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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 111921 matches for " Olayemi O Omotade "
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Early home treatment of childhood fevers with ineffective antimalarials is deleterious in the outcome of severe malaria
Adebola E Orimadegun, Olukemi K Amodu, Peter E Olumese, Olayemi O Omotade
Malaria Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-143
Abstract: Two hundred and sixty-eight children with a median age of 30 months comprising 114 children with cerebral malaria and 154 with severe malarial anaemia (as defined by WHO) were prospectively enrolled. Data on socio-demographic data, treatments given at home, clinical course and outcome of admission were collected and analysed.A total of 168 children had treatment with an antimalarial treatment at home before presenting at the hospital when there was no improvement. There were no significant differences in the haematocrit levels, parasite counts and nutritional status of the pre-hospital treated and untreated groups. The most commonly used antimalarial medicine was chloroquine. Treatment policy was revised to Artemesinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) in 2005 as a response to unacceptable levels of therapeutic failures with chloroquine, however chloroquine use remains high. The risk of presenting as cerebral malaria was 1.63 times higher with pre-hospital use of chloroquine for treatment of malaria, with a four-fold increase in the risk of mortality. Controlling for other confounding factors including age and clinical severity, pre-hospital treatment with chloroquine was an independent predictor of mortality.This study showed that, home treatment with chloroquine significantly impacts on the outcome of severe malaria. This finding underscores the need for wide-scale monitoring to withdraw chloroquine from circulation in Nigeria and efforts intensified at promoting prompt treatment with effective medicines in the community.Malaria remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among children and creates enormous social, economic and disease burdens in endemic regions[1,2]. Current control efforts focus on reducing malaria-attributable morbidity and mortality. Prompt evaluation of all febrile illness, case-recognition and use of appropriate antimalarial therapy are essential to malarial control in order to optimize clinical outcomes of malaria-infected patients
Maternal Malaria, Birth Size and Blood Pressure in Nigerian Newborns: Insights into the Developmental Origins of Hypertension from the Ibadan Growth Cohort
Omolola O. Ayoola, Isla Gemmell, Olayemi O. Omotade, Olusoji A. Adeyanju, J. Kennedy Cruickshank, Peter Ellis Clayton
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024548
Abstract: Background Hypertension is an increasing health issue in sub-Saharan Africa where malaria remains common in pregnancy. We established a birth cohort in Nigeria to evaluate the early impact of maternal malaria on newborn blood pressure (BP). Methods Anthropometric measurements, BP, blood films for malaria parasites and haematocrit were obtained in 436 mother-baby pairs. Women were grouped to distinguish between the timing of malaria parasitaemia as ‘No Malaria’, ‘Malaria during pregnancy only’ or ‘Malaria at delivery’, and parasite density as low (<1000 parasites/μl of blood) and high (≥1000/μl). Results Prevalence of maternal malaria parasitaemia was 48%, associated with younger maternal age (p<0.001), being primigravid (p = 0.022), lower haematocrit (p = 0.028). High parasite density through pregnancy had the largest effect on mean birth indices so that weight, length, head and mid-upper arm circumferences were smaller by 300 g, 1.1 cm, 0.7 cm and 0.4 cm respectively compared with ‘No malaria’ (all p≤0.005). In babies of mothers who had ‘malaria at delivery’, their SBPs adjusted for other confounders were lower respectively by 4.3 and 5.7 mmHg/kg compared with ‘malaria during pregnancy only’ or ‘none’. In contrast the mean newborn systolic (SBP) and diastolic BPs (DBP) adjusted for birth weight were higher by 1.7 and 1.4 mmHg/kg respectively in babies whose mothers had high compared with low parasitaemia. Conclusions As expected, prenatal malarial exposure had a significant impact on fetal growth rates. Malaria at delivery was associated with the lowest newborn BPs while malaria through pregnancy, which may attenuate growth of the vascular network, generated higher newborn BPs adjusted for size. These neonatal findings have potential implications for cardiovascular health in sub-Saharan Africa.
Maternal haematocrit and pregnancy outcome in Nigerian women
CO Aimakhu, O Olayemi
West African Journal of Medicine , 2003,
Abstract: Anaemia is the most common medical disorder in pregnancy4 and a direct or indirect cause of maternal and perinatal mortality; therefore antenatal care should be concerned with early detection and management. The incidence of anaemia in 735 normal singleton pregnant patients at booking in the University College Hospital, UCH, Ibadan, between the 1st of June 2000 and 31 of May 2001 was 15%. Six hundred and thirty-three of the patients (86.1%) presented for delivery at this centre. Five hundred and sixty seven (89.6%) of the patients were not anaemic when seen in labour, reducing the incidence of anaemia to 10.4%. Forty-two (6.6%) and 24 (3.8%) patients had mild and moderate anaemia respectively. No patient had severe anaemia. Of those presenting in labour, 195 (30.8%) were primigravid, while 417 (65.9%) and 21 (3.3%) were multiparous and grandmultiparous respectively. Five hundred and twenty-eight (83.4%) were aged between 21 and 35 years. The mean gestational age at booking was 21.3 weeks and at delivery was 38.7 weeks. Spontaneous vertex delivery was achieved in 76.3% with 96.7% having live births. The perinatal mortality rate was 33 per 1,000 births. Stillbirths occurred more in the moderately anaemic patients. The higher the packed cell volume in labour, the greater the birth weight, better the Apgar scores but the more the blood loss at delivery. The babies of the patients with a normal packed cell volume had better Apgar scores at one minute, which was statistically significant (p value < 0.05), but the mildly anaemic patients had babies with better Apgar scores at 5 minutes. This was however not statistically significant. There was no maternal death.
Haematological Changes in Guinea Fowls (Numida meleagris galeata, Pallas) Following Haemorrhage
F.O. Olayemi
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2009,
Abstract: Haematological changes associated with haemorrhage were determined in the guinea fowl (Numida meleagris galeata, Pallas). The red blood cell, packed cell volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin decreased significantly (p<0.05) at 4 h post- haemorrhage and returned to normalcy one week after hemorrhage. After 4 h of hemorrhage, the haemoglobin concentration also fell significantly (p<0.05). The fall persisted the through the first week post-haemorrhage, it returned to normal value after 4 weeks of haemorrhage. The mean corpuscular volume was not affected for the first week after haemmorhage, but it fell significantly (p<0.05) at the fourth week of haemmorhage. The mean corpuscular haemoglobin was not altered by hemorrhage. This study showed that guinea fowls withstood 30% loss of blood and the haematological values were fully restored by the fourth weeks after haemorrhage.
A Critical Yoruba Ontology in the Ifa Corpus
Omotade Adegbidin
Lumina , 2011,
Abstract: Drawing heavily from Ifa oral text, this paper attempts to unearth the error which underlie the overt assumption that the nature of God in Africa is polytheistic and the idea that human destiny has only folkloric significance. More precisely, this paper is a response to (i) ontological questions that border on the seeming polytheistic nature of Yoruba (prototypical African) religion; (ii) monistic theory that sees the human person as essentially material or, by extension, the scientific view that human beings are physico-chemical mechanisms; (iii) the fatalist interpretation of ori (controller of destiny, in the metaphysical sense) which rests on the assumption that human destiny is unalterable.
Effect of age on the blood profiles of the New Zealand rabbit in Nigeria
F.O Olayemi, HO Nottidge
African Journal of Biomedical Research , 2007,
Abstract: The hematological and biochemical parameters of the young (4-8 week old) and adult (52-80 week-old) New Zealand rabbit were determined. The young rabbit had significantly higher plasma concentrations of creatinine (P<0.01), alkaline phosphatase (P<0.05), alanine aminootransaminase (P<0.02) and total protein (P<0.02) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (P<0.001). However, the red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts, haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and the plasma levels of sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, urea, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio and aspartate aminotranferase were similar in the young and adult rabbit. (Afr. J. Biomed. Res. 10:99 - 102, January 2007)
Uterine rupture: UCH, Ibadan experience
T Ogunnowo, O Olayemi, CO Aimakhu
West African Journal of Medicine , 2003,
Abstract: Objective: To determine the incidence, predisposing factors, maternal and fetal outcome of uterine rupture patients at the University College Hospital (U. C. H.), Ibadan. Materials and Methods: A 5-year retropective study of patients with uterine rupture in U. C. H., Ibadan between January 1996 - December, 2000 was done. Results: Thirty five cases of uterine rupture out of a total delivery of 4531 were recorded over the 5-year period. An incidence of 7.75/1000 deliveries or 0.72% was obtained and the yearly trend showss it's on the increase. 85.7% of the patients were unbooked. Common modes of presentation were bleeding per vaginam and abdominal pain. Spontaneous cause of rupture predominates. The interval between diagnosis and surgery was greater than 7 hours in 75% of cases. Uterine repair with or without tubal ligation was commonly employed. Case fatality rate was high at 17.9%. Perinatal mortality was 92.5%. Other maternal morbidities include anaemia, puerperal and wound sepsis, vesico-vaginal fistula and prolonged hospital stay. Conclusion: All the indice at the present time are higher than they were 10 years ago. The incidence is still high and is on the increase. Attributable reasons include type I, II, III delays in health care service utilization associated with poor socioeconomic status of patients and lack of essential drugs and compatible blood in the hospitals.
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in HIV-infected patients: A hospital based study
Olayemi E,Awodu O,Bazuaye G
Annals of African Medicine , 2008,
Abstract: Background : The prevalence of anemia in HIV/ AIDS patients is high, with a multitude of possible etiologies; autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) in HIV/AIDS patients has been associated with a poor prognosis when treated with red cell transfusion. Our aim was to demonstrate the frequency of AIHA in a cohort of adult Nigerian HIV/AIDS patients and to see if the presence or not of AIHA is related to the severity of the disease with regards to the CD4 counts and the presence or absence of opportunistic infections. Method : Ninety- eight adult patients with HIV infection were screened for the presence of AIHA using the packed cell volume (PCV), direct antiglobulin test (DAT) and reticulocyte count (RC). Results : The frequency of AIHA was 3.06%, 36.74% of our study population were anemic; 11.22% had a positive DAT. Mean RC was 2.22 +/- 0.90 for all the patients. There was no statistically significant difference in the PCV of patients that had positive and negative DAT. There was no correlation between the presence of AIHA, use of ART, presence of opportunistic infections or CD4 counts. Conclusion : We conclude that in spite of the low frequency of AIHA in HIV/AIDS patients, the fact that most patients will respond to standard treatment makes it imperative to screen HIV/AIDS patients with anemia for the presence of AIHA. Again since HIV/AIDS patients with AIHA may have a fatal reaction to red cell transfusion, we suggest that anemic patients with HIV/AIDS in non-emergency situations be screened for the presence of AIHA before receiving red cell transfusions when indicated.
Sustenance of Tourism Industry for the Socio-economic Development of Ekiti State, Nigeria
Olayemi O. Simon-oke,Amen O. Jegede
Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jedp.v2n2p51
Abstract: This study examined the sustenance of tourism sector for the socio-economic development of Ekiti State, Nigeria. Tourism is playing an increasingly important role in the economy of many nations in the world today, especially in the area of job creation. Data for this study were collected from primary sources through the administration of two (2) sets of a well structured interview questionnaire. One hundred and fifty (150) were administered on workers/management of the randomly selected (50 each) in the study area. Another 150 questionnaires (50 each) were also randomly administered on visitors/patronizers of the hotels in the study area. Results from this study showed that management practices as well as management information system (MIS) in most of the hotels from the study area varies and not encouraging. This study therefore recommends that modern management practices and information system should be a priority in the study area. This study will be useful to government, planners, researchers, investors, policy makers and individuals in ensuring the sustenance of tourism for the socio-economic development of Ekiti State, Nigeria.
Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic and Hypnotic of Aqueous Bulb Extract of Crinum glaucum A. Chev (Amaryllidaceae): Role of GABAergic and Nitrergic Systems
Ismail O. Ishola,Sunday O. Olayemi,Abidemi R. Idowu
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: Crinum glaucum A. Chev (Amaryllidaceae) (CG) is a bulbous plant widely used in folk medicine in the treatment of cough, asthma and convulsions. This study was carried out to investigate the anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and hypnotic effects of the aqueous bulb extract of C. glaucum and its possible mechanism (s) of action. The anticonvulsant activity of C. glaucum extract (400-1200 mg kg-1 p.o.) was investigated using picrotoxin, strychnine, isoniazid, pentylenetetrazol and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced seizures in mice while the elevated plus maze test (EPM) and hexobarbitone-induced sleeping time (HIST) were used to evaluate the anxiolytic and hypnotic effects, respectively. Animals were pretreated with flumazenil (3 mg kg-1; i.p. GABAA receptor antagonist), cyproheptadine (4 mg kg-1; i.p. 5-HT2 receptor antagonist), L-arginine (500 mg kg-1; p.o. Nitric Oxide (NO) precursor) and L-Nitroarginine (L-NNA) (10 mg kg-1 i.p. Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) inhibitor) were used to investigate the probable mechanism (s) of anticonvulsant activity. Oral administration of CG significantly (p<0.001) delayed the onset of seizures induced by picrotoxin, strychnine, isoniazid and pentylenetetrazol with peak effect at 1200 mg kg-1 in comparison to control groups. CG (800 and 1200 mg kg-1) strongly antagonized NMDA-induced turning behavior. Pretreatment of mice with cyproheptadine could not reverse the anticonvulsant effect of CG. However, pretreatment with flumazenil and L-NNA significantly (p<0.05) reversed the anticonvulsant effect of CG while L-arginine pretreatment significantly (p<0.001) delayed the onset of seizures when compared with control and extract (1200 mg kg-1 only). CG potentiated hexobarbitone-induced sleeping time with peak effect at 400 mg kg-1 and also significantly (p<0.05) increased open arm exploration in EPM and had its peak anxiolytic effect at 100 mg kg-1. The data obtained suggests that aqueous bulb extract of Crinum glaucum possess anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and hypnotic activities which involve an interaction with GABAergic, nitrergic and glutaminergic systems to exert its effects.
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