The incidence of allergic airway diseases continues to increase in industrial countries while remaining much more stable in developing countries. Allergens inhaled are eventually also swallowed and evidently the gastrointestinal immune system has a role in regulating allergic responses in the pulmonary as well as the GI system. While some studies have pointed out the role of probiotic bacteria as a supplementary protection against the early development of various allergies, little attention has been paid to the composition of the airborne microflora first and continuosly inhaled by newborns and infants. This study compares the composition of two airborne microbial communities, one from hospital delivery rooms and the other from a nature reserve, evidently in use as a birthing place as early as 7500 B.C. around the air from the outdoor birthing place was marked by a far greater variation in microbial composition and a much higher representation of fungi than the air from the hospitals. The dominant bacterial species from the delivery rooms were Staphylococcus areus and Micrococcus luteus, originating from the staff and the hospital environment; the outdoor flora, however, was dominated by Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp. In addition, 56% of all the bacterial isolates from the delivery rooms were most closely related to strains previously associated with clinical infections, whereas only 15% of isolates in the outdoor bacterial sample had such relationships. The role of airborne microorganisms could be important to infants with developing immune systems considering the microbial bias of hospital air presented in this study.
Attaining health and
quality of life is universal among global citizens. Since its introduction by
Dr. Halbert Dunn in 1962 the term wellness was used to reflect qualify of life
and has been widely accepted and defined in the Western culture. In adapting
this concept to the Chinese community, the components of adaptation and
homeostasis should be considered in addition to physical, mental, social and
health fitness. Camping is a common activity among the Western Culture which
provides purposive leisure, social, education and therapeutic activities. It
allows campers to escape from city life and enjoy Nature. In the Chinese
community, the challenges remain to promote and develop camping to an
attractive activity in the pursuit of quality of life and wellness. The
present study would report the effects of selective camping programs on campers,
the lifestyle management practices of Hong Kong residents and a profile of Hong
Kong campers. The study was limited with data obtained from surveying 975 Hong
Kong secondary school children from 11 - 18 years old using a questionnaire
developed earlier . Also, the case study on the effects of camping on
anxiety was based on data collected from 130 campers who went to a 3-day camp.
This paper presents the fundamentals of direct inverse modeling using CFD simulations to detect air pollution sources in urban areas. Generally, there are four techniques used for detecting pollution sources: the analytical technique, the optimization technique, the probabilistic technique, and the direct technique. The study discusses the potentialities and limits of each technique, where the direct inverse technique is focused. Two examples of applying the direct inverse technique in detecting pollution source are introduced. The difficulties of applying the direct inverse technique are investigated. The study reveals that the direct technique is a promising tool for detecting air pollution source in urban environments. However, more efforts are still needed to overcome the difficulties explained in the study.