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Outbreak of Viscerotropic Velogenic form of Newcastle dis-ease in vaccinated six weeks old pullets
L Sa'idu, PA Abdu
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: An outbreak of very virulent form of Newcastle disease in 6 week old pullets is reported. The flock was vac-cinated against Newcastle disease with Newcastle disease vaccine intra ocular at the hatchery and Newcastle disease vaccine Lasota at 4weeks of age at the farm. The signs noticed by the farm Manager were yellowish and greenish watery faeces, weakness and decrease in feed consumption. Response to treatment with Bioxin (oxy tetracycline) was poor. The sick birds never recovered. The gross lesions observed were: Necrosis of the gastrointestinal tract (Payers patches), caecal tonsils and bursa of fabricius. The disease lasted for 11 days and the mortality rate was 99.7%. The high mortality rate suggested that the vaccine had failed to immunize the birds against Newcastle disease and the birds were highly susceptible and had been infected with a very pathogenic stain of Newcastle disease virus.
Some reproductive disorders of the indigenous sheep and goats in Zaria, Northern Nigeria
JS Neils, PA Abdu, AKB Sackey
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2009,
Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from birds affected by natural outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) in Nigeria
YG Dashe, HM Kazeem, PA Abdu, M Bello, M Odugbo
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: A study was undertaken to examine the isolation rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae from birds affected by natural outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) that occurred in Nigeria between December, 2006 and July, 2007. A total of 100 birds from 114 commercial, backyard and free range flocks infected with H5N1 virus within the study period were sampled. A total of 600 tissues (heart, lung, spleen, liver, trachea and intestine), 100 each from the 100 birds were collected for bacteriology. Data generated was entered into Microsoft excel, while descriptive statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS (Version 12.01). Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from 9 (1.5%) samples. The organism was isolated from the liver, lungs and trachea of commercial layers and turkeys. During the HPAI outbreaks, Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from 9 different flocks with a total of 21,805 birds, mortality rate of (7.3%) and proportionate mortality rate of (2.5%). The bacterium was not isolated from H5N1 free flocks which served as control. The result of this study indicated that Klebsiella pneumoniae may have acted as a secondary pathogen to aggravate the clinical signs during H5N1 outbreaks that occurred in Nigeria.
Knowledge of poultry diseases, biosecurity and husbandry practices among stakeholders in poultry production in Kogi State, Nigeria
ON Ameji, PA Abdu, L Sa’idu, M Isa-Ochepa
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Commercial poultry production is low in Kogi State even before the advent of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1) outbreak in Nigeria. The low level of poultry production has persisted long after the socio -economic impacts of HPAI had improved. A study was conducted among 94 poultry stakeholders in the state with the use of questionnaire to assess their knowledge of poultry diseases, biosecurity and poultry husbandry practices in six Local Government Areas of Kogi State. The findings showed that 60.0% of poultry production was rural while the rest were backyard (semi commercial) poultry. About 64.7% of poultry kept were under extensive management with the commonest diseases seen under this management system being Newcastle disease (62.9%), Coccidiosis (52.3%), Fowl pox (46.9%), Gumboro disease (39.1%) and Fowl typhoid (36.1%). Biosecurity was poor as 92.9% of respondents did not have footbath or hand wash disinfection; 70% would throw away poultry litter in the refuse dump; 12% would use the poultry litter as manure while 11% would sell out the litter. In addition, 64.7% of the poultry farmers obtained their rearing stock from the live bird market and other unknown sources while only 35.3% obtained theirs from the hatchery. The findings of this study showed that the low level of commercial poultry production in Kogi State might be due to the impacts of diseases and poor husbandry practices undertaken by the farmers. It is recommended that government should train poultry farmers on biosecurity, disease prevention and the adoption of modern husbandry practices suitable for the traditional poultry production system.
Retrospective studies on pullorum disease in chickens in Zaria, Nigeria
AM Wakawa, L Sa'idu, PA Abdu, PH Mamman
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: A twelve-year study (January, 1995 - December, 2006) of case reports on Pullorum disease (PD) and other poultry diseases diagnosed at the Ahmadu Bello University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Zaria, was conducted. A total of 3, 265 outbreaks were documented with 173 (5.3%) of the outbreaks diagnosed as PD. The annual increase in the number of PD outbreaks implied a decline in the hygienic standards of hatcheries where the first cycle of transmission should be broken. It was observed that chickens raised between June and August, layers and broilers, chicks under 4 weeks of age, and chickens raised under intensive system of management were at greatest risk of suffering from PD outbreaks. It is imperative that regular blood testing of parent stocks for S. Pullorum infections be conducted routinely to eliminate carriers. There is also the need for poultry farmers to institute and intensify biosecurity measures on their farms to minimize horizontal transmission of PD.
Fowl typhiod in three commercial poultry farms in Zaria, Nigeria: Case Reports
NDG Ibrahim, PA Abdu, CO Njoku, JO Adekeye
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2003,
Abstract: Fowl typhoid in three commercial poultry farms in Zaria, Nigeria, is reported. The first farm containing 30,000 battery caged shaver and Babcock layers aged 35-7 weeks, recorded 2.6% mortality. The second consisting of 2,500, Babcock layers on deep litter and aged 21 to 22 weeks, recorded 48.0% mortality. The farm also had 2,000, 9-week-old broilers with no mortality. The third farm with 2,500 Harco layers on deep litter aged 60 weeks recorded a 4.6% mortality rate. At necropsy grossly enlarged dark-greenish liver, enlarged mottled spleen and irregularly shaped haemorrhagic ovarian follicles were seen. Myocarditis, proventriculitis, hepatitis, enteritis and pneumonia were observed microscopically. Salmonella gallinarum was consistently isolated, in pure culture from the liver and bile. Liver and bile are good sources for the isolation of S. gallinarum for diagnostic purposes. KEY WORDS: Fowl typhoid, commercial, farms Nigerian Veterinary Journal Vol.24(2) 2003: 63-67
Avian influenza: a review
PA Abdu, AM Wakawa, L Sa’Idu, JU Umoh
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2005,
Review of highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in poultry in Zaria, Nigeria
AM Wakawa, L Sa'idu, PA Abdu, TM Joannis
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: All the confirmed highly pathogenic avian influenza cases that were diagnosed in Zaria at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, were reviewed in this study. The outbreaks occurred between the months of December, 2006 and March, 2007. The clinical signs and postmortem lesions were similar to those observed in avian influenza outbreaks elsewhere. It was observed that the cold windy harmattan condition, the addition of new birds into an already existing flock, the low compensation rate paid to farmers; and poor biosecurity measures on the affected farms might have contributed to the spread of the disease in Zaria and environs.
Salmonella Gallinarum Infection in Poultry Affected by Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 in Nigeria
YG Dashe, HM Kazeem, PA Abdu, M Bello, SJ Dalis
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a viral disease affecting almost all domestic and wild birds (Easterday et al., 1997; Alexander, 1999). The species of animals affected by avian influenza include birds, seal, whales, humans, horses and swine (Websters et al., 1992). Avian influenza virus belongs to the Family Orthomyxoviridae which include the genera influenza A, B and C. Avian influenza virus codes for 10 proteins including haemagglutinin (H), neuraminidase (N), protein matrix, RNP among others (Alexander, 1999; Swayne, 2003). There are 16 H and 9 N subtypes (Fouchier et al., 2005). Avian influenza depresses the host immune system thereby paving ways for opportunistic microbes to invade and exert an exacerbative effect resulting in high mortality in affected flocks (Aleksandr et al., 2004). Salmonella gallinarum is a Gram negative rod, non lactose fermenting organism of the Family Enterobacteriaceae. It is the etiologic agent of fowl typhoid which causes a serious threat to poultry industry particularly in tropical Latin America and many parts of Africa (Hall, 1977). The disease affects a variety of birds such as ducks, pheasants, quails, chickens, guinea fowls, turkeys and ostriches and it is a common problem in Nigeria (Oboegbulem et al., 1980). This study was aimed at isolating Salmonella gallinarum as well as highlighting the possible complicating role of the organism in natural outbreaks of HPAI (H5N1) that occurred in Nigeria.
Vaccination with newcastle disease vaccines strain i2 and lasota in commercial and local chickens in Plateau State Nigeria
U Musa, PA Abdu, UM Mera, PE Emmenna, MS Ahmed
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Vaccination trials and comparative immunogenicity study using Newcastle disease vaccine strain I2 (NDVI2) and NDV La Sota administered to commercial and local chickens through intraocular (i/o), intramuscular (i/m), drinking water (dw), untreated sorghum, parboiled sorghum, sorghum coated with gum Arabic or commercial chick mash feed as vaccine carriers was conducted. Newcastle disease vaccine strain I2 and NDV La Sota vaccines provided protection to commercial and local chickens vaccinated through i/o, i/m or dw. No significant difference (P.0.05) was observed in the antibody titre of commercial or local chickens vaccinated with either NDVI2 or NDV La Sota vaccines administered via commercial feed, parboiled sorghum, parboiled sorghum coated with gum Arabic and untreated sorghum. NDVI2 or NDV La Sota vaccines administered through commercial feed, parboiled sorghum, parboiled sorghum coated with gum Arabic and untreated sorghum gave no or limited protection (0-22%) to the birds when challenged with a local strain of velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus Kudu 113 strain. It was concluded that the vaccine carriers used in this study were not suitable for delivery of NDVI2 or NDVS La Sota vaccines to local or commercial chickens.
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