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Efficiency and Tolerance of Misoprostol versus Oxytocin in the Active Management of the Third Period of Delivery at the University Maternity Porto-Novo, Benin  [PDF]
C. Tshabu Aguemon, M. Ogoudjobi, S. Lokossou, B. Matabishi, V. King, Lawansonou ?
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2018.84035
Abstract: Objective: To assess the efficiency and tolerance of misoprostol versus oxytocin in Active Management of the Third Period of Childbirth. Framework and Method of Study: The study was carried out at the Porto-Novo university maternity in Benin. The hospital is level 3. He acted in a randomized clinical trial with a descriptive and comparative aim referred from 1st January 2017 to 31st December 2017. We included all eligible women in labor in the delivery room during the study period and at that gestational age was greater than or equal to 37 weeks of amenorrhea, delivery was done through vaginal birth and delivered with a live birth and agreed to participate in the study. The cases eligible by order of admission were grouped in blocks of two, “Misoprostol” and “Oxytocin” corresponding to the Active Management of the Third Period of delivery. The data collected were captured and analyzed using the SPSS version 20 software. For the comparison of the results, we used the chi-square statistical test and the difference was assumed to be statistically significant for a p 0.05. The confidentiality of parturient was respected.
Oxytocin in rat nucleus raphe magnus influences pain modulation  [PDF]
Yanjuan Pan, Zhikui Yin, Jun Yang, Ying Zhao, Xiqing Yan, Peiyong Qiu, Daxin Wang
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2012.22017
Abstract: The main function of Nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) is mostly pain mediation. Our previous study has demonstrated that oxytocin (OXT) regulates antinociception through the central nervous system rather than the peripheral organs, and pain stimulation increases OXT concentration in the NRM. The experiment was designed to investigate OXT in the rat NRM effect on pain modulation. The results showed that 1) pain stimulation increased OXT concentration in NRM perfusion liquid; 2) Intra-NRM microinjection of OXT increased the pain threshold in a dose-dependent manner, whereas intra-NRM microinjection of OXT receptor antagonist, desGly-NH2, d(CH2)5[D-Tyr2, Thr-sup-4]OVT decreased the pain threshold; 3) NRM pre-treatment with OXT receptor antagonist completely attenuated the pain threshold increase induced by intra-NRM administration of OXT. The data suggested that OXT in NRM was involved in antinociception via OXT receptors.
Oxytocin but Not Testosterone Modulates Behavioral Patterns in Autism Spectrum Disorders  [PDF]
Silvia Lakatosova, Sheinberg Nurit, Pivovarciova Anna, Husarova Veronika, Rozenfeld Irina, Ostatnikova Daniela, Castejon Ana Maria
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2014.31006
Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown etiology. Social deficits represent one of the core symptoms of the diagnosis. The aim was to reveal possible correlations among peripheral levels of oxytocin and testosterone with behavioral and symptom characteristics in patients with ASD. 8 children with ASD were recruited and underwent psychological profiling. Blood oxytocin and testosterone levels were analyzed using ELISA method. Oxytocin levels positively correlated with Adaptation to change category of CARS-2 (P = 0.008, R = 0.848) and Vineland-II maladaptive behavior scores (P = 0.004, R = 0.884). No significant correlations were found among testosterone levels and behavioral parameters. Higher oxytocin levels were connected with more severe adaptive behavior in ASD patients. Increased oxytocin levels in children with more severe phenotype could be a result of compensatory mechanism of impaired oxytocin signaling. Oxytocin seems to employ distinct mechanisms in regulating social behavior in autism and healthy population.
Modulation of Fatty Acid Oxidation and Glucose Uptake by Oxytocin in Adipocytes  [PDF]
Han-Jen Lin, Yu-Shan Chen, Yu-Jen Chen, Yuan-Yu Lin, Harry J. Mersmann, Shih-Torng Ding
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2017.102005
Abstract: Oxytocin (OT) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide synthesized and secreted by OT neurons. In addition to its conventional role in reproductive physiology, central OT also regulates various social behaviors, such as care, trust, and emotions. Central and subcutaneous OT infusions stimulate lipid metabolism in mice and rats when fed standard or high fat diets. Mice lacking the OT receptor (OTR) or OT peptide develop late-onset obesity with greater fat pad weights, larger adipocyte size and elevated plasma levels of leptin. To study the effects of OT on lipid metabolism, we examined the effects of serial OT doses (0, 10, 30, 100, 150, 300 nM) on 3T3L1 adipocytes, together with long (144 hours, 6 days) and short (24 hours, 1 day) term treatments. The short-term treatment with 150 nM OT increased triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation and decreased mRNA expressions of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α (CPT-1α) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4). After long-term incubation with 150 nM OT, only the CPT-1α mRNA was decreased. In differentiated adipocytes derived from pig adipose tissue stem cells, only hormone sensitive lipase mRNA was decreased after short- or long-term treatment with OT. To obtain further insight into the underlying mechanism of OT induction, we tested the involvement of the AKT/PKB pathway; however, AKT phosphorylation was decreased after treatment with 150 nM OT, suggesting that OT effects may be independent from the AKT/PKB pathway. Taken together, OT effects on adipocyte glucose and lipid metabolism are probably through mechanisms other than the AKT/PKB pathway.
Brief report: Plasma oxytocin is lower in children with Asperger syndrome and associated with autistic trait attention to detail  [PDF]
Veronika Husarova, Silvia Lakatosova, Anna Pivovarciova, Jan Bakos, Jaroslava Durdiakova, Aneta Kubranska, Daniela Ostatnikova
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.34043

Aim: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are described as a continuum of severity gradient of autistic symptoms diffusing through particular ASD diagnoses, however the biological correlates among individuals with the different ASD diagnoses slightly or considerably differ. Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated to play an important role in autism etiology. Lower OT levels have been previously found in children with infantile autism, however in a group of high-functioning autistic subjects, no differences have been shown compared to controls. Moreover, whereas the opposite patterns of OT associations with social measures have been found in children with infantile autism compared to healthy children, no associations have been found in individuals with high-functioning autism. We aimed to find out the plasma OT differences between separate group of children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and healthy children and the associations of OT with particular autistic traits in a group of children with AS. Methods: We included 9 children (m = 6, f = 3) with AS at the age 9 to 12 years and 9 age- and gender-matched controls. OT levels were analyzed by ELISA method. Autistic traits in children with AS were evaluated by Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), child and adolescent versions. Results: Children with AS had significantly lower plasma OT levels compared to healthy children. We found the significant negative correlation of OT level and AQ Attention to detail area score. Conclusion: In spite of the lower OT level in children with AS, which is also previously found in children with infantile autism, the pattern of OT associations with autistic traits more resembles the pattern in non-autistic population. Our preliminary results support the hypothesis of continuum within the ASD particular diagnoses in the terms of biological correlates.

The Effectiveness of Postpartum Exercise and Oxytocin Massage on Uterus Involution  [PDF]
Dian Nur Hadianti, Djudju Sriwenda
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2019.93023
Abstract: The process of involution will work well if uterus contraction is strong, so a treatment can be done to improve uterus contraction. Postpartum exercise can make uterus muscles undergo contractions and retractions. In addition to pospartum exercise, being control of bleeding from the placenta attached is maintaining contraction and retraction fiber of strong myometrium through oxytocin massage. Purpose: This study aimed to ascertain influences of postpartum exercise and oxytocin massage on uterus involution. Method: The design used is quasi experimental research using post test only designing two comparison treatments. This research was conducted at PONED (basic emergency obstetric and neonatal care) in Bandung. The sample size was 50 respondents (25 respondents were given treatment for postpartum exercise and 25 respondents were given the oxytocin massage treatment). The sampling technique with non probability sampling techniques was by means of quota sampling. The data use primary data through the process of interview and observation. Deep data collection tool uses observation sheets and questionnaires. Result: The average uterus involution on the postpartum exercise group was 8.68 days, while the oxytocin massage group was 6.72 days. The results of the Mann Whitney Test statistic were at 95% confidence level; there was a significant difference in uterus involution between the postpartum exercise group and the oxytocin massage group with a value of p < 0.001 (p ≤ 0.05). Oxytocin massage is more influential to accelerate uterus involution. Conclusion: Oxytocin massage is more influential than pospartum exercise to uterus involution.
Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone
Gutkowska, J.;Jankowski, M.;Mukaddam-Daher, S.;McCann, S.M.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2000000600003
Abstract: oxytocin (ot), a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. it was believed that ot is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. however, equivalent concentrations of ot were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of ot release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. indeed, recent studies indicate that ot is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. it has long been known that ot induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. the discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. atrial natriuretic peptide (anp), a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. blood volume expansion causes anp release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the anp response to volume expansion. this indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for anp release. the role of anp in ot-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of ot are mediated by the release of anp from the heart. to support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of ot receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. the functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of ot to induce anp release from perfused heart or atrial slices. furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels like the aorta and ven
Figueroa D.,Horacio; Marusic B.,Elisa T.; González N.,Magdalena; Barcos M.,Francisca; Yungue V.,Paola;
Revista chilena de obstetricia y ginecología , 2002, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-75262002000300003
Abstract: uterine contractility can be measured quantitatively in vitro by the isometric method. the aim of the present work was to asses if insulin could modify uterotonic effect of oxytocyn. the uterine response to oxytocin alone and in the presence of insulin was studied in two different groups of rats: normal rats in different estral periods and pregnant rats at the end of pregnancy. the uterus of each group were compared in parallel bathing solutions with accumulative doses of oxytocin (10-10 m a 10-8 m) with or without insulin (200 mu/ml). as shown in the results, insulin was not able to modify oxytocin responses. however, under the same experimental conditions, insulin increased potassium uptake by the myometrium, as measured as na-k atpasa activity ouabain sensible. the last finding is an indication of the effectiveness of the hormone in the uterus; also, it is the first time that is shown that insulin behaves in the myometrium as shown previosly for skeletal muscle. the effect of insulin on the sodium pump is a further evidence that insulin has not a synergistic effect on the oxytocic responses.
Sublingual misoprostol versus intravenous oxytocin in the management of postpartum hemorrhage
Beigi A,Tabarestani H,Moini A,Zarrinkoub F
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2009,
Abstract: "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Postpartum hemorrhage is a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. It has been identified that active management of third stage of labor is an effective way in preventing postpartum hemorrhage. This randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare sublingual misoprostol versus intravenous oxytocin in the management of postpartum hemorrhage in nulliparous women."n"nMethods: In this randomized controlled trial conducted in Arash hospital from 2006 to 2009, Five hundred forty two nulliparous pregnant women were enrolled. They were randomized to receive either 400 microgram sublingual misoprostol or 20 IU oxytocin intravenously, immediately after the birth of newborn. "n"nResults: Post partum Hemorrhage was significantly lower in women who received sublingual misoprostol (p<0.0001). Patients who received misoprostol had shorter length of third stage of labor (6.45 minute in misoprostol Vs 6.9 minute in oxytocin group, p=0.003). Comparison of hemoglobin levels in two groups before and after delivery showed that there is a significant lesser hemoglobin drop in misoprostol group p=0.046. Side effects were more common in misoprostol group (p<0.0001). However, they were not serious; shivering (35.66%) in misoprostol group and headache (9.63%) in oxytocin group were the most common adverse effects."n"nConclusions: Sublingual misoprostol is more effective than intravenous oxytocin in preventing postpartum hemorrhage and is recommended for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage.
The Effect of Danofloxacine on in vitro Rat Myometrium
Ya?ar Akar, Haki Kara1*, Kadir Servi2, Hamit Yildiz3
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of danofloxacine on in vitro rat myometrium. The myometrium (n=60) obtained from adult female rats. After myometrium showed spontaneous contractions, the contractions were regulated by injecting 0.1mM oxytocin. Then, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 μmol danofloxacine was added to isolated organ bath in 10 min intervals, and frequency, peak amplitude and peak area calculations were recorded. With oxytocin supplementation, frequency, peak amplitude and peak area calculations were determined as 6.7±1.0, 1874±107, 1749±68, respectively. With danofloxacine supplementation, frequency and peak amplitude first increased then slowed down in relation to the dose and the peak area decreased in relation to the dose (P<0.05). In conclusion, by adding danofloxacine to the media after contractions caused by an oxytocin treatment, we observed biphasic activity. The effects of danofloxacine high doses (40 and 80 μmol) may inhibit both K+ channels and the intracellular-induced mechanism.
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