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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 411200 matches for " O. S. Sanni "
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Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of NF6357A Cast Alloy for Wear Resistance Application  [PDF]
J. O. Agunsoye, V. S. Aigbodion, O. S. Sanni
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.1011082
Abstract: The solidification structure of the as-cast consists of the matrix structure that is predominantly austenite and precipitated chromium carbide along the grain boundary. Under these circumstances and where the level of impact is relatively modest, such alloys in as-cast condition will perform. However, at higher levels of impact energy, a point is reached where excessive stress are built up within the component and eventually the materials strength is exceeded and the outcome is complete failure in a characteristic stress fracture mode. If this is to be prevented, it is therefore imperative that the casting be subjected to appropriate heat treatment, to obtain a structure which consist of Cr7C3 carbide and martensite at a hardness range of 650-750HB. The microstructure of NF6357A cast chromium steel containing 2.59% C- 0.7%Si-0.91%Mn-18.54%Cr-0.019%P-0.01%S- balance–Fe after appropriate heat treatment such as quenching and tempering process have been characterised by means of optical microscope, micro hardness tester, optical emission spectrometer and charpy testing machine. The results show that oil quenched samples were found to retained microstructural consistency for casting thicker than 120mm section. For economic argument, air quenched castings of less than 120mm thickness is not only cheaper alternative, but it is also environment friendly. The fracture toughness was found to be fairly consistent between 2.4-2.6%C range. However, at higher carbon level, the fracture process is dominated by the presence of segregated carbide network which act as a weak link in the microstructure. This weak link encourages dislocation pile-up and impaired material toughness.
Study of Mechanical Behaviour of Coconut Shell Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite  [PDF]
Agunsoye J. Olumuyiwa, Talabi S. Isaac, Sanni O. Samuel
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2012.118065
Abstract: The morphology and mechanical properties of coconut shell reinforced polyethylene composite have been evaluated to establish the possibility of using it as a new material for engineering applications. Coconut shell reinforced composite was prepared by compacting low density polyethylene matrix with 5% - 25% volume fraction coconut shell particles and the effect of the particles on the mechanical properties of the composite produced was investigated. The result shows that the hardness of the composite increases with increase in coconut shell content though the tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, impact energy and ductility of the composite decreases with increase in the particle content. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the composites (with 0% - 25% particles) surfaces indicates poor interfacial interaction between the coconut shell particle and the low density polyethylene matrix. This study therefore exploits the potential of agrobased waste fiber in Nigeria as an alternative particulate material for the development of a new composite.
Effect of Combining Ultrasound and Mild Heat Treatment on Physicochemical, Nutritional Quality and Microbiological Properties of Pineapple Juice  [PDF]
Camel Lagnika, Yann C. S. Adjovi, Latifou Lagnika, Fructueux O. Gogohounga, Ornella Do-Sacramento, Raoul K. Koulony, Ambaliou Sanni
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.82015
Abstract:
Increasing consumer awareness regarding the health benefits of different nutrients in food has led to the requirement of assessing the effect of food processing approaches on the quality attributes. The present work focuses on understanding the effects of ultrasound (US) processing, mild heat pasteurization (65°C for 15 min), thermal pasteurization (80°C for 15 min) and their combination on physicochemical, microbiological properties and nutritional quality of pineapple juice through 60 days of storage at room temperature. Ultrasound treatment showed significantly lower browning degree. Ultrasound followed by ultrasound combined with mild heat pasteurization (UMP) treatments was effective in retaining the total phenolic content of pineapple juice as compared to the thermal treatment or the untreated juice sample at room temperature during 60 days of storage. Thermal pasteurization (TP) followed by ultrasound combined with mild heat pasteurization (UMP) and ultrasound (US) treatment, in increasing order, was found to be effective in delaying microbial growth in pineapple juice. This study demonstrates that ultrasound combined with mild heat pasteurization treatments could be able to effectively inactivate the microorganisms and pectin methylesterase in pineapple juice whilst preserving relatively high amount of phenols.
Assessment of Soybean Processing Technologies in Ilorin East and West Local Government Area of Kwara State of Nigeria
O.A. Ashaye,T.A. Adegbulugbe,S. Sanni
World Journal of Agricultural Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: A survey was conducted in the year to assess soybean processing technologies in Ilorin east and West local government area of Kwara State in Nigeria. Highest percentages of processors (45%) procure their raw materials from farmers and market places while (45%) of fabricators obtain theirs from Owode Onirin in Ilorin. Both processors (40%) and Fabricators (40%) greatly patronize cooperative societies for their loans. Soycheese (42.5%) was the most popular soybean based food. Traditional method of processing (72.5%) was the most popular in comparison to modern equipment's (27.5%). Greater number of people involved in processing and fabrication activities were between the ages of (30-50) years. The method of single handling technique (67.5%) was the most popular.
Activated Charcoal—A Potential Material in Glucoamylase Recovery
S. O. Kareem,I. Akpan,T. O. S. Popoola,L. O. Sanni
Enzyme Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/483943
Abstract: The potential of activated charcoal in the purification of fungal glucoamylase was investigated. Various concentrations of activated charcoal (1–4%?w/v) were used to concentrate crude glucoamylase from Rhizopus oligosporus at different temperature values (30–50°C). Effects of pH (3.0–6.0) and contact time (0–60?min) on enzyme purification were also monitored. Activated charcoal (3%?w/v) gave a 16-fold purification in a single-step purification at 50°C for 20?min and pH 5.5. The result of SDS-PAGE analysis of purified glucoamylase showed two major protein bands with corresponding molecular weight of 36?kDa and 50?kDa. The method is inexpensive, rapid, and simple which could facilitate downstream processing of industrial enzyme. 1. Introduction Enzyme purification is a necessary prerequisite for a full understanding of the nature and mechanism of action of the enzyme [1]. This is usually carried out by a multistep process involving biomass separation, concentration, primary isolation, purification, and polishing as the main unit operations [2]. The conventional methods for the removal of colloidal particles and enzymatic impurities from fermentation broth using ammonium sulphate precipitation may require extensive dialysis for about 12–16 hour for product recovery and often cause protein denaturation due to conformational changes [3]. The use of carbowax or polyvinyl alcohol for protein and enzyme concentration is also limited by poor water absorbing capacity [4]. Similarly, the use of carboxy-methyl cellulose, tannic acid, and edible gum as precipitants and as well as organic solvents also poses the problem of product recovery [5, 6]. Gel filtration technique is also considered laborious and expensive in the developing countries [6, 7]. Activated charcoal is an adsorbent widely used in the treatment of wastewater and industrial contaminants by virtue of its high removal capacity and adaptability for a wide range of pollutants [8]. It is made from any essentially carbonaceous materials. Tree bark, coal, cotton waste, palm kernel shell, and many agricultural by- products can be used to produce activated carbon and their ability to remove colours have been reported [9]. Activated charcoal is used to remove compounds that cause objectionable taste, colour, and odour in water treatment while its industrial applications involve removal of toxic gases and pesticides and as well as purification of organic compounds [10, 11]. It is known that around 80% of the world production of activated charcoal is used in aqueous-phase adsorption of both organic and inorganic
Effect of Pretreatments on Quality Attributes of Air-Dehydrated Pineapple Slices
O.R. Karim,S.O. Awonorin,L.O. Sanni
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: The effect of pre-treatment methods on drying kinetics and quality attributes of air-dehydrated pineapple slices was investigated. Smooth cayenne pineapple specie obtained from Nigeria Institute of Horticultural Research (NIHORT), Ibadan was used for the study. A 2 factor-factorial experimental design of 3-levels of 3 pre-treatment methods (sucrose, blanching and sulphiting) and 1-level of drying temperature/ drying time resulting into 27 treatments was used for the study. The physico-chemical qualities of the fresh pineapple fruit were determined before hand peeling and slicing to spherical slices of 5 cm radius/0.5 cm thickness. The slices were air-dried in a cabinet direr; the moisture and ascorbic acid content were monitored during drying and the physical and chemical qualities of the dried products analysed at the end of drying. The data obtained were analysed statistically using the Statistical Analysis System. The results revealed that there were significant effect (p<0.05) of the pre-treatments on moisture, pH, TTA and ascorbic acid of the samples before drying. Sample pre-treated with S02 absorbed moisture from 82.41% of fresh pineapple to 83.53% while the 60% sucrose sample had a reduction to 81.70%. The quality attributes showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the mean values of the samples. The 60% S/60 C B/2500 ppm S02 at 70 C drying had the least value of moisture content of 8.75%; 25.16 mg/100 g of ascorbic acid and 1.19% fibre. The result of the web diagram of the sensory evaluation indicated that the 60% S/2500 ppm S02, 40% S/60 C B/2500 ppm S02 and 60 C B/2500 ppm S02 ranked the first, second and third on overall quality acceptability, while the control sample was rated the least in all the evaluated sensory attributes. The statistical analysis revealed that there were significant effects of the pre-treatment methods on the quality attributes of the samples.
Evaluation of Biochemical Deterioration of Locust Bean Daddawa and Soybean Daddawa-Two Nigerian Condiments
A.L. Kolapo,T.O.S. Popoola,M.O. Sanni
American Journal of Food Technology , 2007,
Abstract: Some functional properties were used to assess and compare biochemical deterioration in stored locust bean daddawa and soybean daddawa which are two popular fermented Nigerian condiments. The condiments were stored for 14 days at ambient temperature after the normal 72 h of fermentation and at 2 days interval assessed for pH, titratable acidity, free fatty acids (FFA), peroxide values (POV) as well as fat and water absorption capacities. The pH of both samples increased in the alkaline range, so also the titratable acidity. Peroxide values and FFA of the two condiments also increased significantly with storage, with those of soybean daddawa being significantly (p<0.05) higher. Water and fat absorption capacities of the fermented products decreased with storage. Differences recorded in values of fat absorption capacities was also significant (p<0.05). The implications of the recorded values of fatty acids, peroxidation and other functional properties monitored are discussed in relation to the perceived faster deterioration and poor acceptance soybean daddawa.
Effects of coat colour genes on body measurements, heat tolerance traits and haematological parameters in West African Dwarf sheep  [PDF]
John S. Decampos, Christian O. N. Ikeobi, Olajide Olowofeso, Olusiji F. Smith, Matthew A. Adeleke, Mathew Wheto, David O. Ogunlakin, Abubakar A. Mohammed, Timothy M. Sanni, Babatunde A. Ogunfuye, Raman A. Lawal, Adeyemi S. Adenaike, Samuel A. Amusan
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2013.34031
Abstract:

With 178 West African Dwarf sheep aged 1 to 3 years, a study was conducted to investigate the effects of coat colour genes on body measurements, heat tolerance traits and haematological parameters. Body measurements considered included body length, hair length, ear length, hip width, tail length, height at withers, rump height, fore cannon bone length, chest depth, heart girth and body weight. Heat tolerance traits considered were skin temperature, rectal temperature, pulse rate and respiratory rate. Blood samples were collected for the evaluation of white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), haemoglobin (HGB), haematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin cell (MCHC), red cell distribution width (RDW), platelets (PLT), mean platelets volume (MPV), platelets distribution width (PDW) and plateletcrits (PCT). Results showed that coat colour gene (CCG) had significant (P < 0.01) effect on rump height and tail length. Animals with black (BB) coat colour had the highest mean value for rump height (57.80 ± 1.29 cm) and tail length (22.10 ± 0.89 cm), while brown (Bb) coat colour had the least value of 53.00 ± 6.00 cm for rump height and 17.50 ± 0.50 cm for tail length. The CCG had significant (P < 0.01) effect on body temperature and pulse rate, with the grey/mouflon (Ag) colour possessing the highest body temperature (38.90°C ± 0.22°C), and Bb having the least value of 37.20°C ± 0.35°C

Functional Properties and Biscuit Making Potentials of Sorghum-wheat Flour Composite
A.A. Adebowale,M.T. Adegoke,S.A. Sanni,M.O. Adegunwa
American Journal of Food Technology , 2012,
Abstract: The rapid urbanization and increase in population in recent years have resulted in an increase in the consumption of wheat-based products especially biscuits in sub-Saharan Africa. This has spurred pragmatic research on compositing flour from locally cultivated cereals to reduce wheat importation. This study was therefore, conducted to investigate the functional properties of sorghum-wheat composite flour and its biscuit making potentials. Sorghum grain was processed into flour and used to substitute wheat flour at different proportions (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%). The functional and pasting properties of the different sorghum-wheat flour blends were determined. The composite flours were thereafter, processed into biscuit and the physical dimensions and proximate composition of the biscuits were determined. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in the functional properties of the composite flour except for bulk density. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the pasting profile of the wheat-sorghum flour blends except for set back viscosity and pasting temperature. Highest values of 11.84, 2.36, 1.95 and 5.31% were recorded by biscuit from 90:10% wheat-sorghum composite flours in terms of protein, ash, fibre and sugar, respectively. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in the proximate composition of the biscuits samples. However, no significant difference (p>0.05) was found in the physical dimensions of the wheat-sorghum flour biscuits. The study concluded that biscuits of acceptable quality, comparable to the quality of 100% wheat flour biscuits are obtainable from sorghum-wheat composite flour. The use of sorghum in biscuits making would greatly enhance the utilization of this crop in many sorghum cultivating developing countries where the crop has not been optimally utilized.
The Effect of r-irradiation and Cooking on the Physicochemical Properties of African Oil Bean Seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla benth) and Its Oil Extract
V. N. Enujiugha,I. O. Olotu,S. A. Malomo,T. A. Sanni
Journal of Food Research (JFR) , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jfr.v1n2p189
Abstract: Irradiation is a potentially useful technology for ensuring the safety and extending the shelf-life of food products. The effects of r-irradiation (5kGy, 10kGy), cooking and combined treatment of 10 kGy irradiation and cooking on the chemical and functional properties of African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) and physicochemical properties of its oil were investigated. The irradiated seeds and un-irradiated seeds were mechanically dehulled and milled into flour using an attrition mill. ‘Raw seed’, ‘cooked seed’, ‘irradiated (5kGy) seed’, ‘irradiated (10kGy) seed’ and ‘irradiated (10kGy) and cooked seed’ flour samples were analyzed for proximate composition, mineral content, functional properties and antinutritional factors, and the seed oils were analyzed for peroxide value, iodine value, acid value and free fatty acid content. The results show that the combined effect of r-irradiation and cooking gave highest increase in nutritional quality, reducing protein from 32.91g/100g DM in the raw seed to 30.55g/100g DM and increasing fat content from 47.43g/100g DM to 51.19g/100g DM. Combined treatment led to the retention of sodium, calcium, zinc and iron more than the single treatments, but the same process reduced magnesium from 0.52mg/100g to 0.47mg/100g and phosphorus from 0.43mg/100g to 0.35 mg/100g. Least gelation concentration and emulsion capacity increased with combined r-irradiation and cooking, whereas foaming capacity and water absorption capacity decreased significantly (p<0.05). Gamma-irradiation and cooking reduced the concentration of all the antinutritional factors. Combined r-irradiation and cooking increased the peroxide value significantly (p<0.05) from 7.03 mg/g oil to 16.50 mg/g oil and increased the acid value, iodine value and free fatty acid of P. macrophylla seed oil. Combination of r-irradiation and cooking increased nutrient bioavailability in the seed; it led to improvement in the functional properties and increased the susceptibility of the oil to rancidity.
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