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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 547 matches for " OA Odunola "
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Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) protect against sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats
MA Gbadegesin, OA Odunola
Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: We evaluated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) on sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. We observed that treatment of the animals with the extracts before or just after sodium arsenite administration significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mean liver and serum γ-Glutamyl transferase (γGT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities when compared with the group administered the toxin alone. In addition, treatments of the animals with aqueous or ethanolic extract of O. basilicum before the administration of sodium arsenite resulted in the attenuation of the sodium arsenite-induced aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities: ALT (from 282.6 % to 167.7 % and 157.8 %), AST (from 325.1 % to 173.5 % and 164.2 %) for the group administered sodium arsenite alone, the aqueous extracts plus sodium arsenite, and ethanolic extracts plus sodium arsenite respectively, expressed as percentage of the negative control. These findings support the presence of hepatoprotective activity in the O.basilicum extracts.
SSR markers reveal genetic variation between improved cassava cultivars and landraces within a collection of Nigerian cassava germplasm
OK Moyib, OA Odunola, AGO Dixon
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: Thirty-one improved cultivars and five Nigerian landraces of cassava were assessed at genomic DNA level with 16 SSR primers for genetic diversity study. The minimum number of SSR primers that could readily be used for identification of the 36 cassava genotypes was also determined. For the genetic diversity study, the similarity coefficients generated between improved cultivars and Nigerian landraces ranged from 0.42 to 0.84, and 12 distinct DNA cluster groups were identified at 0.70 coefficients using Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System software package. For the genotype identification study, the 16 SSR primers were screened by their polymorphic information content (PIC) values. Five SSR primers that have PIC values between 0.50 and 0.67 were selected and further assessed using simple arithmetic progression combination method. The results obtained revealed a combination of these 5 primers from SSR primers collection at IITA that could readily distinguish the 36 cassava genotypes at 0.93 similarity coefficient. These five primers clustered the 36 cassavas into 16 groups at 0.70 similarity coefficient. Application of this few SSR primers would ultimately reduce the cost and time of research for genetic diversity and genotype identification studies for the genetic improvement program of cassava.
Genetic variation within a collection of Nigerian accessions of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa,/I>) revealed by RAPD primers
OK Moyib, MA Gbadegesin, OO Aina, OA Odunola
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa, Hochst. ex A. Rich, Harms) an indigenous food crop legume in tropical Africa, is highly under-exploited. Very little information is available on the nature and extent of genetic diversity of Nigerian accession of African yam bean (AYB) particularly using molecular markers. In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers were used to assess genetic diversity in twenty-four accessions of Nigerian collection of AYB. Eleven random decamer primers were used for PCR amplification, but only nine RAPD primers that gave distinct bands were considered for analysis. A total of Fifty-three RAPD bands were generated by the nine RAPD primers and analyzed using Numeric Taxonomy System of Statistic (NTSYS). The similarity indices ranged from 0.42 to 0.96; 8 distinct DNA cluster groups were identified at 0.80 similarity indexes. Results showed a high genetic diversity among Nigerian accession of African yam bean. Such genetic diversity is useful in facilitating the development of large number of new varieties through hybridization, transfer of useful genes, thus maximizing the use of such available germplasms as genetic resource materials for breeders.
Phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant potentials of defatted methanolic extract ofHolarrhena floribunda leaves
JA Badmus, OA Odunola, EM Obuotor, OO Oyedapo
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: Plant-based dietary components and additives are known to protect cells from deleterious effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Proximate, phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of methanolic extract of defatted Holarrhena floribunda (G.Don) leaves were assessed using in vitro systems such as, 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Total antioxidant activity was measured using phosphomolybdenum method. Total phenol content and the reductive potential of the extract were also evaluated. The results of the proximate analysis revealed that the leaf contained 0.23% moisture, 12.8% ash, 9.62% crude fat, 23.3% crude fibre, 21.17% protein and 32.68% carbohydrate while the phytochemical constituents included alkaloid, saponin, tannin and cardiac glycosides. The leaf extract of H. floribunda (G. Don) exhibited scavenging activity with IC50 of 12.63, 1,377.00 and 244.00 ìg/ml for DPPH, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide radical respectively. The extract conferred 50% protection at the concentration of 73.80 ìg/ml on lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4 in egg yolk. Total antioxidant capacity equivalent of gallic acid and vitamin C were 195.57 and 519.28 g/mg of extract respectively and total phenol content equivalent of gallic acid was 1427.87 ìg/mg. The reductive potential increased with increasing concentration of extract. The results obtained from this study reveal that the extract is rich in antioxidant components with several mechanisms of eliciting antioxidant actions which provide scientific basis for its use in folk medicine.
Interaction and enhancement of the toxic effects of sodium arsenite and lead acetate in wistar rats
OA Odunola, KA Akinwumi, B Ogunbiyi, O Tugbobo
African Journal of Biomedical Research , 2007,
Abstract: Continuous exposure of humans to arsenic through long–term ingestion of contaminated drinking water and its attendant health problems has been widely reported. It is also known that arsenic interact with other substances, metals inclusive thereby potentiating its effects or vice versa. In this study, we examined the effects of sodium arsenite (SA) and lead acetate (LA) in wistar rats. Sodium arsenite (2.5mg/kg bd.wt) and lead acetate (14mg/kg bd.wt) were fed to rats by gavage for fourteen consecutive days alone or simultaneously. Control rats were fed with distilled water. Clastogenic effects were observed in the bone marrow cells using the micronucleus assay. In addition, serum activities of gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine amino transferase (ALT ) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) were monitored . The findings indicate that SA and LA separately induced the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (mPCEs) in the bone marrow of the rats significantly (P < 0.05) by about 9 and 8 folds respectively. When fed simultaneously, the induction was about 22 folds as compared with the negative control group. SA significantly induced the serum activity of all the enzymes while LA significantly induce the activity of only γ-GT and ALP (P < 0.05). Simultaneous feeding of SA and LA also markedly induced the activity of all the enzymes in the serum. Mild infiltrative haemorrhage was observed in the lungs of rats exposed to the two compounds. This study underscores the enhanced toxic effect of combined or simultaneous exposure to toxic substances. (Afr. J. Biomed. Res. 10: 59 - 65 , January 2007)
Conformational Analysis (Semi Empirical PM3) and Electronic Properties of Functionalized Oligo(hexylpyrroles)
O. A. Odunola,B. Semire
Journal of Chemistry , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/617568
Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis, an Uncommonly diagnosed Cause of Failure to Thrive: Report of Five Cases.
OA Ajayi, OA Mokuolu
Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics , 2001,
Abstract: Five cases of distal renal tubular acidosis aged between 2 weeks and 2 months are described. The presenting features included lethargy, refusal to feed, high density of periodic respiration, vomiting and recurrent episodes of unexplained metabolic acidosis. A constant feature was failure to thrive despite caloric intakes in excess of normal requirements. The diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis (DRTA) was based on a urine pH>5.5 in a freshly voided urine despite concurrent or induced metabolic acidosis. All the babies responded dramatically to sodium bicarbonate supplement, as baking soda or bicarbonate of soda. The need for increased index of suspicion of DRTA in the evaluation of children in early infancy for failure to thrive and the simplicity of treatment using baking soda is discussed. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics 2001; 28:21. pp. 21-24
Rapid high performance liquid chromatographic determination of chlorpropamide in human plasma
MTB Odunola, IS Enemali, M Garba, OO Obodozie
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: Samples were extracted with dichloromethane and the organic layer evaporated to dryness. The residue was dissolved in methanol, and 25 ìl aliquot injected onto the column. Tolbutamide was used as the internal standard for chlorpropamide. The UV detector response was linear over the range 0 – 300 ìg/ml, with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 and detection limit of 1.30 ng/ml. Within day and betweenday assay variations was generally < 2.50%. No interference from endogenous constituent was observed. The utility of the method was demonstrated by determine chlorpropamide in samples from human volunteers following a single oral dose of 250 mg in drug interaction studies. The procedure is simple and fast, requiring small volumes of plasma.
Prion biology and bovine spongiform encephalopathy
Archivos de medicina veterinaria , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0301-732X2011000200002
Abstract: the complex nature of prions has intrigued the scientific community during the last 70 years. since the first indication of scrapie infectivity and the experimental transmission of the scrapie agent in 1937, prions and their associated transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses) have been under constant investigation. tses are neurodegenerative and fatal diseases with no early diagnosis, treatment or cure. despite their diverse presentations, all tses stem from the infectious, spontaneous or hereditary conversion of the host-encoded cellular prion protein prpc into the pathogenic isoform prpsc. based on the prion hypothesis, prpc has the autocatalytic or induced capacity to change its secondary configuration from a mainly α-helix structure into predominant β-sheet configuration. another enigmatic aspect of the prion biology is the potential physiological function of prpc, a protein that is widely distributed in mammalian tissues and intensely expressed in the nervous system. prpc has been associated to several biological roles including cellular adhesion, protection and differentiation. the unpredictable properties of the prpsc and the complex presentation of tses have opened many questions yet to be answered. the potential zoonotic transmission of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) has generated intense concern in the international community over animal product biosecurity. during the last years, research in prion biology has mainly focused on determination of the pathogenesis of tses and the development of diagnostic and therapeutic methods. however, further research in prion biology is required in order to understand the complex nature of tses and how these diseases can be controlled.
Climate impacts, forest-dependent rural livelihoods and adaptation strategies in Africa: A review
OA Somorin
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: The long term contribution of forests to the livelihoods of the rural poor had been long appreciated. More than half of Africa’s fast-growing population rely directly and indirectly on forests for their livelihoods. As the continent faces stresses from poverty and economic development, another major uncertainty is looming that could alter many of the relationships between people and forests. This uncertainty is climate change. Climate impacts such as changes in temperature and rainfall patterns resulting in drought, flooding, all exert significant effect on forest ecosystems and their provision of goods and services, which form the safety nets for many African rural poor. Building adaptation strategies becomes an option for forest-dependent households and communities, and even countries whose economies largely depend on the related sectors. The review details cases of impacts, underlying causes of vulnerability, and identified coping and adaptation strategies, as reported in their National Communications by many African countries to the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change.
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