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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1440 matches for " Older Adults "
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Identifying and promoting safe walking routes in older adults  [PDF]
Jacqueline Kerr, Jordan A. Carlson, Dori E. Rosenberg, Ashley Withers
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.429112
Abstract: Background: Walking for physical activity is important for older adults' physical and mental health. We developed and tested the reliability of an environmental audit tool designed to be used by lay people to identify appropriate walking routes for older adults trying to increase their physical activity. Methods: A 44-item Walking Route Audit Tool for Seniors (WRATS) was developed based on literature review and input from older adults during focus groups. Observers completed the tool for 24 walking routes which were specifically selected to maximize variability in environment features and quality. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using Kappa and percent agreement. Results: Inter-rater reliability was good to excellent for 27 of the 44 WRATS items and moderate for 9 items. ICCs were good to excellent for 6 of the 8 scales (ICCs = 0.61 to 0.90). Conclusions: These results provide evidence for the reliability of WRATS for evaluating environmental attributes of walking routes suitable for older adults. Some scales need further refinement, and validity should be tested in a sample of older adults.
Individualism and Partnership: A Descriptive Qualitative Analysis of the Chronic Disease Phenomenon as Perceived by Older Adults  [PDF]
Kimberly Sell, Elaine Amella, Martina Mueller, Jeannette Andrews, Joy Wachs
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.510099
Abstract: With the older adult population projected to increase substantially in the next 10 years, the incidence of chronic disease will become a significant factor in the burden of disease both globally and within the United States. The chronic disease state has been shown to decrease quality of life and the life expectancy of those individuals. In Tennessee the incidence of chronic disease, lower incomes, and education levels increases the risk of decreased quality of life and increased mortality in the older adult population. A review of literature by the researcher reveals that scant research has focused upon the older adult’s perspective toward chronic illness and making changes to their health routine. As part of a mixed-method correlational study, focus groups used a descriptive qualitative approach to increase understanding of the phenomenon of chronic illness. The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine the attitudes and perceptions of older adults in East Tennessee towards behavior change and health maintenance in chronic disease.
The Prevalence and Risk Factors for Dry Eye Disease among Older Adults in the City of Lodz, Poland  [PDF]
Michal S. Nowak, Janusz Smigielski
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2016.61001
Abstract: Purpose: To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for dry eye disease (DED) in a sample population of Polish older adults. Material and methods: Cross-sectional and observational study of 1107 men and women of European Caucasian origin aged 35 - 97 years, who were interviewed and underwent detailed ophthalmic examinations. DED was defined as presence of a previous clinical diagnosis of dry eye with concomitant dry eye treatment. Results: The overall prevalence of DED in the researched population was 6.7% (95% CI 5.2 - 8.2). The prevalence of DED increased with age from 4.8% in age group 35 - 59 years to 8.3% in group aged ≥60 years. The prevalence of DED was also higher in women 8.1% than in men 4.7%. In multiple logistic regression modelling with age, gender, presence of cataract surgery and glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT) treatment, DED was significantly associated with older age (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.21 - 3.30) and with female gender (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.05 - 2.96). Conclusions: The prevalence of DED in our study population was comparable with the findings of other studies from Europe and the United States, with significantly higher rates among women and elderly subjects.
What determines walking of older people in their neighborhood?  [PDF]
Marijke Hopman-Rock, Sanne I de Vries, Ingrid Bakker, Wil TM Ooijendijk
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.23040
Abstract: Based on literature review and five focus groups, a model was analyzed describing individual, social environmental and physical environmental (perceived) determinants of walking by older people. Aim was to test whether these determinants were significantly associated with the duration of walking by older people (N = 567, 50 - 80 years) in a middle-sized Dutch town. Walking time was best predicted by attitude towards walking (partial correlation in model (partial r) 0.18; p < 0.05), social contacts (partial r 0.12, p < 0.05), perceived quality of life (partial r 0.21 p < 0.01), satisfaction with the demographics of the neighborhood (partial r - 0.14, p < 0.01), and walking outside the neighborhood (partial r 0.28 p < 0.01). The model explained 20% of the total variance in walking time. Conclusion is that individual and social determinants predicted the most variance in walking time and that perceived environmental determinants played only a minor role. Health promotion actions may benefit from these insights.
Predictors of Depressive Symptoms: What Are the Roles of Geography and Informal Social Support?  [PDF]
Timothy S. Killian, Megan Penfield
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2012.24041
Abstract: Using data from the 2004 wave of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), three central research questions were examined. First, are there variations in depressive symptoms by geographic region? Second, are variations in depressive symptoms related to informal social support? Third, are there interactions between geography and informal social support in regard to predicting depressive symptoms? Results from this study found a small, but significant difference in depressive symptoms by geography region. Also, informal social support from children and friends were predictive of lower levels of depression. Furthermore, informal social support interacted with region to explain additional variation in depressive symptoms. Participants’ perceptions that they could rely on their adult children to meet their needs was more salient in regard to reducing depressive symptoms for exurban than non-exurban participants, and increased limitations in mobility, strength, and fine motor skills were more influential in explaining depressive symptoms in exurban than other persons.
Is increased water consumption among older adults associated with improvements in glucose homeostasis?  [PDF]
Adrienne G. Clark, Elizabeth A. Dennis Parker, Jyoti S. Savla, Kevin P. Davy, Brenda M. Davy
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.35049
Abstract: Obesity and impaired glucose homeostasis in older adults place these individuals at risk for diabetes. Dehydration, glucose homeostasis, and insulin resistance are related; while aging and dehydration are associated with decreased glucose tolerance, weight loss can improve glycemia. For older adults following hypocaloric diets, additional water consumption may lead to greater weight loss. Further more, research suggests an association between insulin resistance and the body water retention hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). Analysis of the association between plasma copeptin (an AVP derivative) and fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) may provide further insight into the relationship between dehydration and diabetes risk. Our objective was to investigate the possibility that increased water consumption among older adults (n = 29, BMI = 31 ± 1 kg/m2, age = 62 ± 1 years) could improve glucose homeostasis beyond that observed with weight loss, as well as associations between plasma copeptin and diabetes risk. This retrospective analysis utilized data from a previous investigation, in which obese/overweight older adults were assigned to one of two groups: 1) Water: consume 500 ml of water prior to three daily meals over a 12-week hypocaloric diet intervention, or 2) Non-water: hypocaloric diet alone. In the present analysis, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, HOMA-IR, and plasma copeptin were evaluated, and compared to urinary specific gravity (USG), drinking water consumption, and body weight. Analyses performed using group assignment, volume of drinking water consumed or among a subgroup pair-matched for weight loss and sex did not reveal significant differences between groups. However in the full sample, plasma insulin concentration was associated with USG (r = 0.512, P < 0.01) and copeptin (r = 0.389, P < 0.05), and HOMA-IR was associated with USG (r = 0.530, P < 0.01) at week 12. Improvements in fasting insulin for water group participants (-8.5 +/-4 pmol/L) were also detected. Associations between hydration and insulin resistance support the need for future investigations addressing hydration status and diabetes risk.

Diversity of eating patterns and obesity in older adults—A new challenge  [PDF]
Patricia Moraes Ferreira, Silvia Justina Papini, José Eduardo Corrente
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.58A3004

The increase in the variety of food choices influences the eating patterns of older adults, which is in turn increases the occurrence of obesity. This study aimed at identifying eating patterns and their association with obesity in a representative sample of older adults living in an urban area and registered in the basic health unit in the city of Botucatu, S?o Paulo, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study and data collection took place from March to June of 2011 through the application of a validated food frequency questionnaire for older adults, a socio-demographic survey and an anthropometric evaluation. Eating patterns were identified through principal component analysis. Scores of individual consumption were divided in tertiles, characterizing as low, moderate or high adherence of the individuals to each pattern. Logistic regression models were fitted for the outcomes “general obesity” and “abdominal obesity” and the tertiles of consumption adjusting by sociodemographic variables. Six eating patterns were identified: Healthy foods, Snacks and weekend meals, Fruits, Light and whole foods, Mild diet and Traditional diet. It was found that the adherence to healthy foods is protective against obesity as well as adherence of snacks and weekend meals are risk of obesity. Eating patterns and their recognized influence on obesity comprise an issue that deserves continuous attention in order to evaluate collectively the eating profile, and develop specific nutritional guidelines for older adults.

Educational Preparation of Older Adults and Their Families for Retirement  [PDF]
María de los ángeles Aguilera, José de Jesús Pérez, Diemen Delgado, Mónica Contreras, Martín Acosta, Blanca Elizabeth Pozos
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.36032

The purpose of this qualitative case study, carried out in two phases, is to systematize the learning experiences and expectations of older adults and their families as they face approaching retirement, in Guadalajara, Mexico, 2012. The strategy implemented was an educational preparation for retirement. Six adults had already retired, two were soon to be retired and eight family members were chosen for this study. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and a SQA-E format. The educational strategy was an interactive conference. A phenomenological analysis was made of the experiences recorded. The naturalistic criterial evaluation of learning experiences and expectations was applied before and after the educational intervention. Through this intervention, participants were made conscious of their problems, expressed the desire to improve certain aspects of their lives and continued educational preparation.

Use of Alternative and Complementary Medicine by Old Italians Adults: The Determinant of Choice  [PDF]
Silvia Platania, Giuseppe Santisi
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.37042
Abstract: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is the term for medical products and practices that aren’t part of standard care. Although using complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is becoming increasingly prevalent in Italy, research in complementary and alternative therapy in older adults is limited. This study investigates the predictors and the determinant of choice of using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in older adult consumers [1]-[3]. The sample consisted of 150 Italian older consumers who used alternative medicine in the last year. The older adults interviewed were 52 males (34.7%) and 98 females (65.3%) and the average age was 65.4 (SD = 0.76). The results of this study showed a strong dissatisfaction of respondents with the tra-ditional medical treatments because the alternative’s medicine treatments are considered more invasive.
Relationship between Nutritional Status and Functional Capacity for Older People  [PDF]
Luciana Bronzi de Souza, Silvia Justina Papini, José Eduardo Corrente
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.79124
Abstract: Functional capacity is the condition of an individual living independently and the lack of it for preparing and eating food, which is a factor that can result in malnutrition and deserves the attention of professionals and his family members. Then, the aim of this work was to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status and functional capacity for older adults using anthropometric measures and questionnaires for activities of daily and instrumental living. It was an epidemiological cross-sectional study using a representative sample of older adults selected from a previous study about quality of life in a Botucatu city, Sao Paulo. Brazil. The sample size was calculated considering 95% of reliability and 5% of error margin, resulting from a total of 365 individuals of both sexes but only 361 of them completed the protocol. Data included sociodemographic and morbidities questionnaires, activities of daily and instrumental living (ADL and IADL) and an-thropometric variables. 62.6% of the older were women, 44.68% were hypertensive, 28.81% were diabetic and 15.51% had hypercholesterolemia. 94.24% and 92.42% of the older were fully independent for ADL and IADL, respectively. Associations between ADL with marital status and schooling were found as well as with IADL. Also, it was found association with IADL and heart disease. Regarding anthropometry most of measures when compared men and women were significant. No significant association was found between nutritional status and ADL. A logistic regression model was fitted considering ADL as a response variable showed BMI as a protection factor and WC as a risk factor for dependence. For IADL, heart disease was a risk factor for dependence. In conclusion, low weight and increased waist circumference have influence in a functional capacity of older adults according to the activities daily living (ADL) and heart disease for IADL.
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