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Phytochemical, Antioxidant & in vitro Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous & Ethanolic Fruit Extracts of Kigelia Africana
Amandeep Kaur Saini1, P. K. Chauhan2, V. Singh1 and Pankaj Sharma3
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research , 2013,
Abstract: Phytochemicals presents in plants probably explain the various uses of plants for traditional medicine. Inthis study Kigelia Africana fruit was selected for assessing the level of various Phytochemicals, enzymaticand non- enzymatic antioxidants & antimicrobial activity. Fruits of the plant taken, dried, grind to powderand then aqueous and ethanolic extracts were prepared. Antimicrobial activity of these extracts was thenstudied using agar well plate method. Results of the study showed that aqueous extract of Kigelia Africanahave significant amount of phytochemicals & antioxidant enzymes so useful to prevent chronic diseasesrelated to oxidative stress in human body. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract was more than theethanolic extract.
Comparaative study of Lipid profile and level of Antioxidant enzymes in cigarette smokers with non cigaretee smokers
P. K. Chauhan1, Rishma2, V. Singh3 and Abhishek B4
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research , 2013,
Abstract: Cigarette smoking is the serious health problems and most important avoidable cause of death in world. Worldwide more than 8 million people currently die each year from smoking half of them before of the age of 60. Every cigarette reduces the life span by about 5 minutes. Smoke contains oxidising agents and the oxidation reactions can produce free radicals. In turn, these radicals can start chain reactions that damage cells. In the present study 40 male subjects were divided into four different groups and their lipid profile have been estimated by various tests i.e. Cholesterol, Triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C. It was observed that in cigarette smokers HDL-C level decreased and cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, VLDL-C level increased as compared to the control i.e. non- cigarette smokers. In case of MDA and Antioxidant enzymes test, the value of MDA increases and antioxidant enzymes decreases in cigarette smokers as compared to the control i.e. non- cigarette smokers. The variation in the level of lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes from normal values causes several diseases such as Lung cancer, other cancers, heart disease, and stroke and has numerous immediate health effects on the brain and on the respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune systems.
Microwave Scattering for Soil Texture at X-Band and Its Retrieval Using Genetic Algorithm  [PDF]
Rajesh Tiwari, R. K. Singh, D. S. Chauhan, O. P. Singh, R. Prakash, D. Singh
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2014.33010
Abstract: In the present paper, we have studied the effect of soil textures, i.e., sand, silt and clay on microwave scattering at X-band (10 GHz) at various incidence angles and like polarizations (i.e., Horizontal-Horizontal; HH-, Vertical-Vertical; VV-). We have proposed a retrieval technique based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) to retrieve soil texture. For this purpose, ten types of soil mixtures having different percentage of sand, silt and clay have been analyzed. The observations were carried out by ingeniously assembled X-band scatterometer. A good agreement has been noticed between estimated and observed soil texture. Study infers that soil texture is quite sensitive to radar scattering and it is possible to retrieve soil texture with radar/scatterometer data with good accuracy and this type of retrieved results can be helpful to predict soil strength as well as soil erosion of the particular area.
Comparative X-ray Analysis of systemic fungicides bis (dim ethyl thiocarbamoyl) disulphide and β-(phenoxy)—α-(1,1dimethylethyl)1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethano
Jyotsna Chauhan1*, Rachna Tiwari, R.K Tiwari2
International Journal of ChemTech Research , 2009,
Abstract: : The activity of fungicides is intimately related to its chemical structure. Knowledge about the chemical structure of a chemical is useful for the synthesis of new compounds with more specific actions and fewer adverse reactions, to increase/decrease the duration of action of the original drug or to get a more potent compound, to restrict the action to a specific system of the body and to reduce the adverse reactions, toxicity and other disadvantages associated. We can understand the basic chemical groups responsible for drug action.Recently it has been observed that some of the fungicides are loosing their effects. So analogous compounds can be designed as substitute, if their structures are known. A rational approach to test these fungicides is to know the three dimensional structure of these compounds and macromolecular receptor sites as well as their molecular complex .The structures of these compounds can be obtained by X-ray diffraction method in crystalline form and they will invariably be similar to their structure in solutions
Vitamin E: An Antioxidant Therapy to Protect Endosulphan Induced Follicular Toxicity
R.K. Sharma,P.K. Chauhan,A. Fulia
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2011,
Abstract: Endosulphan is a xenoestrogen that imitates the effect of estrogens, causing reproductive and developmental abnormalities in mammals. The aim of the present investigation was to analyze the effect of vitamin E in rescue of degenerating changes induced by endosulphan in granulosa cells of goat Capra hircus in vitro. On the basis of colour and texture normal follicles (3-5 mm in diameter) were selected for the tissue culture. The follicles were divided into two groups (one control+two experimental groups). Experimental group (A) was exposed with 100 nmol mL-1 endosulphan concentration. Experimental group (B) was exposed with 100 nmol mL-1 endosulphan as well as supplemented with 100 mol L-1 concentration of vitamin E (a-Tocopherol). Harvesting was carried out after 1 h, 4 h and 8 h of exposure. Control was run simultaneously along with all the experimental groups. Endosulphan at dose level 100 nmol mL-1 induced a decline in cell diameter from 7.50.0456 in control to 4.50.1024, 3.70.1001 and 3.20.1154 m after exposure of 1, 4 and 8 h, respectively but in case of endosulphan supplemented with vitamin E, there was less decline in cell diameter that was 6.40.1235, 4.80.1809 and 4.10.0809 m after exposure of 1, 4 and 8 h, respectively. Endosulphan induced atretogenic changes like hyalinization of granulosa cells, crinkled and wavy membranes and pycnosis and thus affects the functions in adult goat due to the oxidative stress. Vitamin E treatment at dose level 100 mol L-1 in experimental group (B) these atretogenic changes were milder and restore the normal structure of granulosa cells.
Protective Effect of Ascorbic Acid against Endosulphan Induced `Testicular Toxicity in Goat in vitro
R.K. Sharma,A. Fulia,P.K. Chauhan
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: During the present investigation effect of vitamin C in rescue of degenerating changes induced by endosulphan have been observed. Small pieces of testicular tissue (approximately 1 mm3) were divided into three groups (One control group + two experimental groups). Experimental group (A) was treated with 100 nmol mL-1 endosulphan concentration and experimental group (B) was supplemented with 100 nmol mL-1 endosulphan and 1000 μmol L-1 concentration of vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) and harvesting was carried out after 1, 4 and 8 h of exposure duration. Control was run simultaneously along with all the experimental groups. In the experimental group (A) treated with endosulphan there was alteration in histoarchitecture of seminiferous tubule. Endosulphan exposure after 1 h induced elevation in atretic spermatocytes from 22% in control testicular tissue to 54%, from 28 to 68% after 4 h and from 32 to 74% after 8 h of exposure duration. Testicular tissue exposed with endosulphan and supplemented with Vitamin C at dose level 1000 μmol L-1 in experimental group (B) restore the normal structure of the seminiferous tubule because of its scavenging property to scavenge the free radicals produced due to the oxidative stress. Due to the supplementation of vitamin C along with the exposure of endosulphan to the testicular tissue, atretic spermatocytes were declined from 54% in endosulphan exposed tissue [experimental group (A)], to 32% in vitamin C supplemented group [experimental group (B)] after 1 h, from 68 to 42% after 4 h and from 74 to 54% after exposure duration of 8 h.
Antioxidant (Ascorbic Acid): An Approach to Ameliorate the Atrazine Induced Testicular Toxicity
R.K. Sharma,A. Fulia,P.K. Chauhan
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the ameliorating effect of vitamin C on atrazine induced testicular toxicity in Capra hircus in vitro. Small pieces (approximately 1 mm3) of testicular tissue were divided into three groups (One control and two experimental groups). One experimental group was supplemented with 100 nmol mL-1 atrazine concentrations and another experimental group was treated with 100 nmol mL-1 atrazine and simultaneously supplemented with 1000 μmol L-1 concentration of vitamin C (Ascorbic acid). Controls were run simultaneously along with all the experimental groups. Harvesting of tissue was carried out after 1, 4 and 8 h of exposure. In the experimental group treated with atrazine at dose level 100 nmol mL-1, several alterations were observed in the seminiferous tubule. After 1 h of exposure duration there was degeneration in germ cells and somatic cells. Pycnotic nuclei which stained darkly with the eosin were clearly observed after 1 h of exposure duration. The numbers of atretic spermatogonia were increased from 24% in control group to 60% after 1 h, from 30 to 66% after 4 h and from 36 to 76% after 8 h of exposure duration. Similar atretogenic changes were also observed in the testicular slices cultured in atrazine+ vitamin C but were milder as compared to atrazine treatment exclusively. Reduction in atretic spermatogonia was recorded from 60 to 32% after 1 h, from 66 to 42% after 4 h and from 76 to 50% after 8 h of supplementation of vitamin C.
Atrazine Induced Morphological Alterations in Spermatocytes of Goat in vitro
R.K. Sharma,P.K. Chauhan,A. Fulia
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The presence of pesticide residues in food, in soils and sediments as well as in run-off water are ubiquitous environmental toxicants that pose a risk to human health. Aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of different doses of atrazine on spermatocytes of Capra hircus in vitro. Small pieces (approximately 1 mm3) of testicular tissue were divided into one experimental and one control group; the experimental group was treated with atrazine (1x10-3, 1.0 and 100 nmol mL-1) and exposed for different durations. Pycnosis, chromolysis and vacuoles of varied sizes and shapes were frequently observed in spermatocytes due to the atrazine exposure. All the degenerating changes increased as the exposure duration was increased from 1 to 4 and 4 to 8 h. The relative frequency of atretic spermatocytes was 30, 38 and 44% after 1, 4 and 8 h, respectively at 1x10-3 nmol mL-1 atrazine concentration. Ultra-structurally, shrinkage in cytoplasm of zygotene primary spermatocytes was distinct and prominent, chromolysis, ruptured membrane of turgid mitochondria and Golgi bodies were scattered in the spermatocyte cytoplasm.
Nanoscale Track Diameter and Hydrogen Yield: Dependence upon Charge State of Incident Ion on Polystyrene  [PDF]
D. P. Gupta, R. S. Chauhan, Shyam Kumar, P. K. Diwan, S. A. Khan, Ambuj Tripathi, Santanu Ghosh, V. K. Mittal
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2013.31016
Abstract:

The study of radiation damage of high- molecular weight substances due to MeV ion interactions is of interest for engineering and scientific applications. In the present study polystyrene (PS) was irradiated with 107Ag ions of three different charge states (q) 11+, 14+ and 25+ and of 130 MeV energy. The emission of hydrogen from PS was monitored as a function of the incident ion fluence. The experimental results showed that the hydrogen depletion per incident ion from PS varies as qn, where n was found to be 2.1 as compared to the value 2.7 to 3.0 reported in the literature. Radii of the nanometric damaged zones or ion tracks formed were analyzed from the slope of the hydrogen depletion versus ion fluence curves as a function of charge state of incident ion. These have values between 3.2 - 6.8 nm. These radii were found to depend upon the charge state of the incident ion and vary as qm, where m has the value 0.9.

 

Fetal dystocia due to dorso-pubic position and postural defects in a Jenny: A case report
P. M. Chauhan,S. H. Sindhi,K. B. Thakor
Veterinary World , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/vetworld.2013.116-117
Abstract: Dystocia in Jenny is a very rare and occur occasionally, about 1 to 4 % of foaling. A present case of fetal dystocia in seven year old jenny has been reported due to dorso-pubic position and malpostures (includes left shoulder flexion and flexed neck). Fetus was corrected in normal position and posture through application of mutational operation and removeed dead male fetus through vagina after applying the proper traction. Then, she was treated with fluid therapy, antibiotic, analgesic, tetanus toxoid, nutrients etc. and discharged from the veterinary dispensary with advising the owner for post-operative care and management for further few days. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000): 116-117]
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