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A compression wave is generated ahead of a high-speed train, while entering a tunnel. This compression wave propa- gates to the tunnel exit and spouts out as a micro pressure wave, causing an exploding sound. In order to estimate the magnitude correctly, the mechanism of the attenuation and distortion of a compression wave propagating along a tunnel must be understood and experimental information on these phenomena is required. An experimental and numerical in- vestigation is carried out to clarify the mechanism of the propagating compression wave in a tube. The final objective of our study is to understand the mechanism of the attenuation and distortion of propagating compression waves in a tun- nel. In the present paper, experimental investigations are carried out on the transition of the unsteady boundary layer induced by a propagating compression wave in a model tunnel by means of a developed laser differential interferometry technique.
The present paper is based upon the
fact that if an object is part of a highly stable oscillating system, it is
possible to obtain an extremely precise measure for its mass in terms of the
energy trapped in the system, rather than through a ratio between force and
acceleration, provided such trapped energy can be properly measured. The subject
is timely since there is great interest in Metrology on the establishment of a
new electronic standard for the kilogram. Our contribution to such effort
includes both the proposal of an alternative definition for mass, as well as
the description of a realistic experimental system in which this new definition
might actually be applied. The setup consists of an oscillating type-II
superconducting loop subjected to the gravity and magnetic fields. The system
is shown to be able to reach a dynamic equilibrium by trapping energy up to the
point it levitates against the surrounding magnetic and gravitational fields,
behaving as an extremely high-Q spring-load system. The proposed energy-mass equation applied to the electromechanical
oscillating system eventually produces a new experimental relation between mass
and the Planck constant.
A simple phenomenological model is developed, which indicates the existence of a direct link between the concept of rest mass of a particle and magnetodynamic energies associated to the formation of the particle. The model is based upon the principles of quantization and conservation of flux, well known for their application in superconductivity. The charge of particles is considered as forming vortices of superconducting currents, which we postulate are created by electromagnetic fluctuations from vacuum (or related processes). A new quantization rule gathers the size, the magnetic moment, and the rest mass of the particle and associates these quantities to the integer number of flux quanta that should be stored in the vortices corresponding to each particle. The model is applied to the electron, the muon, the proton, and the neutron. Quantitative consistency with available experimental data for these subatomic particles is obtained.