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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 302166 matches for " Oliver J. Mason "
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Applying Positive Psychology Principles to Soccer Interventions for People with Mental Health Difficulties  [PDF]
Bettina Friedrich, Oliver J. Mason
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.93023
Abstract: Adjunct exercise interventions for people with mental health difficulties have been shown to improve well-being while also increasing physical and social health. Soccer as a team sport is a particularly apt form of group-based exercise as it fosters social inclusion and communication skills potentially also across cultural and socio-economic barriers. We discuss how some exercise interventions such as those using soccer are potentially well-aligned with concepts from Positive Psychology such as Seligman’s five elements (PERMA) that determine “Eudaimonia” (a good life): Positive emotions (P), Engagement and Flow (E), Positive Relationships (R), Meaning (M), and Accomplishment (A). In the present study the perceived life improvements reported by participants of a London-based soccer intervention “Coping Through Football” (CTF) are analysed for content using these five elements. All but Meaning (M) could be identified clearly; Positive Relationship (R) and Accomplishment (A) were the most commonly reported components. The PERMA model offers a potentially highly relevant framework to measure changes in well-being in participants of adjunct physical exercise treatments in mental health. Further quantitative and qualitative evaluation using the PERMA categories has the clear potential to inform policy and funding decisions in the growing area of psychosocial interventions in public mental health.
Die Nutzung der Achtsamkeits-Meditation im Gesundheitswesen: Kann das Verfahren der Protokollanalyse zur Triangulation einer Untersuchung mit Grounded Theory genutzt werden? The Application of Mindfulness Meditation in Mental Health: Can Protocol Analysis Help Triangulate a Grounded Theory Approach? La aplicación de "Mindfulness Meditation" en el sector de la salud: Puede ayudar el análisis de protocolo a triangular un abordaje planteado desde la Grounded Theory?
Oliver J. Mason
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2002,
Abstract: In einer Studie über Achtsamkeits-Meditation, wie sie von Teilnehmer(inne)n mit einer Vorgeschichte von Depression praktiziert wird, wurden die Methoden der Grounded Theory und der Protokollanalyse trianguliert. Die Protokollanalyse ist eine empirische qualitative Methode (mit einem quantitativen Teil), die für eine Triangulation mit anderen qualitativen Methoden wie der Grounded Theory bisher noch wenig berücksichtigt wurde. Die Protokollanalyse wurde auf Daten angewendet, die mit Hilfe der Technik des "lauten Denkens" im Rahmen einer Phase einer instruktionsgeleiteten Meditation gewonnen worden waren. Die Reliabilit t eines einfachen Kodiersystems erwies sich als vielversprechend und deutete darauf hin, dass aufgabenbezogene mentale Aktivit ten auf einem einfachen, deskriptiven Niveau kodiert werden k nnen. Die Ergebnisse der Protokollanalyse werden im Licht der Kategorien diskutiert, die mit Hilfe der Grounded Theory entwickelt und an anderer Stelle beschrieben wurden. Der Grad der übereinstimmung und die gegenseitige Unterstützung waren bezüglich zweier Aspekte frappierend: Erstens spiegelten sich die Erfahrungen der Teilnehmer in beiden Methoden wieder. Zweitens wurden verschiedene Kategorien der Theorie durch die Protokollanalyse erkl rt und exemplifiziert. Einige potentielle Schwierigkeiten beim Vergleich von Ergebnissen aus unterschiedlichen Methoden werden diskutiert. Als zus tzliche Begrenzung stellte sich heraus, dass eine erweiterte Quantifizierung der Kodekategorien aus der Protokollanalyse nicht m glich war. Es wird jedoch angenommen, dass aus einer zukünftigen Theorie überprüfbare Hypothesen abgeleitet werden k nnen, so dass die Protokollanalyse als ein st rker formalisierter Test der Theorie genutzt werden kann. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs020119 The methods of Grounded Theory and Protocol Analysis were triangulated in a study of mindfulness meditation as used by participants with a history of depression. Protocol analysis is an empiricist qualitative method (with an element of quantification) that has received little attention as a source of triangulation with other qualitative approaches such as grounded theory. Protocol analysis was applied to data collected using a "talk aloud" technique applied to a period of instruction-based meditation. The reliability of a simple coding system was encouraging and suggested that task-related mental activity can be coded at a simple descriptive level. The results of protocol analysis were discussed in the light of categories derived from a grounded theory account described elsewhere. The degree of corre
DEVELOPING SOFTWARE FOR CORPUS RESEARCH
Oliver Mason
International Journal of English Studies (IJES) , 2008, DOI: 10.6018/ijes.8.1.49141
Abstract: Despite the central role of the computer in corpus research, programming is generally not seen as a core skill within corpus linguistics. As a consequence, limitations in software for text and corpus analysis slow down the progress of research while analysts often have to rely on third party software or even manual data analysis if no suitable software is available. Apart from software itself, data formats are also of great importance for text processing. But again, many practitioners are not very aware of the options available to them, and thus idiosyncratic text formats often make sharing of resources difficult if not impossible. This article discusses some issues relating to both data and processing which should aid researchers to become more aware of the choices available to them when it comes to using computers in linguistic research. It also describes an easy way towards automating some common text processing tasks that can easily be acquired without knowledge of actual computer programming.
The Psychotomimetic Nature of Dreams: An Experimental Study
Oliver Mason,Dominic Wakerley
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/872307
Abstract: Several theories promote the similarities between dreaming and psychosis, but this has rarely been tested empirically. We assessed dreaming and waking reality using the Psychotomimetic States Inventory, a measure of psychotic-like experience originally designed for drug studies. Twenty participants completed the measure in each of two dream conditions and one waking condition. Dreams were assessed upon waking naturally and also using a movement-activated (actigraph) alarm during the night. Overall, participants reported more quasipsychotic characteristics during dreams (in both conditions) than when awake. This was most marked for paranoia and delusional thinking, but differences were also seen for perceptual abnormalities, mania, and anhedonia. The quality of dream experience seems particularly similar to psychosis in sometimes being highly self-referential and having a paranoid content. Subjective changes to cognition and affect are consistent with alterations in prefrontal cortical activity during REM sleep that mirror those of schizophrenia.
The Psychotomimetic Nature of Dreams: An Experimental Study
Oliver Mason,Dominic Wakerley
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/872307
Abstract: Several theories promote the similarities between dreaming and psychosis, but this has rarely been tested empirically. We assessed dreaming and waking reality using the Psychotomimetic States Inventory, a measure of psychotic-like experience originally designed for drug studies. Twenty participants completed the measure in each of two dream conditions and one waking condition. Dreams were assessed upon waking naturally and also using a movement-activated (actigraph) alarm during the night. Overall, participants reported more quasipsychotic characteristics during dreams (in both conditions) than when awake. This was most marked for paranoia and delusional thinking, but differences were also seen for perceptual abnormalities, mania, and anhedonia. The quality of dream experience seems particularly similar to psychosis in sometimes being highly self-referential and having a paranoid content. Subjective changes to cognition and affect are consistent with alterations in prefrontal cortical activity during REM sleep that mirror those of schizophrenia. 1. Introduction and Methods The phenomenological similarity between the dream state and psychosis has been often remarked upon but rarely empirically tested. Kant declared “the lunatic is a wakeful dreamer,” while Schopenhauer said “a dream is a short-lasting psychosis, and a psychosis is a long-lasting dream.” Perhaps the most developed neurobiological account, Hobson [1] has advanced a recent hypothesis of the dreaming brain as a model of psychosis, suggesting dreams mimic the distortion of reality seen in the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, though he prefers the term “delirium.” “In dreams, as in delirium, consciousness is clouded, attention is distractible, intellectual functions are dull, perceptions are hallucinatory, cognition is illogical, emotion is unstable and uncontrolled, memory is poor, and thought processes are at a concrete, not a symbolic, level” [2, page 23]. Although in some ways adversaries of Hobson’s wider model (see [3]), Sohms and Turnbull also advocate that “the functional anatomy of dreaming is almost identical to that of schizophrenic psychosis” [4, page 213]. Pushing the analogy to the furthest by describing psychosis itself as a dream state with the neurobiology of REM stage sleep, Gottesmann [5] outlines the best delineated areas of neurobiological overlap in terms of “common intracerebral disconnections, disturbed responsiveness and sensory deafferentation processes (and) dorsolateral prefrontal deactivation” (page 1105). The commonest metric for assessing and asserting this
Global phase-locking in finite populations of phase-coupled oscillators
Mark Verwoerd,Oliver Mason
Mathematics , 2007, DOI: 10.1137/070686858
Abstract: We present new necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of fixed points in a finite system of coupled phase oscillators on a complete graph. We use these conditions to derive bounds on the critical coupling.
Extremal norms for positive linear inclusions
Oliver Mason,Fabian Wirth
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: For finite-dimensional linear semigroups which leave a proper cone invariant it is shown that irreducibility with respect to the cone implies the existence of an extremal norm. In case the cone is simplicial a similar statement applies to absolute norms. The semigroups under consideration may be generated by discrete-time systems, continuous-time systems or continuous-time systems with jumps. The existence of extremal norms is used to extend results on the Lipschitz continuity of the joint spectral radius beyond the known case of semigroups that are irreducible in the representation theory interpretation of the word.
Diagonal Riccati Stability and Applications
Alexander Aleksandrov,Oliver Mason
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We consider the question of diagonal Riccati stability for a pair of real matrices A, B. A necessary and sufficient condition for diagonal Riccati stability is derived and applications of this to two distinct cases are presented. We also describe some motivations for this question arising in the theory of generalised Lotka-Volterra systems.
A Robust Stability Condition for Subhomogeneous Cooperative Time-delay Systems
Vahid Bokharaie,Oliver Mason
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: In this manuscript, we present conditions for delay-independent stability of subhomogeneous cooperative time-delay systems. We consider the case where the time-delay system has a unique equilibrium at the origin and the case where it has a unique equilibrium in the interior of the positive orthant and prove global delay-independent stability results in both cases.
On Delay-independent Stability of a class of Nonlinear Positive Time-delay Systems
Vahid Bokharaie,Oliver Mason
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: We present a condition for delay-independent stability of a class of nonlinear positive systems. This result applies to systems that are not necessarily monotone and extends recent work on cooperative nonlinear systems.
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