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Hydrogeology of Abuja FCT-Nigeria: A GIS Evaluation  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Omogbemi Omoloju Yaya, Areakpoh Thomson Eyong, Elizabeth Orock Ayuk, Ebot Sonia Egbe
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105649
Groundwater has been recognized as playing a very important role in the development of Abuja FCT Nigeria’s capital, as many private and government establishments depend solely on wells for their water needs. Exploitation of groundwater is delicate due to its potency to contamination and difficulty to remediate aquifers. This study is to evaluate the input of the rock formations to the groundwater solute chemistry and groundwater domestic quality using hydrogeochemical tools and physicochemical parameters: pH, EC, Temperature, TDS, Chloro-alkaline indices, Ionic ratios, Gibbs diagrams, Piper diagrams, Durov diagrams and water quality index. From physicochemical parameters: pH ranged from, 4.8 - 7.9; EC, 13.4 - 1634 μS/cm; Temperature, 26℃ - 36.1℃ and TDS, 17.42 - 1094.78 mg/L. The major ions fell below WHO acceptable limits. The sequences of abundance of major ions were, K > Ca2 > Na > Mg2 for cations and Cl-> HCO3->NO3->SO42- for anions. Borehole depths range from 19.5 - 34.5 m with static water levels between 3 - 12 m.a.m.s.l. Yields were between 3.2 - 7.2 m3/Hr. Ionic ratios show ninety-five (95%) percent of the groundwater chemistry resulting from chemical weathering of rock-forming minerals through the dissolution of the host rock. The Chloro-alkaline indices: CAI1 87.23% are positive indicating exchange of Na and K from water with Mg and Ca of the rocks and 12.77% are negative, indicating reverse softening of groundwater in rocks by infiltrating rainwater while CAI2 85.11% are positive indicating exchange of Na and K from water with Mg and Ca of the rocks and 14.89% are negative, indicating reverse softening of groundwater in rocks by infiltrating rainwater. Thus chloro-alkaline indices indicate the dominance of alkaline earth elements over alkalis in majority of samples due to direct exchange of Ca2 and Mg2 from the aquifer matrix with Na and K from the groundwater. Gibbs diagram revealed groundwater ionic content was as a result of ion exchange from rock-weathering. Piper diagrams give three water types: 75% are CaHCO3, 21.20% are of MgHCO3 and 3.19% are of Na KHCO3 water types respectively. Piper diagrams also give three hydrogeochemical facies in Abuja FCT: 54.25% are of Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4, 42.56% are of Ca-Mg-HCO3 and 3.19% are of Na-K-Cl-SO4 hydrogeochemical facies respectively. Durov plot shows 20.21% are anion discriminate Ca dominant; mixed water and 63.83% had no dominant ion; simple dissolution. Water quality indices (WQI) values were between -220 - 180, Total hardness (TH) values were between 0 - 519.12. These WQI and TH values indicate that 69.2% and 47.37% of the groundwater respectively are suitable for domestic purpose. The groundwater in Abuja FCT is acidic to slightly alkaline in nature, soft to moderately hard and of low to high salinity. Major processes controlling the water quality are the weathering of the host rock through mineral dis-solution, cation exchange and inverse cation exchange processes. Ion-exchange, simple dissolution and uncommon dissolution processes determined groundwater character.
Agro-Industrial Groundwater Quality Abuja FCT, Nigeria: An Evaluation for Urban and Peri-Urban (UPA) Agricultural Irrigation  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Omogbemi Omoloju Yaya, Areakpoh Thomson Eyong, Marcelle-Carole Pami Ngassam, Ernest Lytia Molua, Raymond Ndip Nkongho, Elizabeth Orock Ayuk, Tom Tabi Oben
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105698
From the declaration made by the African Mayors in Senegal; the Mayors and Municipal Health Officers of the Americas in Columbia; the City Executives of Cities and Local Governments of the World in Spain and in the context of the Millennium Development Goals MDG 1&7; there is a need for increased food production in urban and peri-urban areas UPA in the world. Sub-Saharan Africa faces more development challenges than any other major region of the world with most of the people living in slums, without access to adequate food, water, or sanitation. UPA contributes to increased food security, nutrition and livelihoods in a combination of ways giving access to consumer markets; less need for packaging, storage and transportation of food; potential agricultural-related jobs and incomes; non-market access to food for poor consumers; availability of fresh, perishable food. In Abuja FCT, 40% of the populations in UPA are farmers, a reason why the agricultural quality of its groundwater which is used for irrigation begs for our attention. 33% of the fresh vegetables in the Abuja Federal Capital Territory (FCT) are produced in Abuja UPA. In order to assess groundwater for agro-industrial suitability the following were used: Physicochemical parameters (pH, Temperature, Electrical Conductivity), Sodium Adsorption Ratio SAR, Permeability Index PI, Magnesium Adsorption Ratio MAR, Percent Sodium %Na, Kelly’s Ratio KR and Residual Sodium Carbonate RSC and the Wilcox diagram. pH ranged from, 4.8 - 7.9; EC, 13.4 - 1634 μS/cm; Temperature, 26℃ - 36.1℃ and TDS, 17.42 - 1094.78 mg/L.SAR (0.1 > SAR < 2.1), Percent Sodium (7.11 > %Na < 100), KR (0 > KR < 0.68), RSC (-9.8 > RSC < 0.55), PI (13.9 > PI < 932.4), and MAR (0 > MAR < 80.1). Comparing these values to WHO and the Nigerian Water Quality guidelines, SAR, %Na, KR, RSC, values are 100% suitable, while PI, 96.81% suitable, and MAR 56.46% unsuitable respectively for irrigational purposes in agriculture. The quality classifications of irrigation water based on the values: Sodium Adsorption Ratio SAR, Wilcox, Kelley Ratio KR, Residual Sodium Carbonate RSC, Permeability Index PI and Percent Sodium %Na; indicate that groundwater of Abuja FCT is suitable for irrigation purpose on all soil types and that the groundwater will not degrade the soil. However, United States Soil Salinity USSL Index of Abuja FCT groundwater fall in “very low to high salinity” and “low sodium hazard zone” and Magnesium Adsorption Ratio MAR indicates half of the groundwater as “not suitable”. Hence the groundwater in Abuja FCT should be used only on soils that are well drained.
Geogenic Imprint on Groundwater and Its Quality in Parts of the Mamfe Basin, Manyu Division, Cameroon  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Thomson Areapkoh Eyong, Sonia Ebot Egbe, Regina Engome Wotany, Michael Obiekwe Nwude, Omagbemi Omoloju Yaya
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2019.75016
Groundwater studies in parts of the Mamfe basin are sparse and the Mamfe area has the highest population density in the Mamfe basin. An in-depth study of groundwater rock interaction and groundwater quality is of vital importance. This same part of the basin is the economic centre and as such development of businesses in this area requires knowledge of the groundwater quality. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the input of the rock formations on the groundwater solute chemistry and groundwater domestic-agro-industrial quality using hydrogeochemical tools and physicochemical parameters: Ionic ratios, Gibbs diagrams, Piper diagrams, Durov diagrams and water quality indices. From physicochemical parameters, in the rainy season, pH ranged from, 4.3 - 8.6; EC, 3 - 1348 μS/cm; Temperature, 24.4 - 30.1
GIS-Hydrogeochemical Model of the Yaoundé Fractured Rock Aquifer, Cameroon: Aquifer Setting, Seasonal Variations in Groundwater-Rock Interaction and Water Quality  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Omabgemi Omoloju Yaya, Sonia Ebot Egbe, Thomson Areakpoh Eyong, Bihmimihney Nelly Nji, Diana Besem Tambe
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2019.75018
This study of the gneiss-fractured-rock aquifer in Yaoundé capital of Cameroon determines: the aquifer setting-flow systems, the aquifer type, seasonal variations in rock-water interactions, evolution of the hydrogeochemical processes, physicochemical parameters and the suitability for domestic-agro-industrial use of the groundwater. Physicochemical field tests were carried out on 445 wells during four seasons for EC, pH, TDS, Temperature and static water level from July 2016 to May 2017. 90 well samples were analyzed 45 samples per season: wet/dry. 38 borewell logs were used together with structural data to determine the aquifer setting. The field physico-chemical and laboratory analysis data of well samples were mounted unto various GIS software platforms: Global mapper, AqQa, Aquachem, Rockworks, Logplot7, Surfer and ArcGIS, to get indices/parameters/figures, by use of Durov’s, Piper’s and Gibbs diagrams, Water quality index WQI, USSL ratio, Sodium Absorption ratio SAR, Percent sodium %Na, Kelly Ratio KR, Magnesium Absorption Ratio MAR, Total Hardness TH, Residual Sodium Carbonate RSC and Permeability Index PI that were determined. The process of groundwater ions acquisition is three-fold: by recharge through atmospheric precipitation, by ion exchange/simple dissolution between the rock-groundwater and by groundwater mixing in its flow path. Water types are Ca-HCO3, Mg-HCO3 and Mg-Cl while hydrogeochemical facies are Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4. Most water samples are
Non-Linear Effect of Remittances on Banking Sector Development: Panel Evidence from Developing Countries  [PDF]
Yaya Keho
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.65105
Abstract: This paper examines the impact of remittances on financial sector development in a panel of 19 developing countries. Contrary to previous studies that focus on mean effects, it uses quantile regression methodology to examine whether the effect of remittances on financial development is the same for less and more financially developed countries. The results point out that remittances promote financial development only in less financially developed countries. Further, the effect of income is positive and larger in less financially developed countries. Trade openness is positively related to financial development while inflation and urbanization are negatively related to it.
Manufacturing and Economic Growth in ECOWAS Countries: A Test of Kaldor’s First Law  [PDF]
Yaya Keho
Modern Economy (ME) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/me.2018.95057
Abstract: Kaldor’s first growth law posits that the growth rate of an economy is positively related to the growth rate of its manufacturing sector. Since the sixties, this relationship has been examined in a large number of studies using a wide variety of data sets and econometric methods. This paper examines the validity of this law for 11 ECOWAS member countries over the period 1970-2014 by employing an Autoregressive Distributed Lag bounds test approach to cointegration and Granger causality tests. The results show that manufacturing output growth causes positively economic growth and non-manufacturing output growth, thereby providing support for Kaldor’s first growth law. The policy recommendation from the results of the study is that structural transformation in favour of industrial production activities would help to accelerate economic growth in ECOWAS countries.
Impact of Government Spending on Private Consumption: Evidence from ECOWAS Countries  [PDF]
Yaya Keho
Modern Economy (ME) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/me.2019.103041

This study examines the impact of government spending on household consumption for the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). As a modelling strategy, we use the Common Correlated Effect Mean Group (CCEMG) estimator that accounts for both parameter heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence. The study provides various pieces of evidence through whole-panel and country-level analyses. The panel estimates indicate that government consumption has, on average, a negative effect on private consumption, implying that government and private consumption are substitutes. Country-level results reveal, however, considerable heterogeneity in the degree of substitutability across countries. They show crowding out effects in six countries, crowding in effects in one country and no significant effect in five countries. Therefore, government consumption is not a good instrument to stimulate aggregate demand and economic growth in ECOWAS countries.

An Econometric Analysis of the Determinants of Private Consumption in Cote d’Ivoire  [PDF]
Yaya Keho
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2019.94061
Abstract: This study investigates the determinants of private consumption expenditure in Cote d’Ivoire using time series data from 1970 to 2016. The Autoregressive Distributed Lags bounds testing approach to cointegration is employed to depict the presence of a long run relationship between private consumption and its determinants and an error correction model is estimated to derive short run dynamics. The results show the presence of a long run relationship among the selected variables. In the long run, current income, wealth and government consumption expenditure play a positive role in determining private consumption, with the effect of current income being higher. Furthermore, consumption expenditure is negatively affected by inflation rate and real interest rate on deposits. In the short run, only income and wealth appear to have positive effects on private consumption while the effects of government consumption, inflation and interest rate were found to be insignificant. This study provides evidence for government to improve the level of private consumption.
Tax Structure and Economic Growth in Cote dIvoire: Are Some Taxes Better Than Others?
Asian Economic and Financial Review , 2011,
Abstract: This paper examines the relationships between taxation and output in C te d’Ivoire during the period 1960-2006. The bounds testing approach to cointegration devised by Pesaran et al. (2001) showed that tax variables, except direct tax, and real GDP are cointegrated and positively related in the long-run. The results of Granger causality tests indicated bidirectional causality between tax revenues and output in the long-run, implying a virtuous circle of tax and GDP. Direct taxes, however, did not cause GDP both in the short and long-run. These findings suggest that i) the tax revenues and, therefore, budget deficit, depend upon the economic activity, and ii) switching the tax burden from direct to indirect taxes is likely to have a positive effect on the economic output.
Extending the Frontiers of Library Services through the Internet
AU Achonna, JA Yaya
Samaru Journal of Information Studies , 2008,
Abstract: This paper examines the tremendous developments that have taken place in the Library and Information services from inception to the present day with a focus on the role of the Internet in these developmental trends. The prelude and the history of Internet were x-rayed with an insight into the meaning of the Internet. The role of the Internet in extending the frontiers of Library and Information services were explored with a review of the situation of Internet connectivity in Nigeria, the problems and recommendations.
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