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Comments for Current Interpretation EEG Alpha Activity: A Review and Analysis  [PDF]
Olga Bazanova
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2012.22027
Abstract: Introduction: Exploring the EEG alpha oscillations generates considerable interest because there is well known its role in cognitive and psycho emotional aspects of human life. However, till now there isn’t well determined definition what is alpha activity phenomena and which indices are characterize it. Method: This article focuses on the attempt to determine EEG alpha-activity phenomena, its physical, molecular and morphological nature, to highlight its indices and their role in optimal functioning. Results: Specifically, this article examines individual alpha activity indices: 1) the individual alpha peak frequency; 2) activation magnitude measured by estimation the amount of alpha amplitude suppression in response to eyes open and individual alpha band width; 3) three alpha “autorhythmicity” indices: intra-spindle amplitude variability, spindle length and steepness. Conclusions: Throughout, the article provides a number of suggestions which alpha activity indices and in which conditions could be applied in psycho physiological investigations, what is their role in optimal functioning and what are possible directions for future research.
Legal Support of Planning in the PRC  [PDF]
Olga Kucher
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2013.42007
Abstract:

Looking at the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) reforms it is necessary to mention that they were not resulted from foreign experts or from other countries experience they were a result of a long term Chinese strategy. This strategy includes such aspects as economy system, social benefits national safety provided that PRC is open to international influence. This long term strategy has its main tools of planning system. With the help of such system government can control all market processes which, for sure, lead to the growth and success in economy. Alongside of such model, Chinese government before and nowadays use methods of direct and indirect regulations as well as administrative influence. It means that such government interference in market process will make state structures powerful and experienced players in this game. It is necessary to say that in the period of globalized world economy multinational corporations started influencing all processes more and more, and we need to review role of government regulation. In this work next step will be directed at legal support and identification of effective government functions which can influence and control private sector. These government functions regulation can help to create balance between state, private assets and international organization in order to have a good basis for competitive world economic position. The article has a purpose to analyze key features of Chinese planning system, distinguish peculiarities and apply to other systems. In the article following methods are used chronological development of the system starting from the beginning; dialectical method of making conclusion basing on facts; and elements of comparative analysis. Result of this article is opportunity to apply such characteristics to other countries.

Modification of Steel Surface Using the Laser Energy Olga Chudina  [PDF]
Olga Chudina
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology (JSEMAT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsemat.2014.44021
Abstract:

The article is devoted to surface hardening of steels by alloying with the use of laser energy. Two combined technologies were proposed: first—laser alloying by nitride-forming elements followed by nitriding, and secondthe local laser alloying followed by metallization in atmosphere of ammonia. It is shown that laser alloying in continuous radiation forms a layer with a homogeneous fine-grained structure with thickness of 600 microns. The subsequent nitriding increases the microhardness of the surface layer of low-carbon steels to 20,000 MPa, increases wear-resistance in a 3 - 15 times and crack resistance in a 1.5 times. Two-stage technology of metallization allows getting diffusion layer on the surface of steels with the thickness, which is 1.5 - 2 times higher than after traditional metallization. In addition, this method of surface modification can significantly reduce the temperature of diffusion metallization and reduce the processing time to 3 hours. The optimal regimes of both technologies, which provide homogeneous multiphase diffusion layers with high hardness and wear resistance, were determined.

The Significance and Role of Aesthetic Education in Schooling  [PDF]
Olga Denac
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.519190
Abstract: Every child needs planned, aesthetic education in order to influence the experiencing, feeling and enjoying of beautiful things as a counterbalance to our currently rationalized world. Since the contemporary school strives for the development of professional knowledge and skills on the basis of intellectual actions, while (at the same time) neglecting other dimensions of the child’s personality (emotions, feelings, etc.), it is one of the most important tasks of the education of children and young people to develop the ability to enjoy art and beauty, and in one’s inner and outer life to act in accordance with a sense of proportion, harmony and beauty. The purpose of the article is to highlight the significance of aesthetic education in the development of the personality as a whole, to shed light on the aims of aesthetic education, to define the aesthetic dimension of experience and to ascertain the reasons for the neglect of aesthetic education in theory and practice.
Siblings of a Child with a Serious Disease: Educational Family Guidelines for Developing the Emotional Health of This Minority Group  [PDF]
Olga Lizasoain
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.38005
Abstract: Diagnosis of a serious disease in childhood is a traumatic experience, not only for the sick child but also for those living in the same environment. The family life changes drastically, and the family members go through a period of time which is both hard and full of the unknown. Fear, confusion, anger and sadness will be the principal feelings present in each one of the family members. The sick child becomes the central focus of attention at the expense of the other children in the family, children who now take a secondary role, shifting into the background. Therefore, it is very important to offer support and give special care to these other children, not excluding them from everything that is occurring in the family. This article focuses on the feelings experienced by these group of siblings. The adaptation process when facing this difficult situation will be analyzed and educational guidelines which can help the family manage the emotional impact made by the serious disease will be offered, putting special emphasis on communication.
Carrying out the Principle of Horizontal Connectedness and Professional Justification in the Planned Curriculum for Kindergartens in the Field of Music Education  [PDF]
Olga Denac
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.617191
Abstract: The article presented the results of a study which included 159 pre-school teachers from all over Slovenia. The aim of the research was to determine whether teachers in the process of operative planning of the educational process account for the principles of horizontal integration and professional justification. We analyzed the planned curriculum in terms of structure, activities, goals, principles and contents. The results of the research show that the music education has been losing professional autonomy within the field of art, as kindergarten teachers only partially carry out individual principles of the curriculum in the planning of the educational process.
Recent Developments in the Nasal Immunization against Anthrax  [PDF]
Sandra Jesus, Olga Borges
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2011.13008
Abstract: Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, a bacterial infection with a high mortality rate [1-3]. Although anthrax infection can be cutaneous, gastrointestinal or pulmonary, the pulmonary form is the most deadly [2,3]. Thus, the release of Bacillus anthracis spores that can be inhaled represents a potent bioterrorism threat; the capacity of B. anthracis spores to act as a bioterrorism weapon was demonstrated in 2001, with the intentional infection of 22 persons in the U.S.A. [2,4]. Until recently, the available vaccines were developed to confer protection against cutaneous infection; despite this, these vaccines demonstrated experimental efficacy against pulmonary infection in multiple animal models [1,2]. Nevertheless, there are many limitations for these vaccines to be considered successful and effective vaccine, including the intensity of the required vaccination schedule, the administration route and the presence of local adverse effects experienced after vaccination [1,3,5,6]. To develop more efficient vaccines against pulmonary anthrax, intranasal formulations with adjuvant have been studied. These formulations have advantages because they are easy to administer and because they are expected to induce both systemic and respiratory tract mucosal immune responses. Therefore, the main goal of this review is to compare the different experimental adjuvants used with anthrax antigens and the different approaches regarding the vaccination schedule and consecutive boosters.
Influence of the temperature at the Black Sea ctenophores-aliens bioluminescence characteristics  [PDF]
Mashukova Olga, Tokarev Yuriy
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2012.33037
Abstract: Successful invasion of Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz, 1865 and Beroe ovata Mayer, 1912 into the Black Sea and their important role in this region pelagic ecosystem is stipulated mainly by the considerable eurythermy of these species. Many ecological-physiological characteristics of ctenophores—aliens are studied quite well. However, bioluminescence, one of the most important elements of the ctenophores ecology and the bioluminescence reaction temperature optimum for these individuals under different environment temperatures were not studied sufficiently. Therefore our researches in this scientific field are significant and conceptually novel for ctenophores ecology study. Experimental investigations were carried out in the period of 2008-2009 in the IBSS. Uni-sized (40 mm) ctenophores were collected in the Sevastopol coastal zone and divided in several groups, contained under different temperatures: from 10°C ± 1°C to 30°C ± 1°C. Ctenophore bioluminescence was investigated under chemical and mechanical stimulation. M. leidyi light emission maximal amplitude (1432.94 ± 71.64 × 108 quantum·s–1·cm–2) with duration of 3.54 ± 0.15 s is fixed under the temperature of 26°C ± 1°C. Temperature increase up to 30°C ± 1°C led to the 4 times decrease of the bioluminescence intensity. Under temperature decrease up to 10°C ± 1°C this parameter decreased 20 times (p < 0.05). Bioluminescence emission intensity characteristics of B. ovata achieved maximal values under the temperature of 22°C ± 1°C (1150.12 ± 57.51 × 108 quantum·s–1·cm–2) with duration of 3.03 ± 0.15 s. The luminescence intensity decreased under the temperature increase to 30°C ± 1°C more than 20 times. Temperature decrease to the values of 10°C ± 1°C impacted decreasing the amplitude of bioluminescence up to the minimal –4.92 ± 0.22 × 108 quantum·s–1·cm–2. The data obtained testify that characteristics of the ctenophores bioluminescence can be conditioned not only by the modification the environment temperature but by the variability of their physiological condition.
Achieving the Objectives of Arts and Cultural Education in Slovenian Pre-Service Teacher Training  [PDF]
Olga Denac, Branka ?agran
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.38207
Abstract: The paper presents the results of research involving students from across Slovenia, exploring opinions on whether the objectives of arts and cultural education in their higher education have been met so far and their attitude towards education and the arts. The results of the research show that the general aims of arts and cultural education were more frequently incorporated in the study process than the aims relating to developing an attitude towards cultural heritage. Students from various study programs agree in particular on the need for team planning of the learning process, and on the importance of art education in the development of the individual’s creative potential. However, they agree less on measures aimed at improving the quality of art education and viewpoints relating to the content of future preschool and school teacher higher education. The results relating to the research aims also display statistically significant differences between study programs. Arts and cultural education in the education system was given higher importance by students of social sciences, preschool education and class teaching than by students of natural sciences.
Evaluation of Safety and Efficacy of the MaximusTM System for Facial Wrinkles  [PDF]
Nikolay Potekaev,Olga Zhukova
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2013.32024
Abstract: Introduction: There is a growing demand for non-invasive methods with no down time and minimal risk for facial skin rejuvenation and treatment of wrinkles. The Maximus system, based on TriLipo technology, combines radiofrequency and Dynamic Muscle Activation (DMA). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the MaximusTM system for the treatment of facial wrinkles. Methods: Twenty women received 8 weekly treatments for facial wrinkles using the Maximus system. Treatment efficacy was assessed by comparing pre- and post-treatment photographs, assessing skin characteristics using the 3D Visioscan system, assessing skin microtopography using the DUB ultrasonic scanning system, assessing microcirculation conditions of facial skin using Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) and subjective evaluation of skin improvement. Results: No adverse events were observed. Following the treatments, positive changes in skin flakiness (scaliness), roughness, smoothness and wrinkles were demonstrated using Visioscan. A thickening of the epidermal-dermal layer and increased structural homogeneity were observed by ultrasound, hyperechogenicity was increased and areas of hypoechogenicity reduced. Microcirculation was improved, corresponding with a positive trend for improved skin characteristics. Conclusions: The Maximus system powered by the TriLipo technology is a non-invasive, effective, safe, and virtually painless treatment for reduction of wrinkles and facial skin rejuvenation.
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