2010,
Abstract: No estoque de bens perecíveis, o custo de armazenamento H é muito maior do que o previsto na fórmula clássica do lote econ mico do pedido (EOQ). Para bens perecíveis, a fun o custo total no EOQ é um pico e n o uma reta horizontal. Esta forma pontiaguda leva o modelo EOQ a produzir entregas just in time (JIT) - resultados semelhantes. O efeito pontiagudo (excentricidade) da curva de custo total do lote econ mico EOQ depende apenas do custo de armazenamento (H) e n o da demanda anual (D) ou do custo do pedido (S). D e S determinam o nível (altura) da curva de custo total do estoque (TC), mas n o a forma.
Toward a new language of legal drafting
Matthew Roach
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Lawyers should write in document markup language just like web developers, digital publishers, scientists, and almost everyone else
Current understanding of the processes underlying the triggering of and energy loss associated with type I ELMs
A. Kirk,D. Dunai,M. Dunne,G. Huijsmans,S. Pamela,M. Becoulet,J. R. Harrison,J. Hillesheim,C. Roach,S. Saarelma
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0029-5515/54/11/114012
Abstract: The type I ELMy H-mode is the baseline operating scenario for ITER. While it is known that the type I ELM ultimately results from the peeling-ballooning instability, there is growing experimental evidence that a mode grows up before the ELM crash that may modify the edge plasma, which then leads to the ELM event due to the peeling-ballooning mode. The triggered mode results in the release of a large number of particles and energy from the core plasma but the precise mechanism by which these losses occur is still not fully understood and hence makes predictions for future devices uncertain. Our current understanding of the processes that trigger type I ELMs and the size of the resultant energy loss are reviewed and compared to experimental data and ideas for further development are discussed.
Science PhD Career Preferences: Levels, Changes, and Advisor Encouragement
Henry Sauermann, Michael Roach
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036307
Abstract: Even though academic research is often viewed as the preferred career path for PhD trained scientists, most U.S. graduates enter careers in industry, government, or “alternative careers.” There has been a growing concern that these career patterns reflect fundamental imbalances between the supply of scientists seeking academic positions and the availability of such positions. However, while government statistics provide insights into realized career transitions, there is little systematic data on scientists' career preferences and thus on the degree to which there is a mismatch between observed career paths and scientists' preferences. Moreover, we lack systematic evidence whether career preferences adjust over the course of the PhD training and to what extent advisors exacerbate imbalances by encouraging their students to pursue academic positions. Based on a national survey of PhD students at tier-one U.S. institutions, we provide insights into the career preferences of junior scientists across the life sciences, physics, and chemistry. We also show that the attractiveness of academic careers decreases significantly over the course of the PhD program, despite the fact that advisors strongly encourage academic careers over non-academic careers. Our data provide an empirical basis for common concerns regarding labor market imbalances. Our results also suggest the need for mechanisms that provide PhD applicants with information that allows them to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of pursuing a PhD, as well as for mechanisms that complement the job market advice advisors give to their current students.
The benefits and barriers to physical activity and lifestyle interventions for osteoarthritis affecting the adult knee
Jonathan Stevenson, Richard Roach
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1749-799x-7-15
Abstract: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis, typically seen with increasing age affecting all joints. The majority of people over 60 years of age show evidence of osteoarthritis in at least one joint, with radiological evidence presenting in 70% of hips or knees of those older than 65 years [1]. The prevalence is 10% of 60 year olds and increases with age; the total number affected will have doubled by 2020. It is typified by morning pain, stiffness, swelling and deformity and risk factors include excessive force from repetitive impacts [2]. Body mass index is therefore also important. In addition, injury can also lead to abnormal strains upon individual joints [3]. Physical activity is limited by pain, eventually causing reduced muscle strength and atrophy. Features of Osteoarthritis section outlines typical features, which can be individually assessed and targeted for treatment.History: Pain, swelling, stiffness, heat, limp, reduced activity.Examination findings: Heat, pain, swelling, flexion deformity, weakness, restricted movement.Radiographic changes: Osteophytes, subchondral sclerosis, subchondral cysts, joint space narrowing, deformity, soft tissue calcification, effusion.Osteoarthritis has a significant socio-economic cost and therefore essential research is aimed at all levels of intervention and pathogenesis [4]. It is accepted that clinical function and radiological findings do not always parallel symptoms. For acute cases, management predominantly involves pain control, restoration of range of motion and swelling management. In the chronic state, a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological management exists. The latter includes muscle strengthening, range of movement therapy and aerobic conditioning in addition to occupational therapy, patella taping, weight loss, personalised social support, bracing, walking aids, and shock absorbent insoles [5].Recent reviews of exercise with regard to osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, dia
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