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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 201025 matches for " P. Murali Doraiswamy "
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Yoga on Our Minds: A Systematic Review of Yoga for Neuropsychiatric Disorders
Meera Balasubramaniam,P. Murali Doraiswamy
Frontiers in Psychiatry , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2012.00117
Abstract: Background: The demand for clinically efficacious, safe, patient acceptable, and cost-effective forms of treatment for mental illness is growing. Several studies have demonstrated benefit from yoga in specific psychiatric symptoms and a general sense of well-being.
Science to Practice: Translating Automated Brain MRI Volumetry in Alzheimer’s Disease from Research to Routine Diagnostic Use in the Workup of Dementia
Bharath G. Rathakrishnan,P. Murali Doraiswamy,Jeffrey R. Petrella
Frontiers in Neurology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2013.00216
Abstract:
Prognostic Value of Posteromedial Cortex Deactivation in Mild Cognitive Impairment
Jeffrey R. Petrella, Steven E. Prince, Lihong Wang, Caroline Hellegers, P. Murali Doraiswamy
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001104
Abstract: Background Normal subjects deactivate specific brain regions, notably the posteromedial cortex (PMC), during many tasks. Recent cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data suggests that deactivation during memory tasks is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The goal of this study was to prospectively determine the prognostic significance of PMC deactivation in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methodology/Principal Findings 75 subjects (34 MCI, 13 AD subjects and 28 controls) underwent baseline fMRI scanning during encoding of novel and familiar face-name pairs. MCI subjects were followed longitudinally to determine conversion to AD. Regression and analysis of covariance models were used to assess the effect of PMC activation/deactivation on conversion to dementia as well as in the longitudinal change in dementia measures. At longitudinal follow up of up to 3.5 years (mean 2.5±0.79 years), 11 MCI subjects converted to AD. The proportion of deactivators was significantly different across all groups: controls (79%), MCI-Nonconverters (73%), MCI-converters (45%), and AD (23%) (p<0.05). Mean PMC activation magnitude parameter estimates, at baseline, were negative in the control (?0.57±0.12) and MCI-Nonconverter (?0.33±0.14) groups, and positive in the MCI-Converter (0.37±0.40) and AD (0.92±0.30) groups. The effect of diagnosis on PMC deactivation remained significant after adjusting for age, education and baseline Mini-Mental State Exam (p<0.05). Baseline PMC activation magnitude was correlated with change in dementia ratings from baseline. Conclusion Loss of physiological functional deactivation in the PMC may have prognostic value in preclinical AD, and could aid in profiling subgroups of MCI subjects at greatest risk for progressive cognitive decline.
Frontal White Matter Anisotropy and Antidepressant Remission in Late-Life Depression
Warren D. Taylor, Maragatha Kuchibhatla, Martha E. Payne, James R. MacFall, Yvette I. Sheline, K. Ranga Krishnan, P. Murali Doraiswamy
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003267
Abstract: Introduction Neuroanatomic features associated with antidepressant treatment outcomes in older depressed individuals are not well established. This study used diffusion tensor imaging to examine frontal white matter structure in depressed subjects undergoing a 12-week trial of sertraline. We hypothesized that remission would be associated with higher frontal anisotropy measures, and failure to remit with lower anisotropy. Methods 74 subjects with Major Depressive Disorder and age 60 years or older were enrolled in a twelve-week open-label trial of sertraline and completed clinical assessments and 1.5T magnetic resonance brain imaging. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured in regions of interest placed in the white matter of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and corpus callosum. Differences in ADC and FA values between subjects who did and did not remit to treatment over the study period were assessed using generalized estimating equations, controlling for age, sex, medical comorbidity and baseline depression severity. Results Subjects who did not remit to sertraline exhibited higher FA values in the superior frontal gyri and anterior cingulate cortices bilaterally. There were no statistically significant associations between ADC measures and remission. Conclusions Failure to remit to sertraline is associated with higher frontal FA values. Functional imaging studies demonstrate that depression is characterized by functional disconnection between frontal and limbic regions. Those individuals where this disconnection is related to structural changes as detected by DTI may be more likely to respond to antidepressants. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00339066
Prevalence of Alzheimer’s Pathologic Endophenotypes in Asymptomatic and Mildly Impaired First-Degree Relatives
Erika J. Lampert, Kingshuk Roy Choudhury, Christopher A. Hostage, Jeffrey R. Petrella, P. Murali Doraiswamy, the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060747
Abstract: Objective A positive family history (FH) is a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Our aim was to examine the effects of FH on pathological and neuronal loss biomarkers across the cognitive spectrum. Design Cross-sectional analyses of data from a national biomarker study. Setting The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative national study. Patients 257 subjects (ages 55–89), divided into cognitively normal (CN), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD groups, with CSF and FH data. Outcome Measures Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42, tau, and tau/Aβ42 ratio, MRI-measured hippocampal volumes. Statistics Univariate and multivariate analyses. Results In MCI, CSF Aβ42 was lower (p = .005), t-tau was higher (p = 0.02) and t-tau/Aβ42 ratio was higher (p = 0.002) in FH+ than FH? subjects. A significant residual effect of FH on pathologic markers in MCI remained after adjusting for ApoE4 (p<0.05). Among CN, 47% of FH+ exhibited “pathologic signature of AD” (CSF t-tau/Aβ42 ratio >0.39) versus 21% of FH? controls (p = 0.03). The FH effect was not significant in AD subjects. Hippocampal and intracranial volumes did not differ between FH+ and FH? subjects in any group. Conclusions A positive family history of late-onset AD is associated with a higher prevalence of an abnormal cerebral beta-amyloid and tau protein phenotype in MCI. The unexplained genetic heritability in family history is about the half the size of the ApoE4 effect. Longitudinal studies are warranted to more definitively examine this issue.
Metabolomics in Early Alzheimer's Disease: Identification of Altered Plasma Sphingolipidome Using Shotgun Lipidomics
Xianlin Han, Steve Rozen, Stephen H. Boyle, Caroline Hellegers, Hua Cheng, James R. Burke, Kathleen A. Welsh-Bohmer, P. Murali Doraiswamy, Rima Kaddurah-Daouk
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021643
Abstract: Background The development of plasma biomarkers could facilitate early detection, risk assessment and therapeutic monitoring in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Alterations in ceramides and sphingomyelins have been postulated to play a role in amyloidogensis and inflammatory stress related neuronal apoptosis; however few studies have conducted a comprehensive analysis of the sphingolipidome in AD plasma using analytical platforms with accuracy, sensitivity and reproducibility. Methods and Findings We prospectively analyzed plasma from 26 AD patients (mean MMSE 21) and 26 cognitively normal controls in a non-targeted approach using multi-dimensional mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics [1], [2] to determine the levels of over 800 molecular species of lipids. These data were then correlated with diagnosis, apolipoprotein E4 genotype and cognitive performance. Plasma levels of species of sphingolipids were significantly altered in AD. Of the 33 sphingomyelin species tested, 8 molecular species, particularly those containing long aliphatic chains such as 22 and 24 carbon atoms, were significantly lower (p<0.05) in AD compared to controls. Levels of 2 ceramide species (N16:0 and N21:0) were significantly higher in AD (p<0.05) with a similar, but weaker, trend for 5 other species. Ratios of ceramide to sphingomyelin species containing identical fatty acyl chains differed significantly between AD patients and controls. MMSE scores were correlated with altered mass levels of both N20:2 SM and OH-N25:0 ceramides (p<0.004) though lipid abnormalities were observed in mild and moderate AD. Within AD subjects, there were also genotype specific differences. Conclusions In this prospective study, we used a sensitive multimodality platform to identify and characterize an essentially uniform but opposite pattern of disruption in sphingomyelin and ceramide mass levels in AD plasma. Given the role of brain sphingolipids in neuronal function, our findings provide new insights into the AD sphingolipidome and the potential use of metabolomic signatures as peripheral biomarkers.
Re-engineering in OPCAB—A Vettath’s perspective  [PDF]
Murali P. Vettath, Et Ismail, Av Kannan
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2013.34A006
Abstract:

OPCAB (off pump coronary artery bypass) has become a preferred technique of coronary revascularization in India, and more so in the East. This technique was restarted by Buffalo and Bennetti who had published their results in 1985. Since then, there has been a great enthusiasm among coronary surgeons to develop and standardize this technique of CABG (coronary artery bypass grafting). In the late nineties, nearly all the coronary centers in India started performing this technique. But, by the early 2000, only a few surgeons continued this practice. Only those who could perform this OPCAB technique in nearly 100% of their patients continued this and the rest of them returned back to the conventional on pump CABG. To attain this result, we had to re-engineer our technique of anesthesia, surgical technique, stabilization, and positioning of the heart to enable us to perform OPCAB in all patients who needed CABG. We have analyzed our last 3000 patients operated by the same surgeon (Dr MPV), in the same center with the same team. As OPCAB was the only procedure performed for coronary revascularization, we have compared our first 1000 patients, with the second 2000 patients that underwent the procedure. Our technique and our results are presented.

Dissecting the Gene Dose-Effects of the APOE ε4 and ε2 Alleles on Hippocampal Volumes in Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease
Christopher A. Hostage, Kingshuk Roy Choudhury, Pudugramam Murali Doraiswamy, Jeffrey R. Petrella, for the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054483
Abstract: Objective To investigate whether there is a specific dose-dependent effect of the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 and ε2 alleles on hippocampal volume, across the cognitive spectrum, from normal aging to Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Materials and Methods We analyzed MR and genetic data on 662 patients from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database–198 cognitively normal controls (CN), 321 mild-cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects, and 143 AD subjects–looking for dose-dependent effects of the ε4 and ε2 alleles on hippocampal volumes. Volumes were measured using a fully-automated algorithm applied to high resolution T1-weighted MR images. Statistical analysis consisted of a multivariate regression with repeated-measures model. Results There was a dose-dependent effect of the ε4 allele on hippocampal volume in AD (p = 0.04) and MCI (p = 0.02)–in both cases, each allele accounted for loss of >150 mm3 (approximately 4%) of hippocampal volume below the mean volume for AD and MCI subjects with no such alleles (Cohen’s d = ?0.16 and ?0.19 for AD and MCI, respectively). There was also a dose-dependent, main effect of the ε2 allele (p<0.0001), suggestive of a moderate protective effect on hippocampal volume–an approximately 20% per allele volume increase as compared to CN with no ε2 alleles (Cohen’s d = 0.23). Conclusion Though no effect of ε4 was seen in CN subjects, our findings confirm and extend prior data on the opposing effects of the APOE ε4 and ε2 alleles on hippocampal morphology across the spectrum of cognitive aging.
STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF GLASS FIBRE ON BOTTOM ASH BASED CONCRETE
P. Bhuvaneshwari,R. Murali
International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology , 2013,
Abstract:
OPCAB (Off Pump Coronary Artery Bypass) for Kawasaki Disease  [PDF]
Murali P. Vettath, Madhu Ravisankar, Kannan Arunachalam Veluchamy, Nitin Gangadharan
Surgical Science (SS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2018.99034
Abstract: We hereby report a case of Kawasaki disease in a 32 year old male, with giant aneurysm of both coronary arteries and severe LV (left ventricular) dysfunction who underwent OPCAB (off pump coronary artery bypass grafting) two years ago. He presented with acute myocardial infarction of his anterior wall of left ventricle. He was stabilised with medical management and was taken up for surgery when his enzymes became normal. His LV function had improved over the time and now has a good ejection fraction.
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