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Neonatal Hearing Screening Using Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission in a Sub-Urban Population in Nigeria  [PDF]
Moronke D. Akinola, Paul A. Onakoya, Olukemi Tongo, Akeem O. Lasisi
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2014.34038

Objective: To determine the proportion of neonates with referral result on testing with transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and the associated risk factors. Method: Prospective evaluation of all neonates born in the Hospital within 6 months using the TEOAE. A hand-held Etymotic Research Otoacoustic Emission Scanner (Ero-scan Combo) was used with the child sleeping in the cot or the mother’s hand. Right and left ears were tested separately and the result was displayed automatically as “pass” when 100% of the in-built criteria were met and “refer” if otherwise. The subjects that passed in both ears were regarded as passes, while those with a refer in either the right/left ears or both ears were regarded as referrals and were thus subjected to rescreening in six weeks or on discharge from the special care baby unit. Analysis was done to find association between the outcome of TEOAE and the clinical and epidemiological risk factors. Result: TEOAE was carried out on 386 neonates, (194 males (50.3%) and 192 females (49.7%)). The mean age at screening was 2.3 days (SD = 1.5), the mean gestational age was 38.0 weeks (SD = 2.7) while the mean birth weight was 2.9 kg (SD = 0.7) and the mean Apgar score at 1 and 5 minute were 8.3 (SD = 1.0) and 9.8 (SD = 0.6). At the first step hearing screening, referral rate was 112 (29.0%); at the second stage, 31 (8.5%) neonates had referral in one or both ears. Fisher’s exact test showed that prematurity, multiple births, jaundice and small birth weight were significantly associated with a referral outcome. However, logistic regression revealed prematurity as a significant predictor of referral outcome with a negative predictive value of 12.61. Conclusion: The referral rate is high with prematurity as a significant predictor. This study calls for commencement of newborn hearing screening and strengthening of the public health measures in the developing countries.

Utilisation of malaria preventive measures during pregnancy and birth outcomes in Ibadan, Nigeria
Olukemi O Tongo, Adebola E Orimadegun, Olusegun O Akinyinka
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-11-60
Abstract: This cross sectional survey involved 800 mothers who delivered at the University College Hospital, and Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, Ibadan. Data obtained included obstetric information, gestational age, birth weight and self reported use of malaria prevention strategies in index pregnancy.Most (95.6%) mothers used one or more malaria control measures. The most commonly used vector control measures were window net (84.0%), insecticide spray (71.5%) and insecticide treated bed nets (20.1%), while chemoprophylactic agents were pyrimethamine (23.5%), Intermittent Preventive Treatments with Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (IPTsp) (18.5%) and intermittent chloroquine (9.5%) and 21.7% used herbal medications. The mean ± SD birthweight and gestational age of the babies were 3.02 kg ± 0.56 and 37.9 weeks ± 2.5 respectively. Preterm delivery rate was 19.4% and 9% had low birth weight.Comparing babies whose mothers had IPTsp with those who did not, mean birth weight was 3.13 kg ± 0.52 versus 3.0 kg ± 0.56 (p = 0.016) and mean gestational age was 38.5 weeks ± 2.1 versus 37.8 weeks ± 2.5 (p = 0.002).The non-use of IPTsp was associated with increased risk of having low birth weight babies (AOR: 2.27, 95% CI: 0.98; 5.28) and preterm birth (AOR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.08, 3.44). The non use of herbal preparations (AOR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.85) was associated with reduced risk of preterm birth. The mean ± SD birth weight and gestational ages of babies born to mothers who slept under ITNs were not significantly different from those who did not (p = 0.07 and 0.09 respectively).There is a need for improved utilisation of IPTsp as well as discouraging the use of herbal medications in pregnancy in order to reduce pregnancy outcome measures of low birth weight and preterm deliveries in this environment.The burden of malaria in pregnancy (MIP) remains high in endemic areas, where despite considerable immunity, pregnant women continue to have symptomatic and asymptomatic parasitaemia resulting in advers
Detection of fever in children emergency care: comparisons of tactile and rectal temperatures in Nigerian children
Felix O Akinbami, Adebola E Orimadegun, Olukemi O Tongo, Olubukola O Okafor, Olusegun O Akinyinka
BMC Research Notes , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-3-108
Abstract: The caregivers' perception of fever had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 95%, 23%, 66% and 73%, respectively compared with 93%, 26%, 67% and 69%, respectively for nursing officers. Irrespective of the groups studied, 77.1% of 336 assessors opined that the dorsal surface of the hand was more sensitive in tactile assessment of temperature and the frequently used site for assessment of fever were the head (35.6%) and neck (33.3%). Tactile assessment of temperature over-detected fever in ≥ 24% of cases among the three groups of assessors.The present study suggests that tactile assessment of temperature may over estimate the prevalence of fever, it does not detect some cases and the need for objective measurement of temperature is emphasised in paediatric emergency care.Fever in children is the commonest basis for seeking medical attention in Nigeria, with bacteraemia and malaria parasitaemia reported in 38.2% and 46.1% of febrile infants, respectively [1]. Concerns for fever by parents may be real or imagined ('fever phobia') and therefore assessment and monitoring of temperature is essential for decision making at home and hospital settings [2]. Determination of fever may be subjective and/or objective with caregivers, especially in developing countries relying mainly on tactile perception because of the relatively low level of literacy and the economic cost of reliable thermometers [3]. However, tactile assessment has the tendency to overestimate or underestimate the true core temperature [4]. In a recent study among 126 mothers-child pairs at a paediatric outpatient clinic in Nigeria, 79 out of 82 children who were truly febrile were correctly identified while 25 out of 44 who were non-febrile were reported to have had fever by mothers giving a sensitivity and specificity of 96.3% and 43.2%, respectively [5].Traditionally, rectal thermometry is the standard for assessment of core temperature and has be
Quality of Antenatal Care: Comparison between Secondary and Tertiary Health Facilities in Ibadan, Nigeria  [PDF]
Oluwasomidoyin Olukemi Bello
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2018.86063
Abstract: Background: Patient satisfaction is related to the quality of services received and the extent to which specific needs are met. Satisfied patients are likely to come back for the health services and recommend it to others. Objective: To assess and compare patients’ satisfaction with the quality of prenatal/antenatal care (QPC) services received at a tertiary and secondary health facility in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: A comparative cross sectional study used an interviewer administered questionnaire to assess and compare the quality of antenatal care among women who had antenatal care and delivered live baby in two government health facilities—Adeoyo Maternity Hospital (secondary health facility) and University College Hospital (tertiary health facility). A total of 500 women were interviewed within 48 hours post delivery and data obtained was analyzed with SPSS version 20. Results: The mean age was 29.7 (SD = 4.95) years. About half of the respondents had more than four antenatal visits, almost two-thirds (61.4%) were primipara, and 55.6% delivered per vagina. Almost all (98.4%) the women were very satisfied with the QPC received while a little above half (54.0%) received high QPC. Health facility and mode of delivery were found to be significantly associated with the satisfaction of the QPC. Factors predicting high QPC comparing the tertiary and secondary health facility are “availability” (OR = 0.341, 95%CI = 0.173 - 0.672) and “support and respect” (OR = 5.599, 95%CI = 3.621 - 8.659) of health care
Utilizing Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) as a Resolving Matrix in Parental Dispute DNA Analysis  [PDF]
George Gborienemi Simeon, Alade Tolulope Olukemi
American Journal of Molecular Biology (AJMB) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajmb.2018.83013
Abstract: Interest in DNA analysis using short tandem repeats (STR) as finger printing tools in forensic medicine has gained tremendous application, as expression of these nuclear factors have enhanced forensic examination. Here we used this Biochemical characterization after conventional extraction process, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), gel electrophoresiss and a sequencer to distinguish and resolve parental dispute. The differential migration of labeled DNA fragments which attains excitation energy with a laser elicits fluorescent light of different wavelength depending on the dye used. A data collection software (Genemapper) collects raw data (spectrograph) and converts it to an electropherogram that is interpreted. By comparing the DNA profiles, inclusion and exclusion criteria were elucidated to resolve disputes. The inherent discriminating power of STRs used in analysis enhances resolution of cell mixtures, genetic aberration, substantiation of tissue origin and provides genetic distinction which is a robust and reliable approach in resolving parental disputes.
Aeromonas- related diarrhoea in Nasarawa, Nigeria
Kandakai-Olukemi Y,Mawak J,Olukemi M,Ojumah S
Annals of African Medicine , 2007,
Abstract: Background : Two hundred and fifty volunteer patients attending 5 major hospitals in Nasarawa town, Nasarawa State, Nigeria were involved in this study to determine the prevalence of Aeromonas spp in persons with diarrhoea. The study population consisted of 133 males and 117 females between the ages of 0-70 years. Methods : Stool samples (148 diarrhoeal and 102 non-diarrhoeal) were analysed for the presence of Aeromonas spp. using standard bacteriological methods. The isolates were also subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disc diffusion method. Results : Four (1.60%) of the 250 stool samples were positive for Aeromonas spp. Three (2.03%) of the isolates were recovered from diarrhoeal specimens and 1 (0.98%) from non-diarrhoeal (control) samples. The difference was statistically significant (P< 0.05). The highest numbers of isolates 3 (3.66%) were recovered from age group 0-10 years while age group 61-70 years yielded 1 (14.29%). All isolates were found to be Aeromonas hydrophilia. The isolates were all sensitive to tetracycline, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole and streptomycin but resistant to penicillin and ampicillin. Other enteropathogens isolated were Shigella spp 5 (2.0%) and Salmonella spp 2(0.8%). Conclusion : This study has shown that a small percentage of gastroenteritis can be attributed to Aeromonas hydrophilia.
Modelling the Long Run Determinants of Domestic Private Investment in Nigeria
Kazeem Bello Ajide,Olukemi Lawanson
Asian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v8n13p139
Abstract: The paper seeks to model the long run determinants of domestic private investment in Nigeria over the period 1970 to 2010, employing advanced econometric technique of Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach. Emanated from the estimated models are intriguing findings which showed clearly that difference exist between long and short run determinants. Public investment, real GDP, real interest rate, exchange rate, credit to the private sector, terms of trade, external debts and reforms dummy are the key long run determinants of domestic private investment while public investment, real GDP and terms of trade are statistically significant in the short run. The policy prescriptions are that necessary infrastructures to complement domestic private investment should be put in place; that external debts be reduced to the barest minimum and negative effects of external shocks engendered by foreign direct investment uncertainty and deficit terms of trade should be prevented altogether.
Inflation Thresholds and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria
Kazeem Bello Ajide,Olukemi Lawanson
Asian Economic and Financial Review , 2012,
Abstract: Inflation is one of the most challenging macroeconomic objectives capable of frustrating every pragmatic effort at achieving other macroeconomics goals if not curtailed. To this end, the paper empirically examines the threshold inflation rate that is considered optimally reasonable for maintaining a sustainable economic growth. The study in specific terms employs a least square multivariate approach to estimate a threshold level of inflation. Further, error correction modeling (ECM) approach was explored to identify the long run relationship among other major determinants of real GDP growth using a simple augmented production function. In addition, a pairwise granger causality test was conducted to explore the causal link between the inflation and growth of real GDP. Interestingly, it was observed from the causality test that there was neither bidirectional nor unidirectional causality between the two but rather an independent relationship. The findings from least square estimation also established 9% threshold inflation level. The results from ECM confirmed the values of lagged of real GDP growth rates, investment, current inflation, population growth and terms of trade as important factors affecting growth rates of real GDP in Nigeria. Based on the outcome of the results it was therefore suggested that an identification of country-specific inflation thresholds in the inflation-growth relationship might provide useful information about the appropriate location and width of an inflation targeting band.
Diazinon mediated biochemical changes in the African toad (Bufo regularis)
Isioma Tongo,Lawrence Ezemonye,Uche Ochei
Journal of Xenobiotics , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/xeno.2012.e4
Abstract: The sublethal toxicity of diazinon to the adult African toad, Bufo regularis was assessed using an integration of biomarkers. Changes in acetylcholinesterase (AChE), corticosterone and total protein levels were assessed in the serum, brain, liver, lungs and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the results supported by bioaccumulation data. The biomarkers were chosen as indicators of key physiological functions: AChE for neurotoxicity, corticosterone and total protein levels as indicators of oxidative stress. Toads were exposed to 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04 g/L for 28 days. Brain AChE activity reduced by 96% in the highest concentration (0.04 g/L) compared to the control brain. Similarly, AChE activities in serum, liver, lungs and GIT tissues (88%, 88%, 87, 87% umg-1 protein respectively) were also inhibited in the toads. Corticosterone and total protein levels in the tissues decreased compared to the control. The accumulation results obtained showed accumulation in the tissues (liver>serum>brain> lung>GIT), with a direct relationship between tissue concentration and changes in the biochemical indices. The alterations in all the indices were significantly concentration dependent. The biomarkers described in this study could be useful complementary indices in the risk assessment of diazinon pesticide.
Restorative Prospective of Powdered Seeds Extract of Garcinia kola in Chrysichthys furcatus Induced with Glyphosate Formulation
T. O. Ikpesu,I. Tongo,A. Ariyo
Chinese Journal of Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/854157
Abstract: Responses of Chrysichthys furcatus to glyphosate formulation and Garcinia kola seed extracts were investigated using the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development numbers 203 and 407 recommended toxicity bioassay. The fish were divided into five groups and exposed to different treatments of glyphosate formulation and Garcinia kola seed extract, with the control serving as a reference. Water quality parameters and blood chemistry were estimated in the experimental and control fish at the end of 28 days. There was no significant difference ( ) between fish treated with glyphosate formulation alone and other treatments except for dissolved oxygen which was highly significant ( ) between fish treated with glyphosate formulation alone and other treatments and the control. All the blood parameters were significantly ( ) affected by glyphosate formulation when compared with the control. The changes observed in glyphosate formulation alone were reversible when G. kola seeds extract was added and was dose dependent. The plant’s extract has shown to be a good remedy to pollutants, and formulations of the seed extract into tablets or capsules could serve as antidote to ameliorate the effects of pollutants. This finding can reduce the risk of biomagnifications of poisons along the food chain. 1. Introduction In the last few years there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine and these drugs are gaining popularity both in developing and developed countries because of their natural origin and less side effects [1]. Herbal products cause few adverse effects but have beneficial pharmacological and therapeutic uses in a number of illnesses, including HIV where they have been examined for their capacity to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life [2]. The literature review had shown that oral administration of an aqueous T. cordifolia root extract to alloxan diabetic rats caused a significant reduction in blood glucose and brain lipids. Though the aqueous extract at a dose of 400?mg/kg could elicit significant antihyperglycemic effect in different animal models, its effect was equivalent to only one unit/kg of insulin [3]. It is reported that the daily administration of either alcoholic or aqueous extract of T. cordifolia decreases the blood glucose level and increases glucose tolerance in rodents [4]. Also, oral administration of 2 and 8?g/kg of plant extract of fenugreek seeds produced dose dependent decrease in the blood glucose levels in both normal diabetic rats [5]. The plant’s seed extract also improved glucose metabolism and
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