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Effects of antiretroviral agents during pregnancy on liver enzymes and amylase in HIV-exposed, uninfected newborn infants
El Beitune, Patrícia;Duarte, Geraldo;Campbell, Oona;Quintana, Silvana Maria;Rodrigues, Laura C.;
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-86702007000300003
Abstract: this study assessed the effect of antiretroviral drugs administered to pregnant women on amylase and liver enzymes of the neonate. a prospective study was conducted on 52 neonates divided into three groups: infants born to hiv-infected mothers taking zidovudine (zdv group, n = 18), infants born to mothers taking zidovudine + lamivudine + nelfinavir (tt group, n = 22) and infants born to normal women (control group, n = 12). umbilical cord blood from the newborn infant was used to determine liver transaminases and amylase. data were analyzed statistically by nonparametric tests, with the level of significance set at p<0.05. the median levels for tt group newborns were 33.3 u/l for oxaloacetic transaminase, 21.5 u/l for pyruvic transaminase, 1.9 mg/dl for total bilirubin, 153 mg/dl for alkaline phosphatase, and 9.6 u/l for amylase. these results did not differ from those obtained for control newborns or newborns exposed to zdv alone. no association was observed between the use of antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy and adverse effects on neonatal amylase and hepatic parameters at birth.
Quantifying the fall in mortality associated with interventions related to hypertensive diseases of pregnancy
Ronsmans Carine,Campbell Oona
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-s3-s8
Abstract: Background In this paper we review the evidence of the effect of health interventions on mortality reduction from hypertensive diseases in pregnancy (HDP). We chose HDP because they represent a major cause of death in low income countries and evidence of effect on maternal mortality from randomised studies is available for some interventions. Methods We used four approaches to review the evidence of the effect of interventions to prevent or treat HDP on mortality reduction from HDP. We first reviewed the Cochrane Library to identify systematic reviews and individual trials of the efficacy of single interventions for the prevention or treatment of HDP. We then searched the literature for articles quantifying the impact of maternal health interventions on the reduction of maternal mortality at the population level and describe the approaches used by various authors for interventions related to HDP. Third, we examined levels of HDP-specific mortality over time or between regions in an attempt to quantify the actual or potential reduction in mortality from HDP in these regions or over time. Lastly, we compared case fatality rates in women with HDP-related severe acute maternal morbidity with those reported historically in high income countries before any effective treatment was available. Results The Cochrane review identified 5 effective interventions: routine calcium supplementation in pregnancy, antiplatelet agents during pregnancy in women at risk of pre-eclampsia, Magnesium sulphate (MgS04) for the treatment of eclampsia, MgS04 for the treatment of pre-eclampsia, and hypertensive drugs for the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension in pregnancy. We found 10 studies quantifying the effect of maternal health interventions on reducing maternal mortality from HDP, but the heterogeneity in the methods make it difficult to draw uniform conclusions for effectiveness of interventions at various levels of the health system. Most authors include a health systems dimension aimed at separating interventions that can be delivered at the primary or health centre level from those that require hospital treatment, but definitions are rarely provided and there is no consistency in the types of interventions that are deemed effective at the various levels. The low levels of HDP related mortality in rural China and Sri Lanka suggest that reductions of 85% or more are within reach, provided that most women give birth with a health professional who can refer them to higher levels of care when necessary. Results from studies of severe acute maternal morbidity in
Still too far to walk: Literature review of the determinants of delivery service use
Sabine Gabrysch, Oona MR Campbell
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-9-34
Abstract: We searched PubMed and Ovid databases for reviews and ascertained relevant articles from these and other sources. Twenty determinants identified were grouped under four themes: (1) sociocultural factors, (2) perceived benefit/need of skilled attendance, (3) economic accessibility and (4) physical accessibility.There is ample evidence that higher maternal age, education and household wealth and lower parity increase use, as does urban residence. Facility use in the previous delivery and antenatal care use are also highly predictive of health facility use for the index delivery, though this may be due to confounding by service availability and other factors. Obstetric complications also increase use but are rarely studied. Quality of care is judged to be essential in qualitative studies but is not easily measured in surveys, or without linking facility records with women. Distance to health facilities decreases use, but is also difficult to determine. Challenges in comparing results between studies include differences in methods, context-specificity and the substantial overlap between complex variables.Studies of the determinants of skilled attendance concentrate on sociocultural and economic accessibility variables and neglect variables of perceived benefit/need and physical accessibility. To draw valid conclusions, it is important to consider as many influential factors as possible in any analysis of delivery service use. The increasing availability of georeferenced data provides the opportunity to link health facility data with large-scale household data, enabling researchers to explore the influences of distance and service quality.Every year, more than 500,000 maternal deaths occur worldwide, 4 million newborns die and another 3 million babies are stillborn [1-3]. Nearly all these deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries and most could be prevented with current medical care [1,4].Most obstetric complications occur around the time of delivery and cann
The False Problem of the Maintenance of Sex (Review of the Original Approach)  [PDF]
Jose Maria Mancebo Quintana
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.519297
Abstract: We analyze here the keys of the original approach about the twofold cost: the return to the asexuality starting with a mutant female, with the same reproductive capacity than a sexual one, and with double genetic-reproductive success. We propose a new approach in which 1) all individuals in a population have regulatory mechanisms of reproductive mode, and when such change occurs, it happens in all its population at the same time; 2) after a change of reproductive mode in the population there can be variations in average offspring per female, according to the environmental quality; and 3) the genetic-reproductive success of the males and its unequal paternity success are accounted for. Results: The most advantageous reproductive strategy depends on the demographic situation of the population and the degree of the unequal paternity success of males. For harem values observed in nature and in populations with moderate growth rate, stable or decreasing population, the sexual strategy is advantageous. If the population growth rate is high, the asexual strategy is advantageous. In species subject to high demographic fluctuations the best strategy depends on the ability to predict the time of occurrence of the population bottleneck: if predictable, the best strategy is the alternation of generations, if not, permanent parthenogenesis.
Predictors of pneumococcal vaccination among older adults with pneumonia: findings from the Community Acquired Pneumonia Impact Study
Paul Krueger, Oona St Amant, Mark Loeb
BMC Geriatrics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-10-44
Abstract: A telephone survey was used to collect detailed information from adults aged 60 years and older with clinically diagnosed CAP. This was a community wide study with participants being recruited from all radiology clinics in one Ontario community.The most important predictors of pneumococcal vaccination among older adults included: getting an influenza vaccine within the past year (OR 14.5, 95% CI 4.27 to 49.0); at least weekly contact with a friend (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.71 to 9.24); having one or more co-morbidities/chronic conditions (OR 3.64, 95% CI 1.60 to 8.28); being 70 years of age or older (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.21 to 5.40); having health problems that limited physical activities (OR 5.37, 95% CI 1.49 to 19.3); having little or no bodily pain (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.25 to 6.73); and reporting having spiritual values or religious faith (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.03 to 11.67).A wide range of factors, including demographic, co-morbidity, quality of life, social support and lifestyle were found to be associated with pneumococcal vaccination status among older adults with clinically diagnosed CAP. The findings from this study could inform future pneumococcal immunization strategies by identifying individuals who are least likely to receive the PPV.Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to pneumonia acquired outside of hospitals or extended-care facilities [1]. In Canada, CAP poses a considerable threat to the health of older adults and the incidence of CAP almost triples among those aged 65 years or older [2]. With the pending demographic influx of seniors, the prevalence of CAP is expected to substantially increase, resulting in a greater burden for older adults, their caregivers and the health care system [3]. CAP is a leading cause of hospital admissions and mortality in Canada [2,4,5] and with increasing age, there is a corresponding increase in morbidity and loss of independence for older adults [6,7]. Furthermore, case fatality rates of pneumonia with invasive pneumococcal di
Ultimate Predators: Lionfish Have Evolved to Circumvent Prey Risk Assessment Abilities
Oona M. L?nnstedt, Mark I. McCormick
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075781
Abstract: Invasive species cause catastrophic alterations to communities worldwide by changing the trophic balance within ecosystems. Ever since their introduction in the mid 1980's common red lionfish, Pterois volitans, are having dramatic impacts on the Caribbean ecosystem by displacing native species and disrupting food webs. Introduced lionfish capture prey at extraordinary rates, altering the composition of benthic communities. Here we demonstrate that the extraordinary success of the introduced lionfish lies in its capacity to circumvent prey risk assessment abilities as it is virtually undetectable by prey species in its native range. While experienced prey damselfish, Chromis viridis, respond with typical antipredator behaviours when exposed to a common predatory rock cod (Cephalopholis microprion) they fail to visibly react to either the scent or visual presentation of the red lionfish, and responded only to the scent (not the visual cue) of a lionfish of a different genus, Dendrochirus zebra. Experienced prey also had much higher survival when exposed to the two non-invasive predators compared to P. volitans. The cryptic nature of the red lionfish has enabled it to be destructive as a predator and a highly successful invasive species.
Introduction, Establishment, and Invasion of Digitonthophagus gazella (Fabricius, 1787) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in the Savannas of Venezuela and Colombia  [PDF]
Jorge Ari Noriega, Oona Delgado, Joffre Isnar Blanco, Jorge Gámez, José Clavijo
Natural Resources (NR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2017.85023
Abstract: The invasion process involves overcoming certain barriers with negative effects on the biodiversity and ecosystem function. This is the case of the African dung beetle Digitonthophagus gazella, which was introduced in the United States and other countries in Central and South America to help in dung removal activity. The distribution of D. gazella has been documented in the Americas, but in Venezuela there is little information. Trying to understand the process of invasion of the Colombian-Venezuelan savannas and measure their potential impact, the information stored in collections and literature was collected. Five new state records were reported for Venezuela, as well as four scenarios of the process of introduction and establishment of this species in the region. Although the amount of records has increased, the number of individuals sampled is still incipient. The possible areas of invasion and the potential negative effects that the presence of this species exerts in these regions are also discussed. In addition, potential areas of invasion and negative effects of this species are discussed. Results emphasize the importance of generating models of the invasive process in order to design programs that monitor the effects incurred by the presence of D. gazella on native species and propose control and mitigation mechanisms.
On Hilbert extensions of Weierstrass' theorem with weights
Yamilet Quintana
Journal of Function Spaces and Applications , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/645369
Abstract: In this paper we study the set of ℊ-valued functions which can be approximated by ℊ-valued continuous functions in the norm Lℊ∞(I,w), where I⊂ℝ is a compact interval, ℊ is a separable real Hilbert space and w is a certain ℊ-valued weakly measurable weight. Thus, we obtain a new extension of the celebrated Weierstrass approximation theorem.
De la unanimidad sentimental a la interacción discursiva: una interpretación de Sobre la norma del gusto de David Hume
Ideas y Valores , 2006,
Abstract: (from the sentimental unanimity to the discursive interaction: an interpretation on of the standard of taste of david hume) this paper intends to show that in his essay of the standard of taste david hume goes beyond a causal explanation and a universalistic foundation of taste, to suggest a contextual and dialogical conception of consensus in aesthetical matters. thus, in contrast to the majority of interpreters, it would be argued that in this text doesn’t prevail the predominant point of view in the aesthetics theories of the eighteen century but an alternative approach is presented.
El orden socioeconómico del Grupo A de la Baja Nubia (4000 aC - 2800 aC )
La zaranda de ideas , 2011,
Abstract: the purpose of this paper is to define the socioeconomic order of the a- group in lower nubia. this group's nature has been discussed by several researchers, who tried to define their socio-economical order based upon the information provided by archeological excavations in the region, but they never reached an agreement. different interpretations are partly the product of diverse definitions about sedentism, nomadism, and other concepts, conceptual models commonly used to explain the socioeconomical character of a-group communities. a problem is that these concepts are loosely applied without being clear what is meant by them and what hard evidence supports these models. for this reason, we consider that defining the concepts such as nomadic pastoralism and sedentarism, mainly focusing on the proposals developed by tom dillehay and anatoly khazanov, is a central point for our investigation. furthermore, the approach of different ethnoarchaeological papers is a fundamental methodological tool, because we obtain outstanding information through them which is very important for the development of our research. finally, considering theoretical and methodological tools, we study the archaeological material of the a- group to postulate that this group could have organized itself as a semi- sedentary community, which exploited diverse ecological niches from the lower nubia.
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