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Growth Responses of Some Bacterial Isolates to Some Environmental Parameters  [PDF]
Esther Aanuoluwa Ekundayo, Olayinka Temitayo Ogunmefun, Ijeoma Nwaefere Oguike, Fred Coolborn Akharaiyi, Oluwakemi Sola Asoso
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2018.911039
Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial activities of bacterial isolates of maize against plant pathogens as well as their growth responses to some environmental parameters. Twenty four bacterial isolates were obtained from maize plants collected from the Department of Biological Sciences, AfeBabalola University, Ado-Ekiti. The isolates were characterized by their biochemical and physiological characteristics and were identified as Kurthiazopfu, Morganellamorganic, Rhodococcusequi, Bacillus subtilis, Catabaterhongkongensis, Brevibacteriumotitidis, Lactobacillus coleohominis, Staphylococcus aureus, Propionibacterium acnes among others. Their responses to different NaCl concentrations, sugars, temperature as well as antibiotics were determined. Most of the isolates were able to withstand various environmental parameters in which they were subjected to. Also, eight isolates were able to ferment sucrose. The bacterial isolates showed a degree of resistance to the antibiotics tested. There was a high prevalence of multidrug resistant bacteria showing resistance to 3 - 8 drugs. The antagonistic effect of the bacterial isolates against selected fungi was determined. None of the isolates showed antagonistic potential against the fungal pathogens. However, the supposed antagonistic bacterial species can be genetically modified to produce secondary metabolites that will result in biocontrol.
Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of some metal(II) amino acids’ complexes  [PDF]
Temitayo Olufunmilayo Aiyelabola, Isaac Ayoola Ojo, Adeleke Clement Adebajo, Grace Olufunmilayo Ogunlusi, Olayinka Oyetunji, Ezekiel Olugbenga Akinkunmi, Adebowale Olusoji Adeoye
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2012.23034
Abstract: Metal(II) coordination compounds of glycine and ph-enylalanine were synthesized and characterized using infrared and electronic spectroscopic, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The complexes were tested for antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphy-lococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli, Pseudo-monas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. The stoichiometric reaction between the metal (II) ions and ligands in molar ratio M:L (1:3) [where M = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Cd; L= glycine; phenylalanine] resulted in the formation of five-coordinate square pyramidal dinuclear geometry for both copper complexes and six-coordinate octa-hedral geometry for the other complexes. The spectroscopic and magnetic moment data suggested that the ligands coordinated via both their amino and carboxylate ion moieties. The complexes demonstrated better activities against one or more of the tested microbes than acriflavine, the standard drug used.
Effects of Dehulling on Functional and Sensory Properties of Flours From Black Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris)  [PDF]
Olayinka Akinjayeju, Olayinka F. Ajayi
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.24049
Abstract: The effects of dehulling on the physico-chemical and pasting of, as well as anti-nutritional factors in black bean (Phasoelus vulgaris) flours were investigated. Black bean seeds were dehulled both manually and mechanically and the flours obtained from the dehulled seeds were compared with flour milled from undehulled seeds. The flours obtained were evaluated for proximate composition, physical and pasting properties. Anti-nutritional factors in the flours were also determined. The flours were then used to prepare steamed bean cake (“Moinmoin”) which was evaluated for sensory parameters of appearance, taste, aroma, texture and overall acceptability. Dehulling produced significant effects (p < 0.05) on the proximate composition and physical properties. Both dehulling and method of dehulling had significant effect on most pasting properties. Method of dehulling however had no significant difference (p < 0.05) on the proximate composition and physical characteristics. Anti-nutritional factors were higher in flour from dehulled seeds compared to flours from undehulled seeds. There was no significant difference in all sensory parameters of ‘moinmoin’(p > 0.05 and p > 0.01) prepared from dehulled flours, but there was significant difference (p < 0.05) at both levels in most sensory parameters between samples from dehulled seeds and undehulled seeds except for aroma.
Neonatal Cerebrospinal Fluid, Bacterial Analysis as Seen at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital: A Five-Year Review  [PDF]
Yaguo Ide Lucy Eberechukwu, Awopeju Abimbola Temitayo
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2016.64024
Abstract: Background: Cerebrospinal fluid analysis is a very important tool in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in the new born. Bacterial meningitis is a potent cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal age group, with a very high incidence of neurological complications. Aim: To identify the bacterial pathogens isolated from the cerebrospinal fluids of neonates at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) and their sensitivity patterns. This will assist the neonatologist in the choice of empirical antibiotic treatment. Study Design: Retrospective, descriptive, cross sectional study. Place and duration of study: University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2014. Methods: Records of bacterial analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from neonates seen at the special care baby unit of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital with clinical suspicion of meningitis between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2014 were retrieved from the microbiology record book. Data on patients age, sex, appearance of Cerebrospinal fluid, cell count, microscopy/gram stain, culture and antibiotic sensitivity were retrieved from laboratory record books and entered into a Microsoft? excel spread sheet and analysed using SPSS version 20.0. Results: One hundred and thirteen neonates: 70 (61.95%) of these patients were male while 43 (38.05%) were females. Only 1 (0.89%) was positive for culture yielding a growth of Escherichia coli which was sensitive to Imipenem, moderately sensitive to Ampicillin, Gentamicin, ceftazidime, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin and Amoxicillinclavulanic acid. It was resistant to cefotaxime. 112 (99.11%) of the neonates had presumed neonatal meningitis while only 1 (0.89%) had proven neonatal meningitis. Conclusions: There is a low yield of organisms in cerebrospinal fluid of neonates at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital.
Physical Features of Some Selected Nigerian Maize Cultivars  [PDF]
Awoyinka Olayinka Anthony
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.59149

A morphological characteristic feature of one hundred Nigerian maize cultivars was established. This repository sought a baseline upon which Nigerian maize cultivars could be classified based on kernel morphology, germinating properties such as shoots length and percent of growth. Out of all the maize cultivars, forty eight were classified as Dent maize, five were found to be Pop maize, thirteen were Waxy maize and six were also classified as Sweet maize while fourteen were found to be Floury and Flint maize respectively. The information would serve as reference for the selection of appropriate Nigerian maize cultivars for specific use in food processing and allied industries.

Influence of Intercrop Population and Applied Poultry Manure Rates on Component Crops Productivity Responses in a Snake Tomato/Celosia Cropping System  [PDF]
Olusegun Olufemi Olubode, Temitayo Ayobami Ogunsakin, Adewale Waheed Salau
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.67109
Abstract: Productivity responses using organic approaches will assist to elucidate crop responses under different intercrop population levels. Experiments were conducted to determine the growth, yield and productivity responses of component crops in snake tomato/celosia mixtures to intercrop population and organic manure application rates. The 4 × 4 factorial experiment arranged in completely randomized design (CRD) was replicated three times. The snake tomato using potting media was cultivated in 2013 and 2014 at 100,000 plants/ha (one plant/pot) alongside intercrop celosia at three population levels of 100,000 (P1), 200,000 (P2) and 300,000 plant/ha (P3) (10, 20 and 30 plants/pot respectively) where sole crops (P0) served as control. The crop mixture was supplied with poultry manure (PM) at 5 (F1), 10 (F2) and 20 t/ha (F3) using the unfertilized (0 t/ha-F0) as control. The result showed that plants in “year II” had longer vines, thicker girth and more side-vines while those in “year I” had more leaves, more male/female flowers, longer and thicker fruit sizes and heavier fruit yield. Intercropping with celosia at P1 produced plants with thicker girth and more leaves, plants at P1 - P3 had more side-vines while all intercropped plots had more female flowers, but P1 had thicker fruit girth compared to sole crops. Plants with F3 had longer vine length, more leaves and more number of side-vines, more female flowers, longer fruits, thicker fruit girth and heavier fruit yield, but those with F1 or F3 had thicker girth compared to other rates while those with F2 had better productivity advantage with LER and ATER at >1.0. In conclusion, snake tomato and celosia in crop mixture were best with F2 and F3 respectively, although intercropping retarded growth and yield of the component crops but P1 was comparable with sole.
Modeling of Criteria Air Pollutant Emissions from Selected Nigeria Petroleum Refineries  [PDF]
Temitayo Oladimeji, Jacob Sonibare, Moradeyo Odunfa, Augustine Ayeni
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2015.36004
Abstract: The dispersion models were used to estimate or predict the concentration of air pollutants or toxins emitted from sources such as industrial plants, vehicular traffic or accidental chemical releases. In this study, the Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST3) emission dispersion model was used to measure the ground level concentration of criteria air pollutants within 50 km radius of location. This model considered emissions from major point sources of pollutants in four existing and twenty-three proposed Nigeria petroleum refineries. The obtained ground level concentration for 24-hr averaging periods of the criteria air pollutants at sensitive receptor around each of the refineries was compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of Nigeria, World Bank and World Health Organization (WHO) to determine their level of compliance. The highest ground level concentration predicted to be 450 - 1875 μg/m3 for 24-h averaging period was obtained at Tonwei Oil Refinery, Ekeremor Local Government, Bayelsa State, while the lowest ground level concentration predicted to be 0.0099 - 0.1 μg/m3 for 24-h averaging period was obtained at Amakpe International Refinery, Eket Local Government, Akwa Ibom State. Percentage set limits of criteria air pollutants ranging from 0.02% to 94.5% are within the set standard limits and no health risk is associated with areas around the plant’s locations while percentage set limits of criteria pollutants ranging from 1.1 to 55.6 folds of the standards exceed the maximum permitted limits, hence affecting areas around the plants. The air quality standards guiding petroleum refinery emissions must be strictly considered, in order to ensure that the ground level concentrations do not exceed the required standard limits and prevent the adverse effects of air pollution in the Nigeria airshed.
Development of a Small Hydropower Plant: Case of Ikere Gorge Dam, Oyo State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Moradeyo K. Odunfa, Timiepiri C. Saudu, Temitayo E. Oladimeji
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2019.73003
Abstract: Energy crisis and environmental safety has become a thing of global concern, Nigeria inclusive. This is due to the increasing energy prices and environmental impact. Energy generated from the non-renewable energy sources has been linked up with this energy crisis and non-friendly environment. Research is therefore been geared towards harnessing renewable energy resources as alternative sources of energy generation. Renewable energy sources such as hydropower, wind, geothermal and solar just to mention a few are environmentally friendly. This study therefore aims at exploring renewable energy sources and thus designing a small hydropower plant using Ikere gorge Dam as case study. A survey was conducted through personal interview and probing of previous records of the site. Basic parameters such as flow rate of 31.8 m3/s and a head of 30 m were obtained. These parameters were used together with the standard equations for the design of the small hydropower plant. Costing analysis of the plant was carried out in other to estimate the cost of the plant. The comparative analysis of the renewable and non-renewable energy sources was also carried out. The theoretical power obtained for small hydropower project is 9.36 MW. The initial cost of the project is estimated at N63,343,970 with an estimated annual maintenance cost of N500,000. The annual energy output is 3.6 × 107 kWh and the project has estimated annual revenue of N579,960,000. When compared with other renewable energy sources, the cost of small hydropower plant is low and when compared with dwindling oil prices and environmental effects of non-renewable energy sources, small hydropower stands second to none. The study established that Ikere gorge Dam is a feasible site for a small hydropower plant and a small hydropower plant has also been designed; hence small hydropower plant is therefore recommended.
Slip Line Field Solution for Second Pass in Lubricated 4-High Reversing Cold Rolling Sheet Mill  [PDF]
Oluleke O. Oluwole, Olayinka Olaogun
Engineering (ENG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2011.312152
Abstract: The development of a possible slip line field (slf) for theoretical calculations of the deforming pressure (load) in a second pass of a lubricated cold rolling sheet mill and validation using values from an aluminium sheet rolling mill was done in this work. This will be relevant in the manufacturing industries providing an easy method for determining necessary applied rolling load. Experimental rolling was carried out to observe the shear lines in the deformation field. Construction of possible slip line field model was developed adhering strictly to assumptions of rigid plastic model. Calculation of the deforming force/load was achieved using Hencky’s equation. Results showed that the load calculations for constructed slip line field using aluminium sheet rolling as an example tallied with values obtained from Tower Aluminium rolling mill. Slip line fields constructed for the second pass described adequately the rolling pressure in the cold rolling process, giving a valid solution of the exact load estimates on comparison with the industrial load values. Roll pressure along the arc of contact rose fairly linearly from the entrance to a maximum at the exit point. This work showed that slf for the first pass in a cold rolling mill cannot be used for subsequent passes; it requires construction of slfs for each pass in the cold rolling process.
Partaking in the global movement for occupational mental health: what challenges and ways forward for sub-Sahara Africa?
Atilola Olayinka
International Journal of Mental Health Systems , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1752-4458-6-15
Abstract: There is an ongoing global movement for the entrenchment of occupational mental health as an integral part of occupational health and safety schemes. Aside from being a fundamental human right issue, this move has been demonstrated to be of cost-benefit in terms of workplace productivity and general economic growth. Despite being among the regions most prone to the human and economic repercussions of work-related mental health problems by reason of her socio-economic circumstance; sub-Sahara Africa is yet to fully plug into this movement. With a view to make recommendations on the ways forward for sub-Sahara Africa, this paper examines the current state of and the barriers to effective occupational mental health policy and practice in the region.
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