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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5098 matches for " Odera Susan Akinyi "
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Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Metallo-β-Lactamase Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates at Kenyatta National Hospital  [PDF]
Jane Njeri Karuitha, Odera Susan Akinyi, Maina Anne Njeri, Mureithi Marianne
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.811059
Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of nosocomial infections with high mortality rates. The organism is highly resistant to most classes of drugs used and can develop resistance during treatment. One of the resistance mechanisms of P. aeruginosais is Metallo-β-Lactamase (MBL) production. MBL producing P. aeruginosa is a major health concern given it’s resistance to almost all available drugs. The prevalence of this resistant strain is unknown since there is no standardized method for testing MBL production. This was a laboratory based cross-sectional prospective study that was carried out from September 2015 to March 2016 at Kenyatta National Hospital. Ninety-nine isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected during the period and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and isolates found to be resistant to imipenem tested for MBL production. The results indicated high resistance of P. aeruginosa to commonly used drugs. Of the isolates tested 69.7% were resistant to piperacillin, 63.6% were resistant to aztreonam, 58.6% were resistant to levofloxacin, 55.6% were resistant to cefipime, 65.7% were resistant to ceftazidime, 68.7% were resistant to ticarcillin-clavulanate, 72.2% were resistant to meropenem, 64.9% were resistance to imipenem while 86.4% of urine isolates were resistant to ofloxacin. Of the isolates resistant to imipenem 87.3% were found to be MBL producers. In conclusion, P. aeruginosais highly resistant to the drugs currently is used for treatment and resistance to carbapenems is largely due to MBL production.
Leveraging GIS in Supply Chain Management for Floriculture Application: Nairobi County, Kenya  [PDF]
Catherine Akinyi Odera, Faith Njoki Karanja
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2019.113024
Abstract: Agriculture continues to be the bedrock of Kenya’s economy at 24% of the GDP with 80% of the population living in the rural areas. Horticulture one of the sub-sectors in agriculture generates US$1 billion annually. The favorable weather provides an environment for the flower industry to thrive. However, flowers are a very delicate commodity and require appropriate management to minimize losses due to decay. A GIS based system is thus desirable to manage the flower chain from the supplier that is the farms, to distributors and eventually to the florists/consumers. The goal of this study therefore was to leverage the use of GIS in managing the supply chain for floriculture application using Nairobi County as a case study. One of the objectives addressed involved identification of optimal or alternative routes for efficient delivery of flowers from the source to the consumer using Network analysis. Ensuring that customers receive the right flowers in terms of quality and quantity was also addressed using Business Intelligence analysis. Trace analysis was done to provide information to the consumers on the source of the flowers and the growing conditions. From the case study, City Market acted as the link between the flower farms and the florists/consumers. The results obtained were presented using maps, graphs, pie charts and tables. The Central Business District (CBD) was found to be the largest purchaser compared to other regions and the months considered. Karen and CBD were the highest purchasers of Lilies whereas Ferns were preferred in Westlands. The CBD registered high level of satisfaction followed by Karen. Greenhouses and hydroponic methods were used for growing flowers resulting in variations in terms of vase life and stem length. GIS in SCM for floriculture application is useful in understanding the floriculture business environment.
Kiswahili usage in ICT in NEPAD secondary schools in Kenya
Jagero Akinyi
Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa , 2010,
Abstract: There has been tremendous increase in Kiswahili usage in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). This has been credited to the various projects that have been initiated in the computer and internet. In addition, Kiswahili is among the languages that have been accepted for use in ICT. This paper discusses Kiswahili usage in ICT in two New Partnerships for Africa's Development (NEPAD) sponsored schools in Kenya that use Microsoft software: Chavakali and Maranda Boy's secondary schools. This study is guided by a model developed from a combination of two theories: Use and Gratification theory and Symbolic Interaction theory. Data from the two schools are analyzed using qualitative and quantitative analysis. An attempt is also made to demonstrate that Kiswahili usage in ICT in school is influenced by the language used in teaching and learning in school. The data for this work came from 120 students selected through simple random sampling and 8 teachers of Kiswahili from the two schools selected through saturated sampling technique. From the analysis of the responses from the study it is evident that a small percentage of teachers and students use Kiswahili in ICT in school. However, the study was able to come up with various uses of Kiswahili in ICT such as accessing the internet, learning and communicating with friends through email.
Corporate Governance Problems of Savings, Credit and Cooperative Societies
Odhiambo Odera
International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The study discusses the corporate governance problems of Savings, Credit and Cooperative Societies (SACCOs). It examines both the corporate governance theories and conflicts of governance associated with SACCOs. Problems frequently occur in SACCOs due to one or more of the following reasons; lack of clear and proper rules separating management from decision making, unqualified personnel in management, inadequate managerial competitiveness, failure of membership and boards to exercise fiduciary responsibility and the one member one vote (OMOV) system. Several measures against the SACCO governance problems such as having clear rules in the SACCO bylaws and identifying who are the stakeholders dominating the SACCO should help to ensure good governance.
Phyllis Arogo Akinyi, Jacqueline Omuya
Africa International journal of management education and Governance , 2016, DOI: -
Abstract: There has been growing concerns about the fact that African media has failed to commit itself to ensuring that the gender question becomes a standard of measure for press freedom and access to information on the continent. The use of the female body as a mere decoration or as an attention-getting device diminishes women's self-esteem and ignores other aspects of women's personality, their human potential and contributions to economic empowerment for development. Women are underrepresented in political, social and economic reporting; this results in limiting the freedom of expression caused by self-censorship by a male dominated industry. It is a cause of concern on the portrayal of women in household-related roles, mostly in advertisements for household products, particularly becau se of the repetitiousness of the housewife image. The media does not fully recognize the dynamism that women display in the economic, cultural and social lives of their communities through their associations and informal networks channeled into creating new models of participation and leadership. This paper therefore explores the need for positive women access and use of the media for economic empowerment in Africa; it examines the challenges facing the portrayal of women in the media and makes recommendations on how increase women's representation in decision-making structures in media houses and develop structures and frameworks for gender mainstreaming based on laws and policies for sustained economic empowerment of women.This paper explores secondary data from text books, and journals to conclude that, without meaningful commitment in the form of policy changes and the provision of resources to address women conditions and involvement in the media representation; Africa cannot hope to see a breakthrough in its development and renewal. It recommends that, greater awareness and supportive environment needs to be enhanced by the media for women to be more self-reflective and have a greater awareness of their own weaknesses, challenges, strengths and opportunities. Women should be exposed to more in-depth training and development to gain not only knowledge and skills but also wisdom in order to be authentic leaders with integrity. Also, there should be is an urgent need to increase the knowledge and ability of mass media professionals to create more awareness on gender issues.
Challenges in the use of Scientific Calculators in the Teaching and Learning Mathematics in Secondary School Education
Florence Y. Odera
International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Research , 2011,
Abstract: The recent past has witnessed a huge investment in computer education in schools, colleges, and universities around the world. Research from developed countries indicates that the introduction of computers into school system came about as a result of the government policy pronouncement. Most of the policy statements were written documents and others were not documented for circulation to schools but were contained in the existing educational policies. Countries like Australia, Britain, America, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Norway among others, have already put technology policies in place and already reaping the benefits. Kenya had not had an ICT policy until 2005 when the government came with an ICT policy in the Sessional Paper No 1 of 2005. All Principals of secondary schools were expected to implement the policy and at the same time formulate own school ICT policy. The purpose of this study was to find out if Principals of secondary schools in Nyanza Province implemented ICT policy by formulating their own school ICT policy for the use of computers in teaching and learning. The study was based on mixed method research design that used both qualitative and quantitative approaches design and was carried out in 80 Public secondary schools that had computers at the time of this research. The schools represented rural, urban and suburban areas. The participants included 44 male and 36 female principals. Data was collected by use of questionnaire, semi-structured interviews and documentary analysis. Data analysis combined qualitative and quantitative methods. The main research findings indicated that the Ministry of Education policy on the use of computers was being implemented by public secondary schools since the Ministry of Education policy automatically becomes the school policy. Most of the Principals 76% had a policy for the use of computers in teaching and learning but 24% were in the process of formulating computer education policy. The study suggested that all teachers, students and the school community should be informed about the policy and the importance of its implementation.
Policy Guidelines and Challenges in Quality Assurance in Distance Learning in Kenyan Public Universities
Betty Mayeku,Odera Florence
International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Research , 2011,
Abstract: The concept of Distance Learning (DL) has been embraced by schools, colleges and universities around the world. Distance Learning is causing a revolution in higher education in Kenya. The country is opting for Distance Learning models in order to help meet growing demands for higher education places and meet the country’s national development goals within diminishing resources. However, there has been a problem in that many Kenyans still remain skeptical not only about the concept of distance learning but also about the potential quality of the programmes. The purpose of this study was to examine the existing standards and mechanisms put in place to ensure quality in DL in Kenyan public universities with a focus on the practices and processes of quality assurance in the core functions of all DL programmes. The objectives of the study were: to find out the policies and guidelines governing quality assurance in Distance Learning, to evaluate the extent to which the DL programmes fulfill the set quality assurance objectives and to identify the major issues confronting the successful adoption and sustained use of these mechanisms. The study focused on the fundamental features of the institutional operations which include: Institution mission, institution organizational structure, institution resources, curriculum and instruction, academic staff qualification and faculty support, student support and student learning outcome. The main findings indicated that there were no clear written policies or guidelines on DL programmes at the national level. At the institutional level, some of the challenges faced in ensuring quality in DL included: inadequate resources, poor infrastructure and support for distance learning, poor teaching/learning practices, scarcity of computing resources for technology enhanced distance education among others. The study therefore recommends that: the government formulates a policy on Open and Distance Education, the institutions to set and maintain standards for quality assurance in the various DL programmes and establish structures for management of various DL programmes showing distinctions from the different modes of provision. The study may be significant to policy makers, accreditation bodies and institutions involved in Distance learning programmes to evaluate and enhance their quality assurance mechanism so that they can improve the quality of their services to the students.
Characterization of the Thermo-Microstructural Analysis of Raffia Palm Fibers Proposed for Roofing Sheet Production  [PDF]
R. S. Odera, O. D. Onukwuli, C. U. Atuanya
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2015.34036
Abstract: Raffia fibres are made from fibrous branches and leaves of Raffia palm. The membrane on the underside of each individual frond leaf is taken off to create a long thin fiber. They are usually waste materials which cause a great environmental degradation. The characterization of Raffia palm fibers/ particles was investigated through X-ray diffractometer (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), Scanning electron mi croscope with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS) and Atomic force microscope (AFM). The various results obtained are equivalent to those of other agro-waste materials generally used in roofing sheets composites production. Hence, this work shows that Raffia palm fibers/particles can be a useful material for cement mortar composites production which can be used for production of roofing sheets.
Spatial Modelling of Weather Variables for Plant Disease Applications in Mwea Region  [PDF]
Paul Onyango Ouma, Patroba Achola Odera, John Bosco Mukundi
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2016.45013
Abstract: Climate change is expected to affect the agricultural systems, such as crop yield and plant disease occurrence and spread. To be able to mitigate against the negative impacts of climate change, there is a need to use early warning systems that account for expected changes in weather variables such as temperature and rainfall. Moreover, providing such information at high spatial and temporal resolutions can be useful in improving the accuracy of an early warning system. This paper describes a methodology that can be used to produce high spatial and temporal resolutions of minimum temperature, maximum temperature and rainfall in an agricultural area. We utilize MarkSim GCM, a weather file generator that incorporates IPCC based climate change models to downscale the weather variables at monthly intervals. An ensemble of 17 GCM models is used within the RCP 8.0 emission scenario within the latest model based CMIP5. We first assess the usability of the model, by comparing results produced to what has been recorded at weather station level over a vast region. Then, we estimate the correction factors for model results by implementing a linear regression that is used to assess the relationship between the variables and the deviation of model outputs to the weather station data. Finally, we use kriging geostatistical technique to interpolate the weather data, for the year 2010. Results indicated that the model overestimated the results of maximum temperature, while underestimating the result of minimum temperature. Variability in the recorded weather variables was also evident, indicating that the response variables such as plant disease severity dependent on such weather information could vary in the area. These datasets can be useful especially in predicting the occurrence of plant diseases, which are affected by either rainfall or temperature.
Determination of Suitable Sites for Establishment of Large-Scale Concentrated Solar Power Plants in Kenya  [PDF]
Joan Njeri Gathu, Patroba Achola Odera, Edward Hunja Waithaka
Natural Resources (NR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2017.81001
Abstract: The demand for energy in Kenya, especially for electricity, is increasing rapidly due to population growth, decentralization of governance, and technological and industrial development. Hydroelectricity, the core source of power, has proved unreliable due to the rapid climate change. In response, the country has ventured into other renewable sources to counter the issues posed by the alternative nonrenewable sources such as unreliability, high costs, and environmental degradation as seen with the use of diesel and kerosene. The purpose of this research is to determine the viability of setting up a large-scale concentrated solar power plantation in Kenya that will assist in stabilizing Kenya’s energy demand and supply as well as increase its affordability. The project is divided into three phases. The first phase conducts an overlay analysis to determine the Kenya’s solar energy potential. The results show that the northern region has the highest potential. The second step involves the creation of an exclusion mask which eliminates the unsuitable land forms and Land Use Land Cover. Based on the results, the best ten sites are situated in Turkana and Marsabit counties. The final phase involves the evaluation of the potential capacity of power that could be generated per square kilometer. The study finds out that the potential varies based on the technologies: parabolic trough, linear Fresnel reflector, or dish systems.
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