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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 288290 matches for " O. D. "
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The Emerging Role of Statins in Glaucoma Pathological Mechanisms and Therapeutics  [PDF]
O. Pokrovskaya, D. Wallace, C. O’Brien
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2014.44021
Abstract: Statins inhibit the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, and hence have a profound effect in lowering serum cholesterol. Their predominant clinical use to date is in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. However recently interest has developed regarding the so-called “pleiotropic” effects of statins—these drugs have significant anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties. Such effects of statins have already been shown to be beneficial in modulating the pathological mechanisms involved in pul-monary fibrosis, renal disease, non-ischaemic cardiac failure, and tissue scarring. Many of these actions are mediated by inhibition of the Rho kinase pathway. Epidemiological studies suggest that patients who take statins have a lower risk of developing glaucoma, and lower rates of glaucoma progression. Here, we review what is known about the pleiotropic effect of statins to date, and examine how these effects may modulate the molecular mechanisms involved in glaucoma pathogenesis.
Investigation of the Effect of the Addition of Petroleum Waste to Interlocking Bricks Constituent  [PDF]
P. O. Atanda, O. O. Oluwole, I. D. Olumor
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.104026
Abstract: Incinerator ash was investigated for its potential use as a replacement for sand and cement in concrete interlocking bricks. The physical characteristics of the raw materials were examined. Two sets of mixes were prepared. For the first set, sand and water quantities were fixed while incinerator ash was used at 0% to 100% replacement by weight for cement in steps of 10%. In the second set, incinerator ash was used at 0% to 100% replacement by weight for sand while cement and water quantities was fixed. The mixing proportions for cement, sand and water were 1:3:0.7, respectively. Compressive strength and leachability tests were performed on the specimens. Results showed that the replacement of sand by incinerator ash up to 40% exhibited higher compressive strength than the control mix (0% incinerator ash) after 28 days curing. Maximum compressive strength of 33.33N/mm2 was obtained after 28 days curing using using 20% incinerator ash substitution for sand. Replacement of cement by incinerator ash up to 20% exhibited higher compressive strength than the control mix. Compressive strength of 28.2 N/mm2 was achieved after 28 days curing period using a 20% ash substitution for cement. Leaching of heavy metals (Pb and Cd ) present in the ash was observed in concentrated nitric acid.
Processing-Microstructure Relationships in the Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) Coating of a Magnesium Alloy  [PDF]
R. O. Hussein, D. O. Northwood, X. Nie
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2014.53017

In the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating of light metal alloys, changing the electrical parameters and electrolytic composition can change the discharge behaviour and, ultimately, the thickness, surface morphology and porosity of the coating. In the present study a combination of cathodic and anodic current pulses with suitable Ton and Toff periods were used to control the porosity and other structural defects of PEO coatings of an AM60B magnesium alloy. In order to investigate the effect of a current mode on the plasma discharge behaviour and coating microstructure during the PEO treatment of magnesium alloy, the emission intensities of six different spectral lines from the plasma species were recorded simultaneously as a function of both time and current mode using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) system. The fluctuations in signal intensities and temperature during the coating process reflect differences in location of both the discharge initiation, and discharge type. The coating surface morphology and microstructure that are obtained can be linked to the plasma discharge behavior. These results are discussed in relation to the discharge behaviour, and how such changes in discharge behaviour relate to the coating mechanisms.

A Five-Step P-Stable Method for the Numerical Integration of Third Order Ordinary Differential Equations  [PDF]
D. O. Awoyemi, S. J. Kayode, L. O. Adoghe
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2014.43011

In this paper we derived a continuous linear multistep method (LMM) with step number k = 5 through collocation and interpolation techniques using power series as basis function for approximate solution. An order nine p-stable scheme is developed which was used to solve the third order initial value problems in ordinary differential equation without first reducing to a system of first order equations. Taylor’s series algorithm of the same order was developed to implement our method. The result obtained compared favourably with existing methods.

Magnetic Neutral Points and Electric Lines of Force in Strong Gravity of a Rotating Black Hole  [PDF]
V. Karas, O. Kopá?ek, D. Kunneriath
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.33A003

Magnetic field can be amplified and twisted near a supermassive black hole residing in a galactic nucleus. At the same time magnetic null points develop near the horizon. We examine a large-scale oblique magnetic field near a rotating (Kerr) black hole as an origin of magnetic layers, where the field direction changes abruptly in the ergosphere region. In consequence of this, magnetic null points can develop by purely geometrical effects of the strong gravitational field and the frame-dragging mechanism. We identify magnetic nulls as possible sites of magnetic reconnection and suggest that particles may be accelerated efficiently by the electric component. The situation we discuss is relevant for starving nuclei of some galaxies which exhibit episodic accretion events, namely, Sagittarius A* black hole in our Galaxy.

On the Markov Chain Binomial Model  [PDF]
M. N. Islam, C. D. O’shaughnessy
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.412236

Rudolfer [1] studied properties and estimation of a state Markov chain binomial (MCB) model of extra-binomial variation. The variance expression in Lemma 4 is stated without proof but is incorrect, resulting in both Lemma 5 and Theorem 2 also being incorrect. These errors were corrected in Rudolfer [2]. In Sections 2 and 3 of this paper, a new derivation of the variance expression in a setting involving the natural parameters \"\" is presented and the relation of the MCB model to Edwards’ [3] probability generating function (pgf) approach is discussed. Section 4 deals with estimation of the model parameters. Estimation by the maximum likelihood method is difficult for a larger number n of Markov trials due to the complexity of the calculation of probabilities using Equation (3.2) of Rudolfer [1]. In this section, the exact maximum likelihood estimation of model parameters is obtained utilizing a sequence of Markov trials each involving n observations from a {0,1}- state MCB model and may be used for any value of n. Two examples in Section 5 illustrate the usefulness of the MCB model. The first example gives corrected results for Skellam’s Brassica data while the second applies the “sequence approach” to data from Crouchley and Pickles [4].

Prevalence of kala-azar infection in Pokot county, Amudat district, Northeastern Uganda  [PDF]
Walter D. Odoch, Joseph O. Olobo
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2013.34029
Abstract: Introduction: Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) caused by Leishmania donovani and transmitted by the sand-fly Phlebotomus martini is endemic in certain foci in north-eastern Uganda where it is thought to be confined to Pokot county, Amudat district. Amudat hospital records (April 1998-March 1999) indicated that kala-azar accounted for about 17% of hospital in-patients. However the actual prevalence of kala-azar infection in the community in Pokot county is unknown. This lack of information limits efforts geared towards its control. Objective: To determine the prevalence of kala-azar infection in Pokot county. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Pokot county in March 2010. The study participants were ≥ 5 years and were randomly selected from the age and sex strata in the chosen clusters. A questionnaire that elicited demographic profiles of participants was used for data collection. Standard procedure for direct agglutination test using blood samples collected from participants on blotting papers was performed. Data was entered in EPIINFO 3.3 and exported to STATA 10, where descriptive statistics were generated. Results: The overall prevalence of kala-azar infection in Pokot county was 17.2% but the prevalence of symptomatic infection in the community was 2.5%. The ratio of symptomatic to asymptomatic kala-azar was 1:6. Loroo sub-county had the highest prevalence of kala-azar infection followed by Karita and Amudat sub-counties at 31.9%, 14.6% and 5.3%, respectively. Conclusion: With kala-azar infection prevalence at 17.2% in the community, there is an urgent need to institute control program spearheaded by ministry of health, in the region. Furthermore, recent reports of cases from other districts within the region, the heterogeneous distribution of infection within the county and the current risk factors, including the role of animals in kala-azar transmission in this area need to be evaluated.


A Decade of Jadelle Subdermal Implant Contraception in a Tertiary Health Institution in Port Harcourt, Southern Nigeria  [PDF]
E. O. Oranu, J. D. Ojule
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.63010
Abstract: Background: Jadelle, a long acting reversible progesterone contraceptive, has been in use in our centre for over 10 years and has not been comprehensively evaluated. Objectives: To determine the acceptance, efficacy, and safety profile associated with the use of Jadelle contraceptive implant in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching hospital, Port Harcourt. Methods: This is a 10-year retrospective study of clients who accepted and used Jadelle for contraception in the university of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Port Harcourt. The case files were retrieved and information on their socio demographic profile, source of information, side effects, failures and reason for removal were extracted using a proforma. Data were filled into a spread sheet, analyzed using SPSS version 21.0 and presented in tables of frequencies and percentages. Results: Within the period under review, March 2007 to February 2017, 569 clients used Jadelle out of the 3829 women who accepted and used modern contraceptive in the UPTH. The mean age of users was 33.7 ± 4.2, 536 (94.2%) were multipara with a mean parity of 4.5 ± 3.8 while 541 (95.1%) had secondary education and above. The major side effect was irregular vaginal bleeding 36 (60.9%) while the main reason for removal of the device was expiration of method 272 (53.9%). A pregnancy was recorded during this period giving a pearl index of 0.002. Conclusion: Jadelle is a popular and a very effective means of contraception with increasing acceptance among our clients. The safety profile is high.
Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Asymptomatic Urinary Tract Infections of Bacterial and Parasitic Origins among University Students in Redemption Camp, Ogun State, Nigeria  [PDF]
F. Ayoade, D. D. Moro, O. L. Ebene
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2013.34033
Abstract: Asymptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) of bacterial and parasitic origins occur in both males and females where bacteria and/or parasites are present in the urine, with the absence of clinical signs or symptoms in the host. Using microbiological methods, mid-stream urine collected from sixty (60) Redeemer’s University students comprising apparently healthy 30 male and 30 female undergraduate students were examined. The samples were cultured on CLED and MacConkey agar. Bacteriuria was observed in 15 (25%) of the samples while there was no significant growth in 34 (56.7%), and no growth in 11 (18.3%). Prevalence of significant bacteriuria was higher in females 11 (73.3%) than males 4 (26.7%). The bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus spp, and Klebsiella spp. The isolates were resistant to amoxycillin, augumentin and cotrimoxazole but most were highly susceptible to ofloxacin. Schistosoma haematobium and Trichomonas vaginalis were the two asymptomatic UTI-causing parasites isolated from the samples used in this study. Out of the 30 males examined using the microscopy method, 1 (1.67%) had T. vaginalis while the females had higher prevalence of 2 (3.33%) out of 30 females examined. Out of the overall participants examined for S. haematobium eggs, 15 (25%) had Schistosomiasis in which the males had higher prevalence of 10 (33.33%) while the females had 5 (16.67%). These results are lower than those observed in similar rural communities in Nigeria possibly due to effective health education, availability of potable water, higher-than average income and hygienic practices on Redemption Camp, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Case report: A rare case of dysgerminoma presenting with skin and breast metastasis  [PDF]
Oguntayo O. Adekunle, Marliya Zayyan, Abimbola O. D. Kolawole, Saa’d Ahmed
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2013.22046

A 30 years old grandmultiparous woman presented with 6 month history of severe abdominal pain and 4 month history of progressive abdominal swelling associated with multiple swellings on her abdomen and her breasts. She had laparotomy two years earlier for a suspected fibroid. A repeat laparatomy discovered a huge left ovarian tumour; which are multilobulated and hard. She had Total Abdominal Hysterectomy and Salpingectomy with Lumpectomy on both breast. Histology report turned out as Dysgerminoma, breast, Subcutaneous Tissue and Skin Metastatic Dysgerminoma.

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