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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 240542 matches for " P. Y. Idakwo "
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Distribution and Statistical Analysis of Bacteria in Lake Alau in the Arid Northern Nigeria
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2004,
Abstract: ABSTRACT: The direct microscopic count using bright field illumination was subjected to a statistical comparison with four different microbial cell viability procedures viz., pour plate, spread plate, most probable number (MPN) and membrane filtration (MF) for the analysis of the distribution of bacteria in water samples from Lake Alau Dam in the arid Northern Nigeria. A total of 27 samples were collected from three locations of the dam site and analysed. The total coliform represented 32% of the 22 isolates and of this 10% represented the fecal coliform bacteria. The fecal coliform level of 6.0 x 102 to 8.8 x 102/100ml placed lake Alau Dam water samples in the EEC Grade A2 and thus, the water is recommended for further treatments before it can be distributed to municipalities for domestic use. Statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences in counts between three locations, based on the direct microscopic counts. There were no significant differences in counts between locations using the four cultural methods. There was an honestly significant difference (hsd, 5% level, Tukeys test) between the direct microscopic counts and the four cultural methods, but there was not honestly significant difference (hsd, 5% level) between the four cultural methods. It is concluded that in the absence of more sophisticated procedures, the four cultural methods together with the direct bright field microscopic count procedure served to establish a good measure of the microbiological quality of the Lake Alau water, this is strengthened by the statistical correlations. @JASEM
Rice Postharvest Technology in Nigeria: An Overview of Current Status, Constraints and Potentials for Sustainable Development  [PDF]
N. Danbaba, P. Y. Idakwo, A. L. Kassum, C. Bristone, S. O. Bakare, U. Aliyu, I. N. Kolo, M. E. Abo, A. Mohammed, A. N. Abdulkadir, I. Nkama, M. H. Badau, M. A. Kabaraini, H. Shehu, A. O. Abosede, M. K. Danbaba
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105509
In 2016, the total estimated paddy production in Nigeria was 17.5 million metric tons (MMT) which is equivalent to 5.7 MMT milled rice. This is 1.3 MMT lower than the projected 7.0 MMT national consumption demands. This implies that Nigeria is progressing towards achieving self-sufficiency in rice if this data is compared with 3.5 MMT milled rice production in 2010. But about 10% - 30% or more of this increase does not reach the final consumers largely due to inefficient postharvest management practices. Huge postharvest grain loss (PHGL) and postharvest grain quality loss (PGQL) have been reported and significant efforts have been made towards reducing them and improving food security, but this is hampered by lack of simple, cost effective, adoptable and well-defined practical postharvest management practices and technologies. This situation has presented huge opportunity for investment and strategic interventions. From the point of harvest till rice reaches the consumers table, rice passes through wide range of unit operations which may have impact on the quantity and quality of the milled rice, these have made value chain actors adopt different practices to manage the process as it passes through the various unit operations. This paper examines the current rice post-harvest management technologies in Nigeria, with attention focusing on the current practices, constraints militating against the improvement of the rice postharvest system and opportunities it presents for improvement taking into account the main contribution of the research and development organizations in solving rice postharvest related challenges and lessons to be learned that will sharpen future direction for sustainable development.
The Lanczos-Chebyshev Pseudospectral Method for Solution of Differential Equations  [PDF]
Peter Y. P. Chen
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/am.2016.79083
Abstract: In this paper, we propose to replace the Chebyshev series used in pseudospectral methods with the equivalent Chebyshev economized power series that can be evaluated more rapidly. We keep the rest of the implementation the same as the spectral method so that there is no new mathematical principle involved. We show by numerical examples that the new approach works well and there is indeed no significant loss of solution accuracy. The advantages of using power series also include simplicity in its formulation and implementation such that it could be used for complex systems. We investigate the important issue of collocation point selection. Our numerical results indicate that there is a clear accuracy advantage of using collocation points corresponding to roots of the Chebyshev polynomial.
The Synthesis of Solvent-Free TiO2 Nanofluids through Surface Modification  [PDF]
P. Y. Yu, Y. P. Zheng, L. Lan
Soft Nanoscience Letters (SNL) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/snl.2011.12008
Abstract: TiO2 nanoparticles with surface hydroxyl groups are treated by trimethoxysilane (CH3O)3Si(CH2)3O(CH2CH2O)6-9CH3 and a inorganic core/organic shell hybridmaterials, which shows itself a yellow viscous fluid, is obtained. We call it solvent-free TiO2 nanofliuds. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and rheometer are adopted to characterize the product. As a result, the content of TiO2 nanoparticles in the nanofliuds is about 5.5wt%, the functionalized TiO2 nanoparticles possess better dispersion, very low viscosity and an obvious liquid-like behavior at room temperature in absence of solvent.
Experimental Evaluation of the Attenuation Effect of a Passive Damper on a Road Vehicle Bumper  [PDF]
A. Agyei-Agyemang, G. Y. Obeng, P. Y. Andoh
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2014.23021
Abstract: To mitigate the degree of damage to passengers caused by automobile collisions, a friction damper was built and used in experimental tests to test its effectiveness in impact energy attenuation. The study revealed that energy absorption capacity of a bumper can be improved with the addition of a friction damper. The results revealed that the addition of the friction damper to an automobile bumper to give a bumper-damper system could attenuate about 32.5 % more energy than with the bumper alone. It can be concluded that the effectiveness of automobile bumpers to withstand impact of vehicles by absorbing the kinetic energy from the impact can be improved with the use of a passive friction damper. That is, a passive friction damper system could be used to attenuate more road vehicle impact energy in collisions.
Parallel Manipulators Applications—A Survey  [PDF]
Y. D. Patel, P. M. George
Modern Mechanical Engineering (MME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/mme.2012.23008
Abstract: This paper presents the comparison between serial and parallel manipulators. Day by day, the applications of the parallel manipulator in various field is become apparent and with a rapid rate utilized in precise manufacturing, medical science and in space exploration equipments. A parallel manipulator can be defined as a closed loop kinematic chain mechanism whose end effector is linked to the base by several independent kinematic chains. The classification of various parallel manipulators is presented herewith. The prime focus of the paper is to realize the parallel manipulators applications for industry, space, medical science or commercial usage by orienting manipulator in the space at the high speed with a desired accuracy.
Hydrogeochemistry and Groundwater Quality Assessment of Rapur Area, Andhra Pradesh, South India  [PDF]
Arveti Nagaraju, P. Muralidhar, Y. Sreedhar
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2016.44012
Abstract: The assessment of the quality of groundwater in Rapur area of Nellore District has been carried out with an objective to determine the hydrogeochemical validity. A total of 30 samples of groundwater were collected from wells occurring in the study area. The analyzed physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, silica, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, carbonate, sulfate, and chloride are used to characterize the ground-water quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational uses. Based on the analytical results, chemical indices like sodium absorption ratio (SAR), adjusted SAR, percent sodium (Na %), potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate (RSC), permeability index (PI), chloroalkaline indices, Kelly’s ratio, magnesium ratio and Gibbs ratios have been calculated. Chadha rectangular and diagram for geochemical classification and hydrochemical processes of groundwater indicated that most of the waters are Na-Cl and Ca-Mg-Cl types. The Gibb’s plot indicates that the groundwater chemistry of the study area is mainly controlled by rock-water interaction.
Research Progress on Ni-Based Antiperovskite Compounds
P. Tong,Y. P. Sun
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/903239
Research Progress on Ni-Based Antiperovskite Compounds
P. Tong,Y. P. Sun
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/903239
Abstract: The superconductivity in antiperovskite compound MgCNi3 was discovered in 2001 following the discovery of the superconducting MgB2. In spite of its lower superconducting transition temperature (8?K) than MgB2 (39?K), MgCNi3 has attracted considerable attention due to its high content of magnetic element Ni and the cubic structure analogous to the perovskite cuprates. After years of extensive investigations both theoretically and experimentally, however, it is still not clear whether the mechanism for superconductivity is conventional or not. The central issue is if and how the ferromagnetic spin fluctuations contribute to the cooper paring. Recently, the experimental results on the single crystals firstly reported in 2007 trend to indicate a conventional s-wave mechanism. Meanwhile many compounds neighboring to MgCNi3 were synthesized and the physical properties were investigated, which enriches the physics of the Ni-based antiperovskite compounds and help understand the superconductivity in MgCNi3. In this paper, we summarize the research progress in these two aspects. Moreover, a universal phase diagram of these compounds is presented, which suggests a phonon-mediated mechanism for the superconductivity, as well as a clue for searching new superconductors with the antiperovskite structure. Finally, a few possible scopes for future research are proposed. 1. Introduction To explore new superconductors is one of the central issues of material science and condensed matter physics. The discovery of high-temperature (high- ) superconductivity in cuprates has attracted a lot of attention in the past decades [1]. In 2001, Professor R. J. Cava from the University of Princeton reported the superconductivity in antiperovskite compound MgCNi3 with the transition temperature ?K (Figure 1) [2]. The superconductivity in MgCNi3 is unusual in view of the large content of the magnetic element Ni, which often favors a magnetic ground state. A prominent feature of the electronic structure is an extended van Hove singularity as shown in Figure 2(a), giving rise to a large density of states (DOS) just below the Fermi level ( ) [see Figure 2(b)] [3]. A similar feature has been observed in some high- superconductors. Moreover, the DOS peak is mainly attributive to the Ni 3d states [4, 5]. Structurally, the cubic symmetry recalls the high- cuprates superconductors with perovskite structures. Thus the central question was raised, whether the superconductivity in MgCNi3 is exotic. In other words, the answer to the question lies in clarifying the roles of the spin fluctuations
Study of Drought Stress on Aba Accumulation and Proline among in Different Genotypes Forage Corn
Y. Heidari,P. Moaveni
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: In order to investigate the role of physiological factors, proline and ABA in the drought resistance of forage corn varieties, an experiment was carried out under drought (medium stress and high stress) and control conditions. A split plot design experiment using randomized complete block with four replication was used, so that irrigation treatment was considered as main plots and varieties forage corn as sub plots. Significant difference was found among the varieties at the proline and ABA. Results also indicated that drought stress dose affect different activity levels of proline and ABA. Therefore, selection for drought resistance by evaluation of proline and ABA in these varieties is useful.
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