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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 200609 matches for " P. Kokkalis "
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Inter-comparison of lidar and ceilometer retrievals for aerosol and Planetary Boundary Layer profiling over Athens, Greece
G. Tsaknakis,A. Papayannis,P. Kokkalis,V. Amiridis
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/amtd-4-73-2011
Abstract: This study presents an inter-comparison of two active remote sensors (lidar and ceilometer) in determining the structure of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) and in retrieving tropospheric aerosol vertical profiles over Athens, Greece. This inter-comparison was performed under various strongly different aerosol concentrations (urban air pollution, biomass burning and Saharan dust event), implementing two different lidar systems (one portable Raymetrics S.A. lidar system running at 355 nm and one multi-wavelength Raman lidar system running at 355 nm, 532 nm and 1064 nm) and one CL31 Vaisala S.A. ceilometer (running at 910 nm). To convert the ceilometer data to data having the same wavelengths as those from the lidar, the backscatter-related ngstr m exponent was estimated using ultraviolet multi-filter radiometer (UV-MFR) data. The inter-comparison was based on two parameters: the mixing layer structure and height determined by the presence of the suspended aerosols and the aerosol backscatter coefficient. Additionally, radiosonde data were used to derive the PBL height. In general a good agreement is found between the ceilometer and the lidar techniques in both inter-compared parameters in the height range from 500 m to 5000 m, while the limitations of each instrument are also examined.
Optical, microphysical, mass and geometrical properties of aged volcanic particles observed over Athens, Greece, during the Eyjafjallaj kull eruption in April 2010 through synergy of Raman lidar and sunphotometer measurements
P. Kokkalis,A. Papayannis,V. Amiridis,R. E. Mamouri
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/acpd-13-5315-2013
Abstract: Vertical profiles of the optical (extinction and backscatter coefficients, lidar ratio and ngstr m exponent), microphysical (mean effective radius, mean refractive index, mean number concentration) and geometrical properties, as well as of the mass concentration of volcanic particles from the Eyjafjallaj kull eruption were retrieved at selected heights over Athens, Greece using a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system and inversion models, during 21–24 April 2010. Additionally, Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) particulate columnar measurements indicated the presence of volcanic particles over our area. Simulations of the volcanic partilcles dispersion, done by the FLEXPART model, confirmed the presence of these particles over Athens. Our lidar data showed volcanic particles layers, in the form of filaments after 7-day transport from the source (approximately 4000 km away from our site) between from ground levels up to nearly 10 km. Over Athens the volcanic particles layers were found to be mixed with locally produced aerosols, inside the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). Mean hourly-averaged lidar signals indicated that the layer thickness of volcanic particles, ranged between 1.5 and 2.2 km. The corresponding aerosol optical depth (AOD) found to vary from 0.014 to 0.184 at 355 nm and from 0.017 up to 0.174 at 532 nm. Furthermore, the corresponding lidar ratios (LR) ranged between 59.7–79.6 sr (at 355 nm) and 43.9–88.3 sr (at 532 nm). Additionally, we calculated that the mean effective radius of the volcanic particles was 0.13–0.38 μm, while their refractive index ranged from 1.39+0.009i to 1.48+0.006i. Finally, our data also allowed us to quantitatively compare, for the first time, the volcanic ash concentrations simulated by FLEXPART with those calculated by the inversion code LIRIC, using data sets derived from coincident lidar-AERONET measurements. In general, good agreement was found between simulations and observations, concerning not only the geometrical properties of the volcanic particles layers, but also the particles mass concentration, with a correlation coefficient of the order of 0.75.
Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust layers over Athens, Greece in the frame of EARLINET project (2004–2006)
A. Papayannis, R. E. Mamouri, V. Amiridis, S. Kazadzis, C. Pérez, G. Tsaknakis, P. Kokkalis,J. M. Baldasano
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2009,
Abstract: In this paper we present a statistical analysis on the geometrical and optical properties of Saharan dust layers observed over Athens, Greece, in a three-year period from 1 January 2004 up to 31 December 2006. The observations of the vertical aerosol profile were performed by the multi-wavelength (355-532-1064-387-607 nm) Raman lidar system of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) operated in the city of Athens (37°98' N, 23°77' E), Greece, in the frame of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET-ASOS) project. The number of dust events was greatest in late spring, summer, and early autumn periods. This was evident also by aerosol observations during dust outbreaks obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In our lidar measurements, multiple aerosol dust layers of variable thickness (680–4800 m) were observed. The center of mass of these layers was located in altitudes between 1600 and 5800 m. However, the mean thickness of the dust layer typically stayed around 2700 m and the corresponding mean center of mass was of the order of 2900 m. The top of the dust layer ranged from 2000 to 8000 m, with a mean value of the order of 4700 m. MODIS observations during dust outbreaks showed that the AOD values at 550 nm ranged between 0.3–0.6, while the corresponding Angstr m exponent (AE) values were of the order of 0.5–0.65, indicating the presence of rather large particles.
Histologically Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumour of the Anterior Thoracic Wall: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Maria Archontaki,Dimitris P. Korkolis,Niki Arnogiannaki,Stelios Hatzijiannis,Panagiotis Dendrinos,Christos Megapanos,Dimitris Kassotakis,Georgios Kokkalis
Case Reports in Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/257167
Abstract: Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare oncological entity that most often arises in the pleura. Over the past 10 years, the tumour has been described at numerous extrapleural locations. We present the case of a 42-year-old female Caucasian patient with an extrapleural SFT located at the anterior thoracic wall for 22 years, with atypical histological characteristics and clinical features of malignancy. Management consisted of a wide surgical resection, plastic reconstruction, and postoperative radiotherapy. Although extrapleural SFT usually behaves as a benign soft tissue tumour, it can also present with a more aggressive local behavior, including locoregional recurrence or metastasis. In that case, a multidisciplinary approach is required for accurate diagnosis and proper management.
Inter-comparison of lidar and ceilometer retrievals for aerosol and Planetary Boundary Layer profiling over Athens, Greece
G. Tsaknakis, A. Papayannis, P. Kokkalis, V. Amiridis, H. D. Kambezidis, R. E. Mamouri, G. Georgoussis,G. Avdikos
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT) & Discussions (AMTD) , 2011,
Abstract: This study presents an inter-comparison of two active remote sensors (lidar and ceilometer) to determine the mixing layer height and structure of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) and to retrieve tropospheric aerosol vertical profiles over Athens, Greece. This inter-comparison was performed under various strongly different aerosol loads/types (urban air pollution, biomass burning and Saharan dust event), implementing two different lidar systems (one portable Raymetrics S.A. lidar system running at 355 nm and one multi-wavelength Raman lidar system running at 355 nm, 532 nm and 1064 nm) and one CL31 Vaisala S.A. ceilometer (running at 910 nm). Spectral conversions of the ceilometer's data were performed using the ngstr m exponent estimated by ultraviolet multi-filter radiometer (UV-MFR) measurements. The inter-comparison was based on two parameters: the mixing layer height determined by the presence of the suspended aerosols and the attenuated backscatter coefficient. Additionally, radiosonde data were used to derive the PBL height. In general, a good agreement was found between the ceilometer and the lidar techniques in both inter-compared parameters in the height range from 500 m to 5000 m, while the limitations of each instrument are also examined.
Optical-microphysical properties of Saharan dust aerosols and composition relationship using a multi-wavelength Raman lidar, in situ sensors and modelling: a case study analysis
A. Papayannis, R. E. Mamouri, V. Amiridis, E. Remoundaki, G. Tsaknakis, P. Kokkalis, I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, A. Nenes,C. Fountoukis
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2012,
Abstract: A strong Saharan dust event that occurred over the city of Athens, Greece (37.9° N, 23.6° E) between 27 March and 3 April 2009 was followed by a synergy of three instruments: a 6-wavelength Raman lidar, a CIMEL sun-sky radiometer and the MODIS sensor. The BSC-DREAM model was used to forecast the dust event and to simulate the vertical profiles of the aerosol concentration. Due to mixture of dust particles with low clouds during most of the reported period, the dust event could be followed by the lidar only during the cloud-free day of 2 April 2009. The lidar data obtained were used to retrieve the vertical profile of the optical (extinction and backscatter coefficients) properties of aerosols in the troposphere. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) values derived from the CIMEL ranged from 0.33–0.91 (355 nm) to 0.18–0.60 (532 nm), while the lidar ratio (LR) values retrieved from the Raman lidar ranged within 75–100 sr (355 nm) and 45–75 sr (532 nm). Inside a selected dust layer region, between 1.8 and 3.5 km height, mean LR values were 83 ± 7 and 54 ± 7 sr, at 355 and 532 nm, respectively, while the ngstr m-backscatter-related (ABR355/532) and ngstr m-extinction-related (AER355/532) were found larger than 1 (1.17 ± 0.08 and 1.11 ± 0.02, respectively), indicating mixing of dust with other particles. Additionally, a retrieval technique representing dust as a mixture of spheres and spheroids was used to derive the mean aerosol microphysical properties (mean and effective radius, number, surface and volume density, and mean refractive index) inside the selected atmospheric layers. Thus, the mean value of the retrieved refractive index was found to be 1.49( ± 0.10) + 0.007( ± 0.007)i, and that of the effective radiuses was 0.30 ± 0.18 μm. The final data set of the aerosol optical and microphysical properties along with the water vapor profiles obtained by Raman lidar were incorporated into the ISORROPIA II model to provide a possible aerosol composition consistent with the retrieved refractive index values. Thus, the inferred chemical properties showed 12–40% of dust content, sulfate composition of 16–60%, and organic carbon content of 15–64%, indicating a possible mixing of dust with haze and smoke. PM10 concentrations levels, PM10 composition results and SEM-EDX (Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-ray) analysis results on sizes and mineralogy of particles from samples during the Saharan dust transport event were used to evaluate the retrieval.
Three-year ground based measurements of aerosol optical depth over the Eastern Mediterranean: the urban environment of Athens
E. Gerasopoulos, V. Amiridis, S. Kazadzis, P. Kokkalis, K. Eleftheratos, M. O. Andreae, T. W. Andreae, H. El-Askary,C. S. Zerefos
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011,
Abstract: Three years (2006–2008) of ground-based observations of the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) in the urban environment of Athens, in the Eastern Mediterranean, are analysed in this work. Measurements were acquired with a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer at five wavelengths. The daily average AOD at 500 nm is 0.23, and the mean ngstr m coefficient calculated between 415 and 867 nm is 1.41. The annual variability of AOD has a spring maximum dominated by coarse dust particles from the Sahara (AOD 0.34–0.42), while the diurnal pattern is typical for urban sites, with AOD steadily increasing throughout the day. The greatest contribution to the annually averaged AOD, accounting for almost 40%, comes from regional and local sources (namely the Istanbul metropolitan area, the extended areas of biomass burning around the north coast of the Black Sea, power plants spread throughout the Balkans and the industrial area in the Po valley, with average daily AOD in the range of 0.25–0.35). An additional important contribution (23%) is dust from Africa, whereas the rest of Europe contributes another 22%. The geographical distribution of the above sources in conjunction with the prevailing synoptic situation and contribution of local sources, lead to mixed types of aerosols over Athens, with highly variable contribution of fine and coarse particles to AOD in the range 10%–90%. This is the first long-term, ground based data set available for Athens, and it has also been used for the validation of satellite derived AOD by MODIS, showing good agreement on an annual basis, but with an overestimation of satellite AODs in the warm period.
The potential of the synergistic use of passive and active remote sensing measurements for the validation of a regional dust model
V. Amiridis, M. Kafatos, C. Perez, S. Kazadzis, E. Gerasopoulos, R. E. Mamouri, A. Papayannis, P. Kokkalis, E. Giannakaki, S. Basart, I. Daglis,C. Zerefos
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2009,
Abstract: A long-lasting Saharan dust event affected Europe on 18–23 May 2008. Dust was present in the free troposphere over Greece, in height ranges between the surface and approximately 4–5 km above sea level. The event was monitored by ground-based CIMEL sunphotometric and multi-wavelength combined backscatter/Raman lidar measurements over Athens, Greece. The dust event had the maximum of its intensity on 20 May. Three-dimensional dust spatial distribution over Greece on that day is presented through satellite synergy of passive and active remote sensing using MODIS and CALIPSO data, respectively. For the period under study, the ground-based measurements are used to characterize the dust event and evaluate the latest version of the BSC Dust Regional Atmospheric Modeling (BSC-DREAM) system. Comparisons of modeled and measured aerosol optical depths over Athens show that the Saharan dust outbreak is fairly well captured by BSC-DREAM simulations. Evaluation of BSC-DREAM using Raman lidar measurements on 20 May shows that the model consistently reproduces the dust vertical distribution over Athens.
Dust specific extinction cross-sections over the Eastern Mediterranean using the BSC-DREAM model and sun photometer data: the case of urban environments
E. Gerasopoulos, P. Kokkalis, V. Amiridis, E. Liakakou, C. Perez, K. Haustein, K. Eleftheratos, M. O. Andreae, T. W. Andreae,C. S. Zerefos
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2009,
Abstract: In this study, aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements, from a MFR sun photometer operating in Athens, were compared with columnar dust loading estimations, from the BSC-DREAM model, during identified dust events, in order to extract the typical specific extinction cross-section for dust over the area. The selected urban environment of Athens provided us with the opportunity to investigate the mixing of dust and urban pollution and to estimate the contribution of the latter. The specific extinction cross-section for dust at 500 nm was found to be equal to σ500*=0.64±0.04 m2 g, typical for medium to large distances from dust sources, with weak wavelength dependence in the visible and near infrared band (0.4–0.9 μm). The model showed a tendency to underpredict AOD levels for increasing values of the ngstr m exponent, indicative of fine particles of anthropogenic origin inside the boundary layer. On average we found an AOD under-prediction of 10–15% for ngstr m exponents in the range of 0 to 1 and 30–40% in the range of 1 to 2. Additionally, modelled surface concentrations were evaluated against surface PM10 measurements. Model values were lower than measured surface concentrations by 30% which, in conjunction with large scatter, indicated that the effect of the boundary layer anthropogenic contribution to columnar dust loadings is amplified near the ground.
Multi-wavelength Raman lidar, sun photometric and aircraft measurements in combination with inversion models for the estimation of the aerosol optical and physico-chemical properties over Athens, Greece
R. E. Mamouri, A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, D. Müller, P. Kokkalis, S. Rapsomanikis, E. T. Karageorgos, G. Tsaknakis, A. Nenes, S. Kazadzis,E. Remoundaki
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT) & Discussions (AMTD) , 2012,
Abstract: A novel procedure has been developed to retrieve, simultaneously, the optical, microphysical and chemical properties of tropospheric aerosols with a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system in the troposphere over an urban site (Athens, Greece: 37.9° N, 23.6° E, 200 m a.s.l.) using data obtained during the European Space Agency (ESA) THERMOPOLIS project, which took place between 15–31 July 2009 over the Greater Athens Area (GAA). We selected to apply our procedure for a case study of intense aerosol layers that occurred on 20–21 July 2009. The National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) EOLE 6-wavelength Raman lidar system has been used to provide the vertical profiles of the optical properties of aerosols (extinction and backscatter coefficients, lidar ratio) and the water vapor mixing ratio. An inversion algorithm was used to derive the mean aerosol microphysical properties (mean effective radius (reff), single-scattering albedo ω) and mean complex refractive index (m)) at selected heights in the 2–3 km height region. We found that reff was 0.14–0.4 (±0.14) μm, ω was 0.63–0.88 (±0.08) (at 532 nm) and m ranged from 1.44 (±0.10) + 0.01 (±0.01)i to 1.55 (±0.12) + 0.06 (±0.02)i, in good agreement (only for the reff values) with in situ aircraft measurements. The water vapor and temperature profiles were incorporated into the ISORROPIA II model to propose a possible in situ aerosol composition consistent with the retrieved m and ω values. The retrieved aerosol chemical composition in the 2–3 km height region gave a variable range of sulfate (0–60%) and organic carbon (OC) content (0–50%), although the OC content increased (up to 50%) and the sulfate content dropped (up to 30%) around 3 km height; the retrieved low ω value (0.63), indicates the presence of absorbing biomass burning smoke mixed with urban haze. Finally, the retrieved aerosol microphysical properties were compared with column-integrated sun photometer CIMEL data.
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