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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 876 matches for " Olivia "
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The Impact of Political Reforms in Improving Quality Health Services: The Case Study of Shamva District  [PDF]
Olivia Gumbo
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2019.92023
Abstract: Zimbabweans continue to experience challenges in combating communicable diseases such as tuberculosis, diarrheal diseases, and HIV/AIDS. The country’s health sector decentralisation implementation is moving at a snail’s speed, triggering complaints of unsatisfactory service delivery at rural health centres. The study examined the impact of political reforms in improving quality health services in Shamva District. The identified political reforms were decentralisation and the second republic that emerged in November 2018 that embraced the 100-day plans approach, civil service reform agenda, development of transitional stabilisation plan and vision 2030 agenda. The study was guided by interpretive and critical post-modernist paradigms. Qualitative methodology was utilised; key informant interviews, focus group discussion and desk reviews were data generation tools that were utilised. The data generated were analysed using grounded theory. The key findings are that decentralisation enabled district health officials to interact with communities through social accountability strategies such as community scorecard, results-based financing and village health worker model that is implemented in Shamva District by Civil Society Organisations. The second republic political reforms enforced the user fee policy in the health sector and focused on improving primary health care. The political reforms led to improved health rights knowledge of communities and quality health services in Shamva District. The study concluded that lack of continuous funding and sustainable plans led to the reversal of positive results that were brought in by the political reforms. The major recommendation is that government should understand that service delivery is not poor by accident; rather it is a symptom of the
Antimicrobial Resistance and β-Lactamase Production among Hospital Dumpsite Isolates  [PDF]
Olivia Sochi Egbule
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.77094

Metallo-β-Lactamases (MBLs) and Extended Spectrum β-Lactamses (ESBLs) have emerged world-wide as a significant source of β-lactam resistance. The emergence of MBLs and ESBLs encoded on plasmids among Gram-negative pathogens in hospital dumpsites was investigated. Soils of different government and private hospitals were collected and processed following standard bacteriological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by the disk-diffusion technique using Ceftazidime (30 μg), Cefuroxime (30 μg), Cefotaxime (30 μg), Cefixime (5 μg), Trimethprim-sulfamethoxazole (25 μg), Gentamycin (100 μg) Amoxicillin-Clavunalate (30 μg), Ciprofloxacin (5 μg), Ofloxacin (5 μg), Nitrofurantoin (300 μg) and Imipenem (10 μg). The role of plasmids in resistance was evaluated by subjecting isolates to curing using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS). ESBLs production by Double-Disk Synergy Test (DDST) was carried out. Isolates resistant to Imipenem were subjected to a confirmatory test using Modified Hodge’s test and to MBLs production by DDST. Eighty-two Gram-negative isolates comprising of 32 (39.02%) Escherichia coli, 20 (24.39%) Serratia marcescens, 14 (17.07%) Klebsiella pneumonia, 10 (12.28%) Proteus mirabilis and 6 (7.32%) Enterobacter aerogenes were obtained. Susceptibility results revealed a 100% resistance of all isolates to Ceftazidime, Cefuroxime, Cefixime, Amoxycillin-clavulanate and Cefotaxime. A total of 66 (80.48%) isolates harboured plasmids out of which 26 (31.71%) isolates were ESBL producers. MBLs production was observed in 8 (25.00%) E. coli, 2 (2.41%) Klebsiella pneumonia and 2 (2.41%) Proteus mirabilis isolates. All MBLs producing isolates were ESBLs producers. The finding of highly resistant isolates producing ESBLs and MBLs in a hospital environment is quite disturbing and should be addressed urgently.

Detection and Transfer of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase Enzymes from Untreated Hospital Waste Water  [PDF]
Olivia Sochi Egbule
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2016.67051
Abstract: Untreated Hospital wastewater piped into septic tanks contributes to the spread of antibiotic resistance in developing countries. This study was conducted to determine the resistant profile, and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBLs) production in isolates from hospital waste water, of 2 hospitals in Delta State, Nigeria. A total of 147 organisms were isolated from 32 waste water samples. One hundred and twenty three isolates were Gram negative and 24 were Gram positive. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent in the two locations. Antimicrobial susceptibility by standard disk diffusion method was performed. All isolates were resistant to 4 or more antimicrobial agents. Out of the 123 Gram negative Bacteria, 33 were pan drug resistant and were selected for plasmid curing, DNA extraction and phenotypic detection of ESBL. Transfer of resistant by broth mating technique was performed. Plasmid curing and extraction result indicated that isolates carried resistance on the plasmid and harboured similar multiple high molecular weight plasmids of 23.13 kb and 9.4 kb. ESBL production was detected in 15.15%. Transfer of resistant genes between ESBL producing and non-ESBL producing isolates was observed. Incidence of ESBL in untreated hospital waste water has public health implications. Therefore establishment of treatment plants in our hospital is paramount in achieving sustainable health.
Chungará (Arica) , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-73562010000100031
Abstract: sixteenth century sources associate the notion of labour in the andes with that of enjoyment, while most colonial spaniards and modern anthropologists see it as obligatory, ignoring its ritual dimensions. generally speaking, western theorists of labour, whether marxist or not, link labour and production with alienation. drawing on her fieldwork experience, the author notes that there is no aymara word for labour in general. more important is the purpose and beneficiary of labour. andeans not only value labour aimed at strengthening their own social networks, but more specifically labour that benefits the community to which they belong. the andean ethic of labour therefore leads it to be considered as a blessing, in opposition to judaeo-christian ways of considering it as a curse.
Pensadoras de peso: o pensamento de Judith Butler e Adriana Cavarero
Guaraldo, Olivia;
Revista Estudos Feministas , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-026X2007000300010
Abstract: the work presents the standpoint of two important contemporary feminist philosophers, adriana cavarero and judith butler, on subjectivity and relationality, showing how both moved away from the specific feminism motif in order to deepen and broaden their reflection on politics and ethics. calling tradition into question, cavarero agrees neither with the metaphysical binary, nor with the post-modern impersonality, combining a feminist and the arendtian perspectives of the subjectivity based on relationality. contrary to cavarero's thought, though, under butler's deconstructionist standpoint language shapes body and identity. subjectivity is "trapped" into social norms and values. both butler and cavarero rethink subjectivity based on relationality, that is, displacing politics from the immune individual and reallocating it on the vulnerable individual in relation with the other and with the social rules and values imposed on them.
Evaluación de un Sistema Discontinuo de Biodigestión Anaerobia para el tratamiento de desechos avicolas
Revista de la Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad Central de Venezuela , 2005,
Abstract: in the present study, carried out in guanare (venezuela), in the period between november 1998 and march 1999, the application of an anaerobic digestion process in a discontinuous flow (batch) system was evaluated for the treatment of hen manure and rice hulls, with the purpose of stabilization, biogas production and pathogen control. the main biogas production (0,249 m3/m3d) was obtained with a combination of the evaluated materials, in a retention time of 60 days. in the bacteriological study, we found bacteria of the escherichia, proteus, enterobacter and klebsiella groups. salmonella was not found. the parasitological study reported ascaridia, trichostrongylus, heterakis and eimeria. among the conclusions reached, we emphasize that the anaerobic mesophilic process exercises scarce control over bacteria of the enterobacteriaceae group, and no control was observed over the parasite eggs found. therefore, further studies into these aspects is considered important, so as to find alternatives of control and recommendations for a safe handling of manure.
Profile: Olivia Anderson
Olivia Anderson
Partnership : the Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research , 2011,
Les démographes et le temps Demographers and Time
Olivia Samuel
Temporalités , 2009,
Abstract: Cet article présente la fa on dont les démographes ont pris en compte la question du temps dans leurs travaux depuis l’après seconde guerre. Le temps, dimension centrale de la démographie, est à la fois un élément constitutif des instruments de mesure des phénomènes démographiques et un objet d’étude en soi. Les modalités de la prise en compte du temps ont considérablement évolué depuis les années 1950. L’approche synchronique, la plus fréquente alors, va être complétée par l’approche longitudinale, puis biographique et enfin multi-niveaux. A chacune de ces étapes, la question du temps (individuel ou collectif), de sa mesure et de sa signification, fait l’objet d’une réflexion qui rappellera la complexité de son appréhension. Après avoir mis en lumière ces étapes, l’article examine différents travaux démographiques qui ont pris le temps et les temporalités sociales comme objet d’étude, notamment au travers du repérage de l’age, de l’appartenance générationnelle ou encore des marqueurs de transitions. This article shows how demographers have dealt with the question of time since WWII. Time, a central dimension of demography, has been both a tool for measuring demographic phenomena and an object of study in itself, and the ways it has been taken into account have considerably developed since the 1950s. The most usual point of view at the time, which was synchronic, was later to be completed by a longitudinal, then biographical and finally multi-faceted approach. At each of these stages, the question of time (individual or collective), as well as of how to measure it and how to evaluate its significance, came under more scrutiny, reminding use how complex an object it is to grasp. After a review of these various stages, the paper examines those demographic studies that have focused on time and social temporalities, particularly through the factors of age, generation or transition markers.
Crescere errando: minori immigrati non accompagnati" (Clara Silva - Giovanna Campani)
Olivia Salimbeni
m@gm@ , 2005,
Abstract: La presenza in Italia di minori immigrati non accompagnati è un fenomeno recente e tuttavia in forte crescita. Questo testo raccoglie i risultati di quella che potremmo definire la seconda di tre tappe di una ricerca europea incentrata sullo studio del fenomeno dei minori immigrati non accompagnati, avviata nel 2000 e da poco terminata. L’indagine è stata svolta nel quadro di finanziamento del 'Programma Daphne' della Commissione Europea e ha riguardato nelle prime due fasi tre realtà europee, Italia, Germania e Finlandia e nella terza altre realtà quali il Portogallo, la Spagna, la Francia e la Grecia.
Piccoli schiavi senza frontiere: il traffico dei minori stranieri in Italia (Francesco Carchedi)
Olivia Salimbeni
m@gm@ , 2006,
Abstract: Il fenomeno del traffico di esseri umani in Italia, in particolare di donne e minori, ha assunto, e in misura crescente negli ultimi dieci anni, proporzioni tali da preoccupare governi e istituzioni di controllo e da indurre un ricorso a misure sempre più severe di contrasto contro le organizzazioni che lo gestiscono. Il traffico degli esseri umani e della prostituzione coercitiva appare come la nuova frontiera che scaturisce dai processi di globalizzazione selvaggia tesi ad alimentare settori significativi del mercato mondiale del crimine organizzato. Si tratta ormai di un’emergenza sociale che ripropone con forza nel terzo millennio condizioni di grave sfruttamento, configurabile come para-schiavistiche, proprie del secolo scorso.
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