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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401551 matches for " Odd M Vallersnes "
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Outpatient treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo: poisoning pattern, factors associated with hospitalization, and mortality
Cathrine Lund, Odd M Vallersnes, Dag Jacobsen, Oivind Ekeberg, Knut E Hovda
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1757-7241-20-1
Abstract: All acute poisonings in adults (> or = 16 years) treated at the EMA during one year (April 2008 to April 2009) were included consecutively in an observational study design. The treating physicians completed a standardized form comprising information needed to address the study's aims. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with hospitalization.There were 2348 contacts for 1856 individuals; 1157 (62%) were male, and the median age was 34 years. The most frequent main toxic agents were ethanol (43%), opioids (22%) and CO or fire smoke (10%). The physicians classified 73% as accidental overdoses with substances of abuse taken for recreational purposes, 15% as other accidents (self-inflicted or other) and 11% as suicide attempts. Most (91%) patients were treated with observation only. The median observation time until discharge was 3.8 hours. No patient developed sequelae or died at the EMA. Seventeen per cent were hospitalized. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, respiratory depression, paracetamol, reduced consciousness and suicidal intention were factors associated with hospitalization. Forty-eight per cent were discharged without referral to follow-up. The one-month mortality was 0.6%. Of the nine deaths, five were by new accidental overdose with substances of abuse.More than twice as many patients were treated at the EMA compared with all hospitals in Oslo. Despite more than a doubling of the annual number of poisoned patients treated at the EMA since 2003, there was no mortality or sequelae, indicating that the current practice is safe. Thus, most low- to intermediate-acuity poisonings can be treated safely without the need to access hospital resources. Although the short-term mortality was low, more follow-up of patients with substance abuse should be encouraged.Efficiency and cost control are both universal political health goals. In Norway, one approach is to treat patients at the lowest health care level possible without i
Overlevelses- og forl psanalyse: Det tematiske omr det Norevent
Odd O. fl Aalen m.
Norsk Epidemiologi , 2009,
Abstract: -
Metabolic syndrome in Russian adults: associated factors and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes
Oleg Sidorenkov, Odd Nilssen, Andrej M Grjibovski
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-582
Abstract: Data on 3555 adults aged 18-90 years were collected in a cross-sectional study in 2000. MetS was defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria. Sex-specific associations between the IDF-defined MetS, its components, and life-style, socio-economic factors and laboratory indicators, were analysed using multivariable Poisson regression. Vital status of the study participants was identified by July 2009. Sex-specific associations between MetS and stroke, Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), CVD and all-cause death, were studied by Poisson regression adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol and history of CVDs.After adjustment for all studied factors except BMI, age, serum GGT, C-reactive protein and AST-to-ALT ratio were associated with MetS in both genders. Additionally, MetS was associated with sedentary lifestyle in women and with smoking in men. In the same regression model drinking alcohol 2-4 times a month and consumption of five or more alcohol units at one occasion in men, and drinking alcohol 5 times or more a month in women were inversely associated with MetS. After a 9-year follow-up, MetS was associated with higher risk of death from stroke (RR = 3.76, 95% CI:1.35-10.46) and from either stroke or myocardial infarction (MI, RR = 2.87, 95% CI:1.32-6.23) in men. No associations between MetS and any of the studied causes of death were observed in women.Factors associated with MetS in both genders were age, GGT, C-reactive protein, and AST-to-ALT ratio. Moderate frequency of alcohol consumption and binge drinking in men and higher leisure time physical activity in women, were inversely associated with MetS.Positive associations between MetS and mortality were only observed for deaths from stroke and either stroke or MI in men.The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of four major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; obesity, insulin resistance (hyperglycemia), arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia wh
Slow Drift-Oscillations of a Ship in Irregular Waves
Odd M. Faltinsen,Arne E. L?ken
Modeling, Identification and Control , 1980, DOI: 10.4173/mic.1980.4.1
Abstract: A procedure to calculate horizontal slow drift excitation forces on an infinitely long horizontal cylinder in irregular beam sea waves is presented. The hydrodynamic boundary-value problem is solved correctly to second order in wave amplitude. Results in the form of second order transfer functions are presented for different, two-dimensional shapes. It is concluded that Newman's approximative method is a practical way to calculate slow drift excitation forces on a ship in beam sea and it is suggested that it may be used in a more general case. Applications of the results for moored ships are discussed.
Psykisk helse i Helse- og levek rsunders kelsen i 1998. II. Geografiske forskjeller
Odd Steffen Dalgard m.fl
Norsk Epidemiologi , 2009,
Abstract: -
Smear microscopy and culture conversion rates among smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients by HIV status in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Mbazi Senkoro, Sayoki G Mfinanga, Odd M?rkve
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-210
Abstract: The study was a prospective cohort study which lasted for nine months, from April to December 2008A total of 502 smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were recruited. HIV test results were obtained for 498 patients, of which 33.7% were HIV positive.After two weeks of treatment the conversion rate by standard sputum microscopy was higher in HIV positive(72.8%) than HIV negative(63.3%) patients by univariate analysis(P = 0.046), but not in multivariate analysis. Also after two weeks of treatment the conversion rate by fluorescence microscopy was higher in HIV positive (72.8%) than in HIV negative(63.2%) patients by univariate analysis (P = 0.043) but not in the multivariate analysis. The conversion rates by both methods during the rest of the treatment period (8, 12, and 20 weeks) were not significantly different between HIV positive and HIV negative patients.With regards to culture, the conversion rate during the whole period of the treatment (2, 8, 12 and 20 weeks) were not significantly different between HIV positive and HIV negative patients.Conversion rates of standard smear microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and culture did not differ between HIV positive and HIV negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients.The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are almost 13.7milion people living with tuberculosis and that the disease kills more young people and adults than any other infectious disease in the world. A total of about 1.77 million people died of tuberculosis in 2007 including 456,000 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Among the world's 22 countries with the largest tuberculosis burden, Tanzania ranks 15th [1] and tuberculosis has continued to be among the major public health problems in the country[2]. Tuberculosis control aims to reduce the spread of the infection and the most efficient method for preventing transmission is identification and cure of infectious pulmonary tuberculosis patients [3]. Monitoring tuberc
Promising outcomes of a national programme for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Addis Ababa: a retrospective study
Alemnesh H Mirkuzie, Sven Hinderaker, Odd M?rkve
BMC Health Services Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-267
Abstract: Reports from February 2004 to August 2009 were reviewed in 10 sub-cities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The data was collected from May to October 2009.The proportion of women who received HIV counselling and testing among new antenatal care attendees increased from 50.7% (95% CI 50.2-51.2) in 2007 to 84.5% (95% CI 84.1-84.9) in 2009 following the shift to routine opt-out testing. Nevertheless, in 2009 only 53.7% of the positive women and 40.7% of their infants received antiretroviral prophylaxis. The HIV prevalence among antenatal attendees decreased significantly from 10.5% in 2004 to 4.6% in 2009 in parallel to the increased number of women being tested. The HIV positive women were over 18 times (RR 18.5, p < 0.0001) more likely to be referred for treatment, care and support in 2009 than in 2004. The proportion of partners tested for HIV decreased by 14% in 2009 compared to 2004, although the absolute number was increasing year by year. Only 10.6% (95% CI 9.9-11.2) of the HIV positive women completed their follow up to infant HIV testing. The cumulative probability of HIV infection among babies on single dose nevirapine regimen who were tested at >=18 months was 15.0% (95% CI 9.8-22.1) in 2007, whereas it was 8.2% (95% CI 5.55-11.97) among babies on Zidovudine regimen who were tested at >=45 days in 2009.The paper demonstrates trends in PMTCT service utilization in relation to changing policy. There is marked improvement in HIV counselling and testing service utilization, especially after the policy shift to routine opt-out testing. However, despite policy changes, the ARV prophylaxis uptake, the loss to follow up and the partner testing have remained unchanged across the years. This should be a matter of immediate concern and a topic for further research.Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) is still the most effective intervention in combating new HIV infections [1]. When the possibility of having an efficacious vaccine seems questionable, as report
Bovine milk in human nutrition – a review
Anna Haug, Arne T H?stmark, Odd M Harstad
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-6-25
Abstract: Bovine milk and dairy products have long traditions in human nutrition. The significance of milk is reflected in our northern mythology where a cow named Audhumla was evolved from the melting ice. She had horn and milk was running as rivers from her teats. This milk was the food for Ymer, the first creature ever existing [1].The consumption of milk and milk products vary considerably among regions; of drinking milk from about 180 kg yearly per capita in Island and Finland to less than 50 kg in Japan and China [2]. In the western societies, the consumption of milk has decreased during the last decades [3]. This trend may partly be explained by the claimed negative health effects that have been attributed to milk and milk products. This criticism has arisen especially because milk fat contains a high fraction of saturated fatty acids assumed to contribute to heart diseases, weight gain and obesity [4].The association between food and health is well established [4] and recent studies have shown that modifiable risk factors seem to be of greater significance for health than previously anticipated [5]. Prevention of disease may in the future be just as important as treatment of diseases. Indeed, many consumers of today are highly aware of health-properties of food, and the market for healthy food and food with special health benefits is increasing.Milk is a complex food made up of components, which per se may have negative or positive health effects, respectively. Milk composition can be altered by the feeding regime. The main aim of this review is to discuss effects of milk components that are of particular interest for human health, and to give an overview of the potential for manipulation of bovine milk by feeding regimes to the lactating cows, thus giving improved nutritional composition of the milk for human consumption.Bovine milk contains the nutrients needed for growth and development of the calf, and is a resource of lipids, proteins, amino acids, vitamins and m
Tuberculosis case-finding through a village outreach programme in a rural setting in southern Ethiopia: community randomized trial
Shargie,Estifanos Biru; M?rkve,Odd; Lindtj?rn,Bernt;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862006000200011
Abstract: objective: to ascertain whether case-finding through community outreach in a rural setting has an effect on case-notification rate, symptom duration, and treatment outcome of smear-positive tuberculosis (tb). methods: we randomly allocated 32 rural communities to intervention or control groups. in intervention communities, health workers from seven health centres held monthly diagnostic outreach clinics at which they obtained sputum samples for sputum microscopy from symptomatic tb suspects. in addition, trained community promoters distributed leaflets and discussed symptoms of tb during house visits and at popular gatherings. symptomatic individuals were encouraged to visit the outreach team or a nearby health facility. in control communities, cases were detected through passive case-finding among symptomatic suspects reporting to health facilities. smear-positive tb patients from the intervention and control communities diagnosed during the study period were prospectively enrolled. findings: in the 1-year study period, 159 and 221 cases of smear-positive tb were detected in the intervention and control groups, respectively. case-notification rates in all age groups were 124.6/105 and 98.1/105 person-years, respectively (p = 0.12). the corresponding rates in adults older than 14 years were 207/105 and 158/105 person-years, respectively (p = 0.09). the proportion of patients with >3 months' symptom duration was 41% in the intervention group compared with 63% in the control group (p<0.001). pre-treatment symptom duration in the intervention group fell by 55-60% compared with 3-20% in the control group. in the intervention and control groups, 81% and 75%, respectively of patients successfully completed treatment (p = 0.12). conclusion: the intervention was effective in improving the speed but not the extent of case finding for smear-positive tb in this setting. both groups had comparable treatment outcomes.
Explaining reduction of pedestrian–motor vehicle crashes in Arkhangelsk, Russia, in 2005–2010
Alexander V. Kudryavtsev,Odd Nilssen,Johan Lund,Andrej M. Grjibovski
International Journal of Circumpolar Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/ijch.v71i0.19107
Abstract: Objective. To explain a reduction in pedestrian–motor vehicle crashes in Arkhangelsk, Russia, in 2005–2010. Study design. Retrospective ecological study. Methods. For 2005–2010, police data on pedestrian–motor vehicle crashes, traffic violations, and total motor vehicles (MVs) were combined with data on changes in national road traffic legislation and municipal road infrastructure. Negative binomial regression was used to investigate trends in monthly rates of pedestrian–motor vehicle crashes per total MVs and estimate changes in these rates per unit changes in the safety measures. Results. During the 6 years, the police registered 2,565 pedestrian–motor vehicle crashes: 1,597 (62%) outside crosswalks, 766 (30%) on non-signalized crosswalks, and 202 (8%) on signalized crosswalks. Crash rates outside crosswalks and on signalized crosswalks decreased on average by 1.1% per month, whereas the crash rate on non-signalized crosswalks remained unchanged. Numbers of signalized and non-signalized crosswalks increased by 14 and 19%, respectively. Also, 10% of non-signalized crosswalks were combined with speed humps, and 4% with light-reflecting vertical signs. Pedestrian penalties for traffic violations increased 4-fold. Driver penalties for ignoring prohibiting signal and failure to give way to pedestrian on non-signalized crosswalk increased 7- and 8-fold, respectively. The rate of total registered drivers’ traffic violations per total MVs decreased on average by 0.3% per month. All studied infrastructure and legislative measures had inverse associations with the rate of crashes outside crosswalks. The rate of crashes on signalized crosswalks showed inverse associations with related monetary penalties. Conclusions. The introduction of infrastructure and legislative measures is the most probable explanation of the reduction of pedestrian–motor vehicle crashes in Arkhangelsk. The overall reduction is due to decreases in rates of crashes outside crosswalks and on signalized crosswalks. No change was observed in the rate of crashes on non-signalized crosswalks.
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