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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1103 matches for " Osamu Hosokawa "
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Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Single institution experience and literature review
Yasumitsu Hirano, Toru Watanabe, Tsuneyuki Uchida, Shuhei Yoshida, Kanae Tawaraya, Hideaki Kato, Osamu Hosokawa
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2010,
Abstract: Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is a rapidly evolving field as a bridge between traditional laparoscopic surgery and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. We report one of the initial clinical experiences in Japan with this new technique. Four cases of gallbladder diseases were selected for this new technique. A single curved intra-umbilical 25-mm incision was made by pulling out the umbilicus. A 12-mm trocar was placed through an open approach, and the abdominal cavity was explored with a 10-mm semi-flexible laparoscope. Two 5-mm ports were inserted laterally from the laparoscope port. A 2-mm mini-loop retractor was inserted to retract the fundus of the gallbladder. Dissection was performed using an electric cautery hook and an Endograsper roticulator. There were two women and two men with a mean age of 50.5 years (range: 40-61 years). All procedures were completed successfully without any perioperative complications. In all cases, there was no need to extend the skin incision. Average operative time was 88.8 min. Postoperative follow-up didnot reveal any umbilical wound complication. Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy is feasible and a promising alternative method as scarless abdominal surgery for the treatment of some patients with gallbladder disease.
Calcium Participates in Secretion of Porphyrin from Shell Gland Epithelial Cells of Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)  [PDF]
Osamu Kai
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2019.91013

To investigate factors involved in the secretion of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a superficial eggshell pigment, from shell gland epithelial cells of Japanese quail, we cultured cells in Ham’s F12 medium with calcium chloride and quail plasma. The addition of hormones (prostaglandin F2α, progesterone, estradiol-17β) to the medium did not change the PpIX concentration in the culture supernatant, but changing the calcium chloride (CaCl2) concentration did: a lower concentration of CaCl2 led to a higher PpIX concentration; 0 mM CaCl2 enhanced the secretion of PpIX from epithelial cells prepared at 5 or 7 mM CaCl2. The result suggests that a drop in concentration of CaCl2 mimics the end of shell calcification and stimulates rapid secretion of PpIX in vivo. Bovine serum albumin was almost as effective

Structure and Catalytic Properties of Carboxylesterase Isozymes Involved in Metabolic Activation of Prodrugs
Masakiyo Hosokawa
Molecules , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/molecules13020412
Abstract: Mammalian carboxylesterases (CESs) comprise a multigene family whose geneproducts play important roles in biotransformation of ester- or amide-type prodrugs. Theyare members of an α,β-hydrolase-fold family and are found in various mammals. It has beensuggested that CESs can be classified into five major groups denominated CES1-CES5,according to the homology of the amino acid sequence, and the majority of CESs that havebeen identified belong to the CES1 or CES2 family. The substrate specificities of CES1 andCES2 are significantly different. The CES1 isozyme mainly hydrolyzes a substrate with asmall alcohol group and large acyl group, but its wide active pocket sometimes allows it toact on structurally distinct compounds of either a large or small alcohol moiety. In contrast,the CES2 isozyme recognizes a substrate with a large alcohol group and small acyl group,and its substrate specificity may be restricted by the capability of acyl-enzyme conjugateformation due to the presence of conformational interference in the active pocket. Sincepharmacokinetic and pharmacological data for prodrugs obtained from preclinicalexperiments using various animals are generally used as references for human studies, it isimportant to clarify the biochemical properties of CES isozymes. Further experimentationfor an understanding of detailed substrate specificity of prodrugs for CES isozymes and itshydrolysates will help us to design the ideal prodrugs.
Constraining the Lifetime of QSOs with Present-day Mass Function of Supermassive Black Holes
T. Hosokawa
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/341546
Abstract: Using the theoretical models of the QSO formation, we can reproduce optical QSO luminosity functions (LFs) at high redshifts (z > 2.2). Two different models can reproduce LFs successfully, though the lifetime of QSOs, t_Q, and the relation between the black hole mass and the host halo mass are different each other; t_Q = 10^6yr, in one model, t_Q > 10^7yr, in other models. Here, we propose a method to break this degeneracy. We calculate the mass function of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at z=2.5, and compare the result with the current mass function obtained by Salucci et al.(1999). In the shorter lifetime model, the mass function at z=2.5 exceeds that of z=0.0 by one order of magnitude, then it should be ruled out. We conclude that the lifetime is at least t_Q > 10^7yr. Next, we examine the difference of the formation epoch of SMBHs existing at z=3.0 for each model under the model assumptions. We simply discuss the difference of formation epoch as another possible model-discriminator.
Dietary Effect of Squalene on Lipid Metabolism of Obese/Diabetes KK-Ay Mice and Wild-Type C57BL/6J Mice  [PDF]
Shaokai Liu, Masashi Hosokawa, Kazuo Miyashita
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2018.912108
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of squalene (SQ) on plasma and hepatic lipid levels of obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice and wild-type C57BL/6J mice. SQ supplementation significantly increased the HDL cholesterol of KK-Ay mice, which was paralleled with no significant difference in the total and non-HDL cholesterol levels. The increase in HDL cholesterol was also found in the plasma of normal C57BL/6J mice, but the difference was not significant. SQ administration significantly increased neutral lipids (NL) in the liver of KK-Ay mice, while no significant difference was observed in the polar lipids and the total cholesterol levels. The increase in NL was primarily due to the increase in TAG. However, the cholesterol level significantly increased due to SQ intake in the liver of C57BL/6J mice, while no significant difference was found in other lipid levels. The present study suggests that SQ may effectively increase HDL cholesterol level, an important anti-atherosclerotic factor, especially in subjects with metabolic disorders.
Optimizing the Conditions for Residual Stress Measurement Using a Two-Dimensional XRD Method with Specimen Oscillation  [PDF]
Osamu Takakuwa, Hitoshi Soyama
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2013.31A002

In order to optimize the conditions for residual stress measurement using a two-dimensional X-ray diffraction (2D-XRD) in terms of both efficiency and accuracy. The measurements have been conducted on three stainless steel specimens in this study. The three specimens were processed by annealing, a cavitating jet in air and a disc grinder, with each method introducing different residual stresses at the surface. The specimens were oscillated in the ω-direction, representing a right-hand rotation of the specimen about the incident X-ray beam. The range of the oscillation, Δω, was varied and optimum Δω was determined. Moreover, combinations of the tilt angle between the specimen surface normal and the diffraction vector, ψ, with the rotation angle about its surface normal, f, have been studied with a view to find the most optimum condition. The results show that the use of ω oscillations is an effective method for improving analysis accuracy, especially for large grain metals. The standard error rapidly decreased with increasing range of the ω oscillation, especially for the annealed specimen which generated strong diffraction spots due to its large grain size.

Role on Moment of Inertia and Vortex Dynamics for a Thin Rotating Plate  [PDF]
Yoshihiro Kubota, Osamu Mochizuki
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2013.36028

In this study, we focused on the lift generation with a thin rotating plate. The objective of this study is to understand the appropriate shape and the role of vortex for rotating thin plate. We determined the shape of the plate through free-flight tests of paper strips and investigated the aerodynamic characteristics of the rotating plate with the selected shape. The rectangular plate with an aspect ratio 7 was relevant from moment of inertia and bending stress. An endplate on a wing tip increased the stability on the lateral vortex structure behind the rotating plate. Velocity field measurement by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) showed that the lift force was generated twice in a rotating cycle.

Product Reputation Trend Extraction from Twitter  [PDF]
Aizhan Bizhanova, Osamu Uchida
Social Networking (SN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/sn.2014.34024

Micro-blogging today has become a very popular communication tool among the Internet users. Real-time web services such as Twitter allow users to express their opinions and interests, often expressed in the form of short text messages. Many business companies are looking into utilizing these data streams in order to improve their marketing campaigns, refine advertising and better meet their customer needs. In this study, we focus on using Twitter, for the task of extraction product reputation trend. Thus, business could gauge the effectiveness of a recent marketing campaign by aggregating user opinions on Twitter regarding their product. In this paper, we introduce an approach for automatically classifying the sentiment of Twitter messages toward product/brand, using emoticons and by improving pre-processing steps in order to achieve high accuracy.

Synthesis of a Rhodamine-Appended Cyclophane as a Fluorescence Host in Water  [PDF]
Osamu Hayashida, Yu Kaku
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2014.44044
Abstract: A cationic water-soluble cyclophane (1a) having a rhodamine moiety as a red-fluorescence fluorophore was prepared by reaction of a monoamine derivative of tetraaza[]paracyclophane having three N-t-butoxycarbonyl-β-alanine residues with rhodamine B isothiocyanate, followed by removal of the protecting groups. The guest-binding behavior of 1a toward anionic guests such as dabsyl derivative and 4-(1-pyrene)butanoate was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The results suggested the formation of host-guest complexes with a stoichiometric ratio of 1:1 and the binding constants (K) of the host-guest complexes were evaluated.
Effect of Residual Stress on the Corrosion Behavior of Austenitic Stainless Steel  [PDF]
Osamu Takakuwa, Hitoshi Soyama
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2015.51007
Abstract: In this paper we demonstrate that the residual stress introduced by several different surface finishes affects the critical current density for passivation and the passive current density in the anodic polarization curve of austenitic stainless steel and that those critical current densities can be reduced by controlling the residual stress by applying a cavitating jet to the backs of specimens. The results show that the current density either increased or decreased depending on the surface finish, and that was decreased by introducing compressive residual stress for all surface finishes.
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