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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 215086 matches for " P. U. Umeakuana "
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Bioassay Procedure for the Diagnosis of Aflatoxicosis in a Pig Farm in Nsukka, South East Nigeria  [PDF]
S. V. O. Shoyinka, K. F. Chah, C. P. Eze, W. S. Ezema, I. R. Onoja, P. U. Umeakuana
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2014.47015
Abstract:

The owner of an intensively reared pig farm in Nsukka, South-East Nigeria reported the deaths (within one week) of 90 piglets (2-3 months of age) out of 150 piglets on the farm. The piglets were being fed home-compounded ration composed of spent grain (which appeared moldy) and other locally sourced materials. Clinical signs observed in affected piglets include sudden loss of appetite, diarrhea and distress grunting sound prior to death. Symptomatic treatment of the piglets which included the use of antibiotics (tetracycline, LA) did not appear to have ameliorated the condition. At necropsy carcasses were generally in fair to good body condition; with subcutaneous hemorrhages, mainly under the skin of head and neck regions. Lungs were congested and edematous, with froth along the tracheal and bronchial airways. The liver and spleen were moderately congested, while the mucosae of the gastrointestinal tract (which was free of ingesta) appeared mildly hyperaemic. No pathogenic bacterium was isolated from the heart blood and spleen. Histologic section of the liver showed centrilobular hepatocytes vacoulation and necrosis with hypertrophy of Kupffer cells that were in erythrophagocytosis. There was moderate fibrinous exudation into the interlobular septae. Spleen section showed severe erythrophagocytosis, but mild haemosiderosis. White pulp was either reactive or depopulated. Lungs were severely haemorrhagic with bronchitis and bronchiolitis. A tentative diagnosis of mycotoxicosis was made and the spent grain-compounded ration was fed to different groups of ducklings, with/without arginine and lysine supplementation. On the bases of clinical signs and mortality pattern; gross and histologic changes in the liver of the ducklings, a definitive diagnosis of aflatoxicosis was made. This paper emphasizes the experimental feeding of suspected feeds/feed ingredient to ducklings as a reliable diagnostic model for aflatoxicosis.

Effects of Kolaviron, the Major Constituent of Garcinia kola, on the Histology of the Hypothalamus, Pituitary, and Testes Using Adult Male Wistar Rats as a Model Organism  [PDF]
A. U. Obi, P. U. Nwoha
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research (FMAR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fmar.2014.23014
Abstract: This study determined the effects of kolaviron on the histology of organs of the hypothalamic-pi- tuitary-gonadal axis, mainly the hypothalamus, pituitary and testis. The aim was to ascertain if its consumption has deleterious effects on these organs. Thirty six adult Wistar rats divided into six groups of six animals each were used and kolaviron administered at 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight. The results showed that gross cellular depletion and desquamation of cells of testis significantly reduced number of cells in the hypothalamus and pituitary (P < 0.05). It significantly reduced the relative brain weight (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that kolaviron can alter the histology of the axis which may impair its reproductive function.
An EPQ-Based Inventory Model for Deteriorating Items under Stock-Dependent Demand with Immediate Part Payment  [PDF]
P. Majumder, U. K. Bera
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2013.14005
Abstract:

In this paper, an EPQ-based inventory policy for an item is presented with stock-dependent demand during two trade credit periods. In addition, there is a provision for 1) an immediate part payment to the wholesaler, 2) borrowing some money from money lending source for the immediate part payment, 3) here supplier or wholesaler offers a trade credit period to his retailer and retailer also offers a trade credit period to his customer. Against the above conjectures inventory model has been formulated with respect to the retailer’s point of view for minimizing the total inventory cost. The non-linear optimization method-Generalized Reduced Gradient (GRG) method is used to find the optimal solutions. Lastly Numerical examples are set to illustrate this model. Finally we use LINGO software to solve this model.

Ecotoxicity and Ecosystem Health of a Ramsar Wetland System of India  [PDF]
U. P Nasir, P. S Harikumar
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.26082
Abstract: In this study one economically important Ramsar wetland system of India, Vembanad wetland system, is studied to determine the environmental pollution. Six surface sediment samples collected from two extreme zones of the wetland system were analyzed for heavy metals such as Copper, Zinc, Manganese, Cadmium, Lead, Nickel and Mercury. Highest metal concentration was found at industrial zone and lowest concentration was detected at southern upstream of the wetland system. The results showed that the pollution level is significant in the industrial zone. Comparison of the results with different sediment quality guidelines indicated ultra high degree of contamination in the industrial zone. The numerical value of degree of contamination, pollution load index, sum of toxic units, enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index confirmed the above fact. Based on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration guidelines, the health of the ecosystem was seriously impaired with frequent occurring of biological effects in the industrial zone. The percentage of heavy metal calculated with respect to the industrial zone as the base line and the correlation analysis with organic matter indicated that, mobility of the specific metal has higher impact on its concentration at the fresh water region of the wetland.
Sanitation Mapping of Groundwater Contamination in a Rural Village of India  [PDF]
P. U. Megha, P. Kavya, S. Murugan, P. S. Harikumar
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.61005
Abstract: Availability of clean water and adequate sanitation facilities are of prime importance for limiting diarrheal diseases. We examined the spatial information on the groundwater quality and sanitation facilities of a village in southern India using Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. Place of residence, position of wells and latrines were mapped and well water samples were tested for microbial contamination (Total Coliform Counts (TCC), Fecal Coliform Counts (FCC) and Fecal Streptococcal Counts (FSC)). A well structured questionnaire was administered to 50 residents of the selected areas to elicit information on water collection, handling and storage. The location and distances of wells from latrines were determined using the Global Positioning System (GPS) device and a tape rule respectively. Data on 170 cases of various water-borne diseases were collected from primary health centers in the study area. Groundwater in the village was found to be microbiologically unfit for consumption. Analysis using direct observations supplemented by GIS maps revealed poor planning, design of the wells and improper siting of wells from latrines which were found to be the possible reasons of groundwater contamination. There was a significant difference in TCC between covered and uncovered wells (p < 0.01) but no significant differences were observed in the FCC, FSC and well covering. The mean distance (6.44 ± 2.37 m) of wells from the latrines in the study area was below the limit (15.24 m or 50 ft) set by United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). TCC and FCC increased with a decrease in distance between the wells and latrines with a significance (p < 0.01). A moderate negative correlation (r = -0.593, r = -0.470) was ensued between the distance from latrine and coliform count. This study accentuates the need to set standards for the siting of wells from latrines and need for treatment.
Dielectric Properties of Er3+ Doped ZnO Nanocrystals  [PDF]
N. K. Divya, P. U. Aparna, P. P. Pradyumnan
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2015.58028
Abstract: Erbium doped ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized through solid state reaction route. A detailed structural study was carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. This work investigates the changes occurred to the hexagonal wurtzite crystal lattice of ZnO due to the incorporation of Er3+ based on crystalline size. The chemical composition of the samples was confirmed using Energy Dispersive Spectra (EDS) data analysis. Decrease in average crystallite size with increase in rare earth concentration was observed in XRD. The frequency dependence of dielectric constant (εr), dielectric loss (tanδ) and AC conductivity of pure and rare earth doped ZnO were calculated and well explained with Maxwell-Weigner model.
Structural and Dielectric Studies of Gd Doped ZnO Nanocrystals at Room Temperature  [PDF]
P. U. Aparna, N. K. Divya, P. P. Pradyumnan
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2016.42009
Abstract: Gadolinium doped Zinc oxide (Zn1xGdxO) nanocrystals with different percentage of Gd content (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8) have been prepared by the solid state reaction method. The structural, mor-phological and chemical studies of the samples were performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The XRD spectra confirm that all the samples have hexagonal wurtzite structure. Decrease in average crystallite size with an increase in Gd concentration is observed in XRD. SEM images show that the grain size of undoped ZnO is larger than the Gd doped ZnO, specifying the hindrance of grain growth upon Gd doping. The chemical composition of the samples was confirmed using Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The variation of dielectric constant (εr), dielectric loss (tan δ) and AC conductivity as a function of frequency is studied at room temperature in a frequency which ranges from 100 Hz - 4.5 MHz by using LCR Hi TESTER. All the samples exhibit the normal dielectric behavior, i.e. decreases with increase in frequency which has been explained in the light of Maxwell-Wagner model. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss can be varied intensely by tuning Gd concentration in Zn1xGdxO compounds.
Instability Analysis of Damaged Pile Due to Static or Dynamic Overload  [PDF]
P. N. Jiki, J. U. Agber
Geomaterials (GM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/gm.2012.24016
Abstract: Instability of a damaged pile due to a statically or dynamically applied overload is studied in this work using the finite element method. A damage parameter from such a pile is calculated using fracture mechanics concepts. The parameter is used to modify the beam element at the cracked or damaged location. Soil samples were obtained from the site of the pile and were subjected to laboratory tri-axial tests to obtain shear strength parameters c and . Other soil parameters such as Young’s modulus E and Poisson’s ratio were also obtained from the tri-axial tests. These were used to calculate shear strength and sub-grade modulus k for the soil. The parameters , E, and k were later used together with the damage parameter in the finite element simulation of the strength of the damaged pile using Eigen value analyses. The layered soil modulus is approximated by taking the mean value and is denoted by . The discrete element matrices are assembled into a system Eigen-value equation, the solution of which provides the stability or instability loads for the damaged pile. The results obtained for a pile without damage, that is, when =0 , are in good agreement with those published in the literature. It has also been found that higher soil resistance is needed to support the damaged pile. It is concluded that the proposed model is a good candidate for use in the analysis and repair of damaged piles due to earthquake overload by soil stabilization methods.
Double-diffusive convection of compressible rotating Walters’ (B′) fluid with Hall currents saturating a porous medium
P Aggarwal, U Gupta
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Keeping in view the conflicting tendencies of rotation and Hall currents (magnetic field) while acting together; combined effects of Hall currents and rotation are considered on the hydromagnetic stability of a compressible Walters’ (Model B′) elastico-viscous fluid heated and soluted from below saturating a porous medium. Boussinesq approximation is used to simplify the complex hydromagnetic equations and the perturbation equations are analyzed in terms of normal modes. A dispersion relation governing the effects of visco-elasticity, salinity gradient, rotation, Hall currents and medium permeability is derived. It has been found that for stationary convection, Walters’ (Model B′) fluid behaves like an ordinary Newtonian fluid due to the vanishing of the visco-elastic parameter. Compressibility, solute gradient, rotation and magnetic field postpone the onset of instability as such their effect is to stabilize the system. Hall currents and medium permeability are found to hasten the onset of instability for permissible range of values of various parameters. The dispersion relation is analyzed numerically and the effects of various parameters for permissible range of values are depicted graphically. The visco-elasticity, solute gradient and Hall currents (hence magnetic field) introduce oscillatory modes in the system which were non-existent in their absence. Also the case of overstability is discussed and sufficient conditions for the non-existence of overstability are derived.
Anaemia in Pregnancy-is it a Persisting Public Health Problem in Porto Novo-Cape Verde?
P.U. Okeke
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjmsci.2011.193.199
Abstract: Almost half of the pregnant mothers globally presents haematological values indicative of anaemia and knowing the current situation in Porto Novo province is necessary to highlight antenatal health providers towards early detection and prompt management of anaemia in pregnancy. To study the prevalence of anaemia, types and causes of anaemia in pregnant mothers of Porto Novo province. A total of 160 blood samples were collected into EDTA tubes between 1-January to 31-March 2011, at the Antenatal Clinic of Hospital of Porto Novo during the first visit of the pregnant women to the reproductive section and Using Sysmex KX-21-N by Sysmex corporation, Japan. The haematological parameters of Haemoglobin (Hb), Haematocrit (HCT), Mean Cell Volume (MCV) and Red Cell Distribution Width in Coefficient Variation (RDW-CV) were determined in all the samples, the stages of each pregnancy were noted. The reference values for the pregnant women used in this study were as follows: Hb:11.0g dL ̄1, Hct:35-49%, MCV:80-100FL, RDW-CV:11.5-14.5%. Out of the 160 pregnant women blood samples analyzed, 62 (38.8%) were anaemic and the majority 71% were mildly anaemic cases whereas 29% were moderately anaemic and no severe anaemic cases recorded. Iron deficiency anaemia was 8.1% whereas 91.9% showed mixed anaemia indicating Normocytic-Normochromic, anaemia were higher (53.2%) in pregnant women in the second trimester. The administration of iron with folic acid (folicferro), vitamin B12 and food aid program should be re-inforced for all the pregnant women.
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