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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4985 matches for " Olga Fischman "
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Análise microbiológica de gastroscópios descontaminados em aparelho Cleantop WM-1 por uso de água eletrolítica ácida
Machado, Alexandre Paulo;Fischman, Olga;Geocze, Stephan;
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-28032005000100013
Abstract: background: the manual disinfection of endoscopes with glutharaldeyde is widely employed. the great routine in gastroenteroscopy services, low number of equipment and the lack of technical knowledge about the decontamination processes are factors that stimulate the inadequate endoscope disinfection, intensifying the risk of transmission of microorganisms. the electrolysed acid water has been effective in the inactivation and destruction of microorganisms. aim: the purpose of this investigation was to verify the microbicidal efficiency of electrolyzed acid water (cleantop wm-1) to decontaminate gastroscopes after their using in patients. material and methods: samples from biopsy channel of flexible endoscopes collected after patient use (n = 20) and after disinfection (n = 20) were cultivated in tryptic soy agar, macconkey agar and sabouraud dextrose agar. results: seventeen of the 20 samples collected after patients examination yielded gram-negative bacilli, gram-positive coccus and yeast cells in contamination of 3 to 5 log10 ufc/ml. microbial growth was not verified in samples collected after the decontamination process. conclusion - in this preliminary study, the mechanical disinfection carried through the cleantop device with electrolyzed acid water showed satisfactory results for the elimination of microorganisms and time optimization in the reprocessing of gastroscopes.
Immunological Intolerance and Tolerance by Antigenic Co-Stimulation  [PDF]
Alexandre Paulo Machado, Gabriel de Paula Albuquerque, Letícia Souza Santana, Olga Fischman Gompertz
Open Journal of Immunology (OJI) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oji.2017.74006
Abstract:
The plasticity and dynamism in the immune responses to both self and environmental stimulation promote the maintenance and adaptation of a system that tends to harmoniously survive and evolve. Fluctuating antigenic forces coexist within the immune system and oscillate between order and chaos to the equilibrium. Thus, when mounting a response to internal or environmental antigens, the main host responses can be divided into two immunological categories. The first, a well-adapted mechanism of complex multi-cellular organisms classically known as tolerance, promotes persistent immunological responses. In the second, opposite way, the modulation of inflammatory immune responses occurs, which we call “intolerance”. Tolerance and intolerance can be mediated by humoral molecules, such as inflammatory compounds, complement, and antibodies, and by different cell types, such as sentinel cells, antigen-presenting cells, and cells that orchestrate the immune response. Tolerogenesis is important in vertebrates because it predisposes species to adapt to self and environmental negative-selective forces. This process depends, in large part, on antigenic co-stimulation (AgCS), which operates as a multi-integrated network formed by all immune and non-immune cells of the body that establishes tolerant immunoregulatory interactions from cells to cells and from cells to the environment. Antigenic distribution, quantity, nature, route of administration, and antigenic convergence on co-stimulatory pathways, and concurrent infections, and the presence of microorganisms (commensals and pathogens) in more than one site are important factors for activating AgCS. To conclude, the AgCS route is a natural immune response generated by heterogeneous APC profile with centralized regulation that promote the counterbalance between intolerant e tolerant status, which can have several applications in the medical and biological fields.
Genetic polymorphism of clinical and environmental strains of Pichia anomala
EUGENIO REYES,SALVADOR BARAHONA,OLGA FISCHMAN,MAURICIO NIKLITSCHEK
Biological Research , 2004,
Abstract: In this work 20 clinical and 3 environmental yeast isolates were characterized by classical morphological and physiological methods, as well as molecular methods based on PCR of the ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region. The characteristic morphology and biochemical profiles observed in these samples correspond to those described for the Pichia genera, more specifically to P. anomala. The profiles of susceptibility to five antifungal drugs were determined by two broth dilution methods. The results obtained by both methods were comparable and showed that clinical isolates presented more resistance to azoles, amphotericin B, and 5-fluorocytosine, than environmental ones did. By amplification and sequencing of internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the ribosomal 5.8S DNA, the yeast samples were divided into four groups, where the strains within each group had the same sequence. Of the analyzed yeast isolates, 78% were identified as Pichia anomala. Using RAPD analysis with seven different Operon primers, polymorphism was observed within the four groups. Our study highlights the growing importance of P. anomala in fungemic episodes in premature neonates. Furthermore, the methodologies used provide a powerful tool to identify and determine differences in similar strains of this yeast
Alpha Defensins Genes and Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: A Study of Cases  [PDF]
Humberto F. Boatto, Elaine C. Francisco, Jo?o P. Kleine, Ismael D. Silva, Manoel J. B. C. Gir?o, Alexandre P. Machado, Olga Fischman
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2015.59071
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the alpha-defensin (α-DF) genes polymorphism in women with vulvovaginal candidiasis and recurrence. Methods: This observational study included clinical vaginal secretion samples collected over four years from 88 women, ranging in age from 18 to 65 years, from medical centers of Sao Paulo and Mogi das Cruzes, Brazil. Thirty-six of these women were asymptomatic (control group) and 52 presented clinical condition compatible with vulvovaginitis (38 primary or episodic as non-recurrent forms, and 14 recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis). A portion of each sample was plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol and grown on CHROMagar Candida for presumptive characterization. The identification of the species was obtained by sequencing of the ITS1 region of rDNA. α-DF genes were amplified for subsequent evaluation of polymorphisms by endonuclease restriction assay. Results: From 88 samples were isolated 60 Candida albicans and 28 non-albicans Candida spp. Resistant C. albicans strains and non-albicans Candida spp. were more prevalent in recurrence. In all groups, the number of resistant non-albicans Candida spp. was most high than susceptible strains. α-DF1, α-DF3 and α-DF1/α-DF3 genotypes were found in 32 (36.4%), 17 (19.3%), 6 (6.8%) vaginal samples, respectively. About 33 samples were not amplified. Recurrence and
Susceptibility to Fluconazole and Ketoconazole of Candida spp. Isolated from Primary and Episodic Vulvovaginites by E-Test (S?o Paulo, SP, Brazil)  [PDF]
Humberto Fabio Boatto, Manoel Jo?o Batista Castello Gir?o, Elaine Cristina Francisco, Alexandre Paulo Machado, Maria Sayonara de Moraes, Olga Fischman
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2016.612086
Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the profile of in vitro susceptibility of yeasts isolated from cases of primary and espisodic vulvovaginitis to two antifungal agents. Methods: 40 Candida isolates from episodes of vulvovaginal candidiasis were identified by classic methodologies. The susceptibility testing of the in vitro fluconazole and ketoconazole activity against the isolates was accessed by E-test. Results: C. albicans was the most common species identified in 70% of the occurrences followed by C. glabrata (20%), C. tropicalis (7.5%), and C. guilliermondii (2.5%). In the susceptibility profile to antifungal agents, 12.5% and 16.7% of the isolates obtained from primary and episodic vulvovaginal candidiasis were resistant to fluconazole, respectively. To ketoconazole, we found that 6.25% and 12.5% of the isolates respectively from primary vulvovaginal candidiasis (PVVC) and episodic vulvovaginal candidiasis (EVVC) had high MIC values. Conclusions: E-test is a reliable method for the susceptibility testing of Candida spp. due to its simplicity, reproducibility, and lack of specialized equipment. Resistant strains and non-albicans species were verified
Microbiologic profile of flexible endoscope disinfection in two Brazilian hospitals
Machado, Alexandre P.;Pimenta, Ana Teresa Mancini;Contijo, Paulo P.;Geocze, Stephan;Fischman, Olga;
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-28032006000400002
Abstract: backgroud: endoscopes are routinely used in hospitals and clinics of the world and they can be potential sources of cross-infection when the decontamination process is unsuitable aim: the routines of flexible endoscope (bronchoscopes, esophagogastroduodenoscopes and colonoscopes) disinfection procedures used in two brazilian university hospitals were evaluated during a 3-year period methods: aleatory samples from internal channels of endoscopes were collected after patient examination and after cleaning/disinfection procedures results: a contamination >3 log10 was achieved in samples recovered from endoscopes after patient examination. these samples yielded gram-negative bacilli (n = 142: 56%), gram-positive cocci (n = 43: 17%), yeast cells (n = 43: 17%), and gram-positive bacilli (n = 26: 10%). approximately, 72 out of 149 samples (48.32%) collected after undergoing the cleaning and disinfection procedures disclosed gram-negative bacilli (n = 55: 61%), gram-positive cocci (n = 21: 23%), gram-positive bacilli (n = 8: 9%) and yeast cells (n = 6: 7%). esophagogastroduodenoscopes and colonoscopes were the most frequently contaminated devices. pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella pneumoniae, escherichia coli, enterobacter spp, serratia marcescens, proteus mirabilis, citrobacter freundii, staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus coagulase negative, micrococcus luteus, candida albicans, c. tropicalis, c. glabrata, c. guilliermondii, bacillus spp and corynebacterium spp were predominantly identified conclusion: inappropriate cleaning and low times of disinfection were respectively the major factors associated with the presence of microorganisms in colonoscopes and esophagogastroduodenoscopes. by analyzing the identified germs, hospital disinfection was considered of either intermediate or poor level. after this investigation, both university centers improved their previous protocols for disinfection and conditions for reprocessing endoscopes.
Genetic polymorphism of clinical and environmental strains of Pichia anomala
REYES,EUGENIO; BARAHONA,SALVADOR; FISCHMAN,OLGA; NIKLITSCHEK,MAURICIO; BAEZA,MARCELO; CIFUENTES,VíCTOR;
Biological Research , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-97602004000500004
Abstract: in this work 20 clinical and 3 environmental yeast isolates were characterized by classical morphological and physiological methods, as well as molecular methods based on pcr of the its1-5.8s rdna-its2 region. the characteristic morphology and biochemical profiles observed in these samples correspond to those described for the pichia genera, more specifically to p. anomala. the profiles of susceptibility to five antifungal drugs were determined by two broth dilution methods. the results obtained by both methods were comparable and showed that clinical isolates presented more resistance to azoles, amphotericin b, and 5-fluorocytosine, than environmental ones did. by amplification and sequencing of internal transcribed spacers (its1 and its2) and the ribosomal 5.8s dna, the yeast samples were divided into four groups, where the strains within each group had the same sequence. of the analyzed yeast isolates, 78% were identified as pichia anomala. using rapd analysis with seven different operon primers, polymorphism was observed within the four groups. our study highlights the growing importance of p. anomala in fungemic episodes in premature neonates. furthermore, the methodologies used provide a powerful tool to identify and determine differences in similar strains of this yeast
Antibiosis and dark-pigments secretion by the phytopathogenic and environmental fungal species after interaction in vitro with a Bacillus subtilis isolate
Machado, Alexandre Paulo;Vivi, Viviane Karolina;Tavares, José Roberto;Gueiros Filho, Frederico José;Fischman, Olga;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132010000500001
Abstract: in this work, different reactions in vitro between an environmental bacterial isolate and fungal species were related. the gram-positive bacteria had terminal and subterminal endospores, presented metabolic characteristics of mesophilic and acidophilic growth, halotolerance, positive to nitrate reduction and enzyme production, as caseinase and catalase. the analysis of partial sequences containing 400 to 700 bases of the 16s ribosomal rna gene showed identity with the genus bacillus. however, its identity as b. subtilis was confirmed after analyses of the rpob, gyra, and 16s rrna near-full-length sequences. strong inhibitory activity of environmental microorganisms, such as penicillium sp, aspergillus flavus, a. niger, and phytopathogens, such as colletotrichum sp, alternaria alternata, fusarium solani and f. oxysporum f.sp vasinfectum, was shown on co-cultures with b. subtilis strain, particularly on sabouraud dextrose agar (sda) and dnase media. red and red-ochre color pigments, probably phaeomelanins, were secreted by a. alternata and a. niger respectively after seven days of co-culture.
Molecular typing of Candida albicans strains isolated from nosocomial candidemia
Branchini, Maria Luiza Moretti;Geiger, Débora de Cassia Pires;Fischman, Olga;Pignatari, Antonio Carlos;
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 1995, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-46651995000600002
Abstract: yeasts of the genus candida have been recognized as important microorganisms responsible for nosocomial fungemia. six blood-stream and two intravenous central catheter c. albicans strains were isolated from eight patients and studied by electrophoretic karyotyping of chromosomal dna by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. seven chromosomal dna profiles were identified. two patients showed isolates with the same profile, suggesting nosocomial transmission. karyotyping of c. albicans revealed an excellent discriminatory power among the isolates and may therefore be useful in the study of nosocomial candidemia.
Neurocriptococose durante a gravidez: revis?o da literatura. Relato de dois casos
Pereira, Carlos Alberto Pires;Fischman, Olga;Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes;Moron, Antonio Fernandes;Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos;
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 1993, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-46651993000400011
Abstract: two cases of neurocryptococcosis were diagnosed during pregnancy in s?o paulo (brazil). amphotericin b was used in the second trimester in one patient. the other, received amphotericin b during the first trimester of pregnancy and 5-fluorocytosine was added in the second trimester. in both, the pregnancy was uneventful and the fetus suffered no damage. the therapy used to treat pregnant women with cryptococcal meningitis is commented. the newborn follow-up is discussed. a review of the literature concerning neurocryptococcosis during pregnancy is presented.
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