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Hospital Delivery Room versus Outdoor Birthing Place: Differences in Airborne Microorganisms and Their Impact on the Infant  [PDF]
Tobias C. Olofsson, Alejandra Vàsquez
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2013.31005
Abstract:

The incidence of allergic airway diseases continues to increase in industrial countries while remaining much more stable in developing countries. Allergens inhaled are eventually also swallowed and evidently the gastrointestinal immune system has a role in regulating allergic responses in the pulmonary as well as the GI system. While some studies have pointed out the role of probiotic bacteria as a supplementary protection against the early development of various allergies, little attention has been paid to the composition of the airborne microflora first and continuosly inhaled by newborns and infants. This study compares the composition of two airborne microbial communities, one from hospital delivery rooms and the other from a nature reserve, evidently in use as a birthing place as early as 7500 B.C. around the air from the outdoor birthing place was marked by a far greater variation in microbial composition and a much higher representation of fungi than the air from the hospitals. The dominant bacterial species from the delivery rooms were Staphylococcus areus and Micrococcus luteus, originating from the staff and the hospital environment; the outdoor flora, however, was dominated by Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp. In addition, 56% of all the bacterial isolates from the delivery rooms were most closely related to strains previously associated with clinical infections, whereas only 15% of isolates in the outdoor bacterial sample had such relationships. The role of airborne microorganisms could be important to infants with developing immune systems considering the microbial bias of hospital air presented in this study.

Effects of Changed Aircraft Noise Exposure on the Use of Outdoor Recreational Areas
Norun Hjertager Krog,Bo Engdahl,Kristian Tambs
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7113890
Abstract: This paper examines behavioural responses to changes in aircraft noise exposure in local outdoor recreational areas near airports. Results from a panel study conducted in conjunction with the relocation of Norway’s main airport in 1998 are presented. One recreational area was studied at each airport site. The samples ( n = 1,264/1,370) were telephone interviewed about their use of the area before and after the change. Results indicate that changed aircraft noise exposure may influence individual choices to use local outdoor recreational areas, suggesting that careful considerations are needed in the planning of air routes over local outdoor recreational areas. However, considerable stability in use, and also fluctuations in use unrelated to the changes in noise conditions were found. Future studies of noise impacts should examine a broader set of coping mechanisms, like intra- and temporal displacement. Also, the role of place attachment, and the substitutability of local areas should be studied.
Researching about the Outdoor Space Design Adjusting to Aging Population in South-Central in China  [PDF]
Hongzheng Xi, Qinghai Chen, Shaoyao Hu
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2012.22012
Abstract: Aiming at the rural-urban background, the paper research content is that the outdoor space design adjusting to aging population. It is noteworthy that the “empty nest” becomes a social phenomenon in China. The community and the village are the are population most centralized region, it is also the main places that old man consume their leisure time. Outdoor space design should be suitable for the local natural climatic conditions and cultural customs. Outdoor space in Hunan of China appropriates local opened space. The high quality design of outdoor space will create conditions for social endowment and self-help endowment. Outdoor activity space is closely linked with the old people’s quality of life. Function of outdoor space includes contact and the exercise as well as manual labor and pastime. Outdoor space design strategy consists of barrier-free design, identification design and activity space. The paper thinks that: “Doing to older, joy to older” is the highest state of old age. This needs the joint efforts of the family and community, needs to assume by physical space. The outdoor is the main site of activity for old man. Taking exercise, accompanying with others or pets, association and manual labor are the main content to outdoor space design.
Nocturnal man biting habits of mosquito species in Serian, Sarawak, Malaysia  [PDF]
Ahmad Rohani, Ismail Zamree, Wan Najdah Wan Mohamad Ali, Azahari Abdul Hadi, Matusop Asmad, David Lubim, Zurainee Mohamed Nor, Lee Han Lim
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2013.12009
Abstract:  Knowledge of the composition and biting habits of mosquito associated with endemic areas is important in establishing sound vector control programmes and understanding the epidemiology of vector borne diseases. The biting activity cycle of several mosquito species in Serian, Sarawak was observed and described. Collections were carried out indoors and outdoors for 12 hours from 6.00 pm to 6.00 am using human landing catch techniques. A total of 7271 mosquitoes comprising 27 species belonging to sixgenera were collected. Mansonia bonneae (23.6%) was the predominant species caught in the study areas followed by Culex vishnui (22.3%), Culex pseudovishnui (19.6%) and Culex tritaenorhynchus (13.7%). A high rate of human biting activity by Ma. bonneae was detected during November but the activity was low during January.The biting activity of Ma.bonneae was found higher outdoor compared to indoorand peaked at 7.00 pm-8.00 pm.Cx.vishnui also exhibited similar biting activity peak while Anopheles letiferex-hibited biting activity peaked at 12.00 am-1.00 am.Cx.pseudovishnui showed biting patterns which were almost similar between indoor and outdoor activity and could be considered active throughout the 12 hour period.

Resultados maternos e neonatais em Centro de Parto Normal peri-hospitalar na cidade de S?o Paulo, Brasil
Lobo, Sheila Fagundes;Oliveira, Sonia Maria Junqueira Vasconcellos de;Schneck, Camilla Alexsandra;Silva, Flora Maria Barbosa da;Bonadio, Isabel Cristina;Riesco, Maria Luiza Gonzalez;
Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0080-62342010000300037
Abstract: the aim of this study was to describe the maternal and perinatal results of care in the alongside hospital birth center casa de maria (cpn-cm), located in the city of s?o paulo. the random sample included 991 women and their newborns, attended between 2003 and 2006. the results showed that 92.2% of women had a companion of her choice during childbirth and the practices commonly used were shower or immersion bath (92.9%), amniotomy (62.6%), walking (47.6%), massage comfort (29.8%) and episiotomy (25.7%). regarding newborns, 99.9% of them had apgar scores =7 in the fifth minute, 9.3% received aspiration of the upper airway, no one needed to be intubated and 1.4% were removed to the hospital. the model of care in the cpn-cm provides maternal and perinatal outcomes expected for low obstetric risk women, and means a safe option and less interventionist model in normal childbirth.
Aristotle’s Definition of Place and of Matter  [PDF]
Peter Drum
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2011.11006
Abstract: The accuracy of Aristotle’s definition of place is defended in terms of his form-matter theory. This theory is in turn defended against the objectionable notion that it entails matter is ultimately characterless.
Are children safe indoor from outdoor air pollution? A short review  [PDF]
Giovanni Ghirga, Mara Pipere
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2012.22016
Abstract: Background: Air pollution is a serious threat to children health. Given that children spend over 80% of their time indoors, understanding transport of pollutants from outdoor to indoor environments is important for assessing the impact of exposure to outdoor pollution on children health. The most common advice given during a smoke pollution episode is to stay indoors. How well this works depends on how clean the indoor air is and how pollutants from outdoor air contribute to pollutants load in indoor air. Objective: To assess the amount of outdoor air pollution coming indoors threatening children health. Methods: A Medline/EMBASE search of scientific articles was performed to evaluate the indoor-to-outdoor (I/O) concentration ratios of two main pollutants: ultrafine particles (UFP) and ozone (O3). Result: Under infiltration condition, the highest I/O ratios (0.6 - 0.9) were usually observed for larger UFP (70 - 100 nm), while the lowest I/O ratios (0.1 - 0.4) occurred typically around 10 - 20 nm. O3 I/O ratios vary according to air exchange and may be 0.6 - 0.8 for interiors having a large volume exchange with outdoor air (i.e. open windows) and 0.3 - 0.4 with conventional air conditioning systems. Conclusions: In the absence of indoor sources or activities, indoor UFP particles originate from outdoors. O3 concentration indoors may reach concentration similar to outdoors. Environmental and energy policies must also explicitly account for all the impacts of fossil fuel combustion on child health and development.
Children’s Participation in the Design of Physical Activities Conducted in the Outdoors  [PDF]
Fiona Wood, Fraser Bruce, Seaton Baxter
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2012.24027
Abstract: Background: Despite recent UK Governmental policy changes concerning the amount of outdoor, physical activity children are currently engaged in (LTS, 2010), there is a gap in the academic literature concerning children’s personal preferences for structured play and learning through physical activity in outdoor environments. Aim and objectives: This research explores the context of residential outdoor learning; with a particular focus on the contribution this experience may have on children’s preferences for learning and play through healthy physical activity in the outdoors. Methods: Eco-analysis and Personal Construct Psychology experiments (Catherine Ward-Thompson, 1995) were conducted with twenty children (aged eleven to twelve years), participating in a five-day residential stay at an outdoor learning center in order to ascertain their play preferences before and after their stay. Findings: Analysis of the data indicated that children had a preference for outdoor, physical play activity. However, their usual play typically involved only indoor, sedentary activity (e.g. games consoles and television) whilst at home. Evidence suggests that the desired play of children is being ignored in favor of the “plugged in environments” (Louv, 2005) found in the modern family home. Conclusion: This research highlights the importance of implementing outdoor learning policies and practice into the current UK curriculum on a more regular basis for the benefit of young children's health and physical wellbeing. This article concludes with future recommendations for the implementation of new strategies for outdoor learning providers that would support and extend children’s physical activity in the outdoors without destroying their enjoyment, exploration or play.
Camping and quality of life  [PDF]
Frank H. Fu, Linxuan Guo, Yanpeng Zang
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.33036
Abstract:

Attaining health and quality of life is universal among global citizens. Since its introduction by Dr. Halbert Dunn in 1962 the term wellness was used to reflect qualify of life and has been widely accepted and defined in the Western culture. In adapting this concept to the Chinese community, the components of adaptation and homeostasis should be considered in addition to physical, mental, social and health fitness. Camping is a common activity among the Western Culture which provides purposive leisure, social, education and therapeutic activities. It allows campers to escape from city life and enjoy Nature. In the Chinese community, the challenges remain to promote and develop camping to an attractive activity in the pursuit of quality of life and wellness. The present study would report the effects of selective camping programs on campers, the lifestyle management practices of Hong Kong residents and a profile of Hong Kong campers. The study was limited with data obtained from surveying 975 Hong Kong secondary school children from 11 - 18 years old using a questionnaire developed earlier [1]. Also, the case study on the effects of camping on anxiety was based on data collected from 130 campers who went to a 3-day camp.

Fundamentals of Direct Inverse CFD Modeling to Detect Air Pollution Sources in Urban Areas  [PDF]
Mahmoud Bady
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering (CWEEE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cweee.2013.22004
Abstract:

This paper presents the fundamentals of direct inverse modeling using CFD simulations to detect air pollution sources in urban areas. Generally, there are four techniques used for detecting pollution sources: the analytical technique, the optimization technique, the probabilistic technique, and the direct technique. The study discusses the potentialities and limits of each technique, where the direct inverse technique is focused. Two examples of applying the direct inverse technique in detecting pollution source are introduced. The difficulties of applying the direct inverse technique are investigated. The study reveals that the direct technique is a promising tool for detecting air pollution source in urban environments. However, more efforts are still needed to overcome the difficulties explained in the study.

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