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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 118068 matches for " Olli T. Raitakari "
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Is There an Association between Temperament and Apolipoprotein E?
A Replication of a 1993 Young Finns Study

Aino M. Pitk?nen, P?ivi Merjonen, Liisa Keltikangas-J?rvinen, Ilkka Sepp?l?, Terho Lehtim?ki, Jorma Viikari, Olli T. Raitakari, Mirka Hintsanen
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.32020

Background: An association between apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene polymorphism and temperament has been found in the Young Finns cohort. Motor activity in childhood and mental vitality, sociability and positive emotionality in adolescence were associated with apoE. Two research groups have attempted to replicate these findings but no associations have been found. Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to confirm the original findings with new and more reliable genotyping from a larger sample derived from the same Young Finns Study as the original finding.Methods: The study included 2808 participants aged 3 - 18 years in 1980. The same methods in assessing temperament were used as in the original study. Temperament was operationalized as motor activity, cooperativeness, negative emotionality, mental vitality, sociability and positive emotionality. Temperament was assessed by participants’ mothers in 1980 and 1983 and self-rated in 1983 by adolescent participants. Results: Motor activity was not associated with apoE polymerphisms. All other previous results were replicated. Adolescents’ positive emotionality, mental vitality and sociability were associated with apoE. Conclusions: The results indicated that there is an association between temperament and apoE. The previous absence of association between temperament and apoE in the replication studies may be due to the fact that researchers used different dimensions of temperament and thus probably studied different phenomena. Cultural differences in personality assessment might also explain the contradictory findings.

Convergent Validity of a Physical Activity Questionnaire against Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Adults: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study  [PDF]
Mirja Hirvensalo, Costan G. Magnussen, Xiaolin Yang, Risto Telama, Ilkka Heinonen, Nina Hutri-K?h?nen, Kasper Salin, Jorma Viikari, Olli T. Raitakari, Tuija H. Tammelin
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2017.74038
Abstract: Background: Traditionally, a self-reported questionnaire has been a cost-effective method of gathering information about physical activity (PA). An objective measurement, such as the use of a pedometer, can be used to validate the findings of a PA questionnaire in a large population. Objective: The study objective was to determine the convergent validity of a PA questionnaire against objectively measured PA in adults obtained with the use of a pedometer. Methods: Data from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (YFS) were collected from 1853 participants aged 30 - 45 years. The participants completed a self-reported questionnaire that included items on leisure time, commuting and habitual PA. PA was expressed as leisure-time?physical activity index (PAI) and metabolic equivalent hours/week?(METh/wk). The participants wore a pedometer for seven consecutive days and used it to record their total daily and aerobic steps. Results: There was a low to moderate association between the self-reported questionnaire and pedometer measurements regarding both total steps and aerobic steps taken during leisure time and commuting PA. An association was not observed between pedometer data and habitual PA. Of the individual items in the questionnaire, questions that described the frequency of PA and the duration of vigorous PA correlated the most strongly with the pedometer values obtained for total and aerobic steps (r = 0.28 - 0.44, p ≤ 0.010). Conclusions: These findings suggest that the YFS PA questionnaire showed
Chronic Stress and the Development of Early Atherosclerosis: Moderating Effect of Endothelial Dysfunction and Impaired Arterial Elasticity
Nadja Chumaeva,Mirka Hintsanen,Niklas Ravaja,Markus Juonala,Olli T. Raitakari,Liisa Keltikangas-J?rvinen
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph6122934
Abstract: This study aims to explore the interactive effect of vital exhaustion (VE) and endothelial dysfunction on preclinical atherosclerosis, assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Furthermore, interaction between VE and carotid elasticity is examined. Participants were 1,596 young healthy adults from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. Endothelial dysfunction was measured by brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), and carotid elasticity by carotid artery compliance (CAC). Significant interactions between FMD and VE, and between CAC and VE, for IMT were found in participants with the very lowest FMD and CAC. Thus, VE may be harmful if the endothelium is not working properly.
Sex differences in the combined effect of chronic stress with impaired vascular endothelium functioning and the development of early atherosclerosis: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study
Nadja Chumaeva, Mirka Hintsanen, Markus Juonala, Olli T Raitakari, Liisa Keltikangas-J?rvinen
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-10-34
Abstract: The participants were 1002 women and 719 men aged 24-39 examined in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. Vital exhaustion was measured using the Maastricht Questionnaire. Preclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), endothelial function was measured by brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), and arterial elasticity by carotid artery compliance (CAC) using ultrasound techniques.We found a significant CAC x VE interaction for IMT only for the men. Our results imply that high VE level significantly related to high IMT levels among the men with low CAC, but not among the women with low CAC or among the women or men with high CAC. No significant FMD x VE interactions for IMT for the women or men were found.High VE may exert an effect on IMT for men with impaired arterial elasticity. The results suggest that high vitally exhausted men with reduced arterial elasticity are at increased risk of atherosclerosis in early life and imply men's decreased stress coping in relation to stressful psychological coronary risk factors.Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the industrialized world [1]. Atherosclerosis is the pathogenic process that underlies most cardiovascular diseases, including the pathology of CHD [2]. According to the prognosis of the World Health Organization, stressful life events and chronic psychosocial stress will be the most harmful risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases in the near future [3]. Recent studies have shown that chronic life stress is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular mortality [4], and chronic psychosocial stress has been found to contribute on endothelial dysfunction [5], fostering, therefore, the progression of atherosclerosis [6].It is known that endothelial dysfunction is a marker of cardiovascular [7] and atherosclerotic [8] risk and it triggers the first step of atherosclerosis [9]. The alterations in the functioning of t
Early atherosclerosis and cardiac autonomic responses to mental stress: a population-based study of the moderating influence of impaired endothelial function
Nadja Chumaeva, Mirka Hintsanen, Taina Hintsa, Niklas Ravaja, Markus Juonala, Olli T Raitakari, Liisa Keltikangas-J?rvinen
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-10-16
Abstract: Participants were 81 healthy young adults aged 24-39 years. Preclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and endothelial function was measured as flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) using ultrasound techniques. We also measured heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and pre-ejection period (PEP) in response to the mental arithmetic and speech tasks.We found a significant interaction of FMD and cardiac RSA recovery for IMT (p = 0.037), and a significant interaction of FMD and PEP recovery for IMT (p = 0.006). Among participants with low FMD, slower PEP recovery was related to higher IMT. Among individuals with high FMD, slow RSA recovery predicted higher IMT. No significant interactions of FMD and cardiac reactivity for IMT were found.Cardiac recovery plays a role in atherosclerosis development in persons with high and low FMD. The role of sympathetically mediated cardiac activity seems to be more important in those with impaired FMD, and parasympathetically mediated in those with relatively high FMD. The development of endothelial dysfunction may be one possible mechanism linking slow cardiac recovery and atherosclerosis via autonomic nervous system mediated effect.Mental stress has been shown to be a risk factor for atherosclerosis [1]. Acute mental stress may induce myocardial infarction [2] or sudden cardiac death [3]. It has been found to impair the parameters of endothelial health, reducing flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) [4,5]. Brachial FMD is an adequate non-invasive measure of endothelial function [6] and reduced brachial FMD reflects endothelial dysfunction [6,7]. Endothelial dysfunction is a marker of cardiovascular risk [6,7] and may be considered as an indicator of atherosclerotic events in later stages in life [8]. Brachial FMD as well as carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) are important non-invasive markers of subclinical atherosclerosis [7,9]. Increased carotid IMT correlates with coronary atherosclerosis [10] a
Moderation of Breastfeeding Effects on Adult Depression by Estrogen Receptor Gene Polymorphism
P?ivi Merjonen,Markus Jokela,Johanna Salo,Terho Lehtim?ki,Jorma Viikari,Olli T. Raitakari,Mirka Hintsanen,Liisa Keltikangas-J?rvinen
Child Development Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/290862
Abstract: Breastfeeding is known to benefit both the mother’s and the child’s health. Our aim was to test the interactive effects between estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) rs2234693 and breastfeeding when predicting the child’s later depression in adulthood. A sample of 1209 boys and girls from the Young Finns Study were followed from childhood over 27 years up to age 30–45 years. Adulthood depressive symptoms were self-reported by the participants using the Beck Depression Inventory. Breastfeeding as well as several possibly confounding factors was reported by the parents in childhood or adolescence. Breastfeeding tended to predict lower adult depression, while ESR1 rs2234693 was not associated with depression. A significant interaction between breastfeeding and ESR1 was found to predict participants’ depression ( ) so that C/C genotype carriers who had not been breastfed had higher risk of depression than T-allele carriers (40.5% versus 13.0%) while there were no genotypic differences among those who had been breastfed. In sex-specific analysis, this interaction was evident only among women. We conclude that child’s genes and maternal behavior may interact in the development of child’s adult depression so that breastfeeding may buffer the inherited depression risk possibly associated with the C/C genotype of the ESR1 gene. 1. Introduction Depression is a major mental health problem in western countries, affecting working-age young adults in particular [1]. The etiology of depression is complex and involves genetic, neurobiological, psychological, and social factors. Furthermore, recent research has demonstrated that adult vulnerability to depression may have its origins already in early childhood [2], which emphasizes the value of life-course studies of depression. A large research literature has investigated the potential role of maternal behavior in the development of children’s mental and behavioral problems. In particular, breastfeeding has been shown to have beneficial effects for children’s physical health and cognitive development [3–5]. Emerging evidence suggests that breastfeeding might also have favorable effects on children’s mental health. In a study on 5-year-olds, breastfeeding duration was associated with lower prevalence of children’s mental health problems [6]. Other studies demonstrated that children who had not been breastfed in infancy had a higher risk for clinical depression in early adulthood [7] and hostility in adulthood [8]. However, genetic background may determine, in part, the sensitivity and responsiveness of individuals to environmental
Does neuregulin-1 play a role in Type A behavior? The cardiovascular risk in young Finns study
Helena M Service, Mirka Hintsanen, Taina Hintsa, Terho Lehtim?ki, Olli T Raitakari, Jorma S Viikari, Liisa Keltikangas-J?rvinen
Behavioral and Brain Functions , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-4-40
Abstract: The study examined whether Type A behavior pattern is associated with the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) SNP8NRG221533 of the NRG1. The subjects were 631 men and women participating in the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study in 1992 and 2001. Type A was self-assessed with the Framingham Type A Scale and reassessed nine years later.Type A was associated with NRG1 genotype. Carriers of genotype CC scored lower on Type A compared to the others.Our study has pinpointed a SNP in NRG1 that predicts Type A behavior. As previous evidence suggests an association for NRG1 with beta-adrenergic stimulation, its role underlying Type A is discussed.Type A behavior, originally described as a behavioral pattern comprising impatience, hard driving and a sense of hurry [1], was considered in the 60s and 70s as a major behavioral risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). It was believed to have a similar effect on cardiovascular risk as the more traditional risk factors, such as elevated systolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and smoking [2].In the 1980's, however, most studies failed to confirm an association between Type A behavior and CHD [3]. In 1999, the review by Hemingway and Marmot [4] concluded that a contribution of Type A behavior in pathogenesis of CHD has not been scholarly proved, while in 2000's, new evidence on an association between Type A and atherosclerosis has been, again, elicited [5].Vagueness of the Type A concept may at least partly, explain these conflicting findings. There is a disagreement whether Type A mainly refers to emotions, attitudes, behavioral styles, or innate dispositions, and what is the contribution of those dimensions to the final concept. If Type A behavior, or any dimension of it, could be anchored to genetic background, this might establish its content. More important, identifying functional genes related to Type A behavior might increase our knowledge about mechanisms through which Type A could be associ
Effects of cognac on coronary flow reserve and plasma antioxidant status in healthy young men
Tuomas O Kiviniemi, Antti Saraste, Jyri O Toikka, Markku Saraste, Olli T Raitakari, Jussi P P?rkk?, Terho Lehtim?ki, Jaakko J Hartiala, Jorma Viikari, Juha W Koskenvuo
Cardiovascular Ultrasound , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1476-7120-6-25
Abstract: Study group consisted of 23 subjects. Coronary flow velocity and epicardial diameter was assessed using transthoracic echocardiography at rest, during CPT and adenosine infusion-derived CFR measurements before drinking, after a moderate (1.2 ± 0.1 dl) and an escalating high dose (total amount 2.4 ± 0.3 dl) of cognac. To explore the bioavailability of antioxidants, the antioxidant contents of cognac was measured and the absorption from the digestive tract was verified by plasma antioxidant capacity determination.Serum alcohol levels increased to 1.2 ± 0.2‰ and plasma antioxidant capacity from 301 ± 43.9 μmol/l to 320 ± 25.0 μmol/l by 7.6 ± 11.8%, (p = 0.01) after high doses of cognac. There was no significant change in flow velocity during CPT after cognac ingestion compared to control day. CFR was 4.4 ± 0.8, 4.1 ± 0.9 (p = NS), and 4.5 ± 1.2 (p = NS) before drinking and after moderate and high doses on cognac day, and 4.5 ± 1.4, and 4.0 ± 1.2 (p = NS) on control day.Cognac increased plasma antioxidant capacity, but it had no effect on coronary circulation in healthy young men.NCT00330213Moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with reduced coronary artery disease mortality [1,2]. The cardioprotective effects of alcoholic beverages are partly related to their polyphenol content, which may be associated with improved vasodilatory reactivity of arteries [3,4]. A moderate (ethanol 0.5 g/kg) [5] and a high dose of red wine (ethanol 1.0 g/kg) has been shown to increase coronary flow reserve (CFR), but pure vodka and white wine had not such effect [3]. The effects of cognac on coronary circulation, however, have not been evaluated, although many elderly patients with coronary artery disease drink habitually cognac to releave cardiac symptoms.The beneficial endothelial effects of polyphenol containing beverages, such as red wine, have been attributed to both ethanol and antioxidative polyphenols [6,7]. However, their relative contributions in vivo remain to be establis
Pairwise Measures of Causal Direction in the Epidemiology of Sleep Problems and Depression
Tom Rosenstr?m, Markus Jokela, Sampsa Puttonen, Mirka Hintsanen, Laura Pulkki-R?back, Jorma S. Viikari, Olli T. Raitakari, Liisa Keltikangas-J?rvinen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050841
Abstract: Depressive mood is often preceded by sleep problems, suggesting that they increase the risk of depression. Sleep problems can also reflect prodromal symptom of depression, thus temporal precedence alone is insufficient to confirm causality. The authors applied recently introduced statistical causal-discovery algorithms that can estimate causality from cross-sectional samples in order to infer the direction of causality between the two sets of symptoms from a novel perspective. Two common-population samples were used; one from the Young Finns study (690 men and 997 women, average age 37.7 years, range 30–45), and another from the Wisconsin Longitudinal study (3101 men and 3539 women, average age 53.1 years, range 52–55). These included three depression questionnaires (two in Young Finns data) and two sleep problem questionnaires. Three different causality estimates were constructed for each data set, tested in a benchmark data with a (practically) known causality, and tested for assumption violations using simulated data. Causality algorithms performed well in the benchmark data and simulations, and a prediction was drawn for future empirical studies to confirm: for minor depression/dysphoria, sleep problems cause significantly more dysphoria than dysphoria causes sleep problems. The situation may change as depression becomes more severe, or more severe levels of symptoms are evaluated; also, artefacts due to severe depression being less well presented in the population data than minor depression may intervene the estimation for depression scales that emphasize severe symptoms. The findings are consistent with other emerging epidemiological and biological evidence.
Exploring Causality between TV Viewing and Weight Change in Young and Middle-Aged Adults. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study
Harri Helaj?rvi, Tom Rosenstr?m, Katja Pahkala, Mika K?h?nen, Terho Lehtim?ki, Olli J. Heinonen, Mervi Oikonen, Tuija Tammelin, Jorma S. A. Viikari, Olli T. Raitakari
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101860
Abstract: Background Television viewing time (TV time) is associated with increased weight and obesity, but it is unclear whether this relation is causal. Methods and Results We evaluated changes in TV time, waist circumference (waist) and body mass index (BMI) in participants of the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study (761 women, 626 men aged 33–50 years in 2011). Waist and BMI were measured, and TV time was self-reported in 2001, 2007, and 2011. Changes in waist and BMI between 2001 and 2011 were studied a) for the whole group, b) in groups with constantly low (≤1 h/d), moderate (1–3 h/d), or high (≥3 h/d) TV time, and c) in groups with ≥1 hour in-/decrease in daily TV time between 2001 and 2011. BMIs in 1986 were also evaluated. We explored the causal relationship of TV time with waist and BMI by classical temporality criterion and recently introduced causal-discovery algorithms (pairwise causality measures). Both methods supported the hypothesis that TV time is causative to weight gain, and no evidence was found for reverse or bidirectional causality. Constantly low TV time was associated with less pronounced increase in waist and BMI, and waist and BMI increase was lower with decreased TV time (P<0.05). The increase in waist and BMI was at least 2-fold in the high TV time group compared to the low TV time group (P<0.05). Adjustment for age, sex, BMI/waist in 2001, physical activity, energy intake, or smoking did not change the results. Conclusions In young and middle-aged adults, constantly high TV time is temporally antecedent to BMI and waist increase.
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