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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325742 matches for " Nuria Aragonés "
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Contaminantes atmosféricos y su vigilancia
Aránguez Emiliano,Ordó?ez José María,Serrano Javier,Aragonés Nuria
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 1999,
Abstract: Se presentan algunos conceptos básicos relativos a la contaminación atmosférica. Aunque, desde un punto de vista sanitario, nuestro interés se centra en los efectos que producen los contaminantes sobre la salud de la población, es importante conocer cuáles son los principales contaminantes, sus fuentes emisoras, sus características fisicoquímicas, los métodos de captación y análisis que utilizan las estaciones de control de la contaminación atmosférica, los límites establecidos por la legislación vigente y las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud respecto a los niveles de inmisión. Este trabajo repasa estos conceptos en relación con los contaminantes que se han analizado en el Estudio Multicéntrico Espa ol de Contaminación Atmosférica y Mortalidad (EMECAM): partículas, dióxido de azufre (SO2), dióxido de nitrógeno (NO2), monóxido de carbono (CO) y ozono (O3). Para ello se han utilizado las publicaciones más recientes en la materia, incluyendo parte de lo que va a ser en un futuro inmediato el eje de actuación frente a la contaminación atmosférica: el nuevo conjunto de directivas de la Unión Europea (algunas en fase de propuesta) y las recomendaciones últimas (aún sin publicar) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Por último, se plantea el amplio abanico de aspectos que incumben a la Salud Pública en el campo de la contaminación atmosférica, a pesar de que la vigilancia y control dependen administrativamente de las autoridades ambientales.
Nivel de arsénico en abastecimientos de agua de consumo de origen subterráneo en la comunidad de Madrid
Aragonés Sanz Nuria,Palacios Diez Margarita,Avello de Miguel Antonio,Gómez Rodríguez Pilar
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2001,
Abstract: Fundamento: En 1998 se detectaron en la Comunidad de Madrid concentraciones de arsénico mayores de 50myg/l en algunos abastecimientos de agua de consumo de origen subterráneo, concentración máxima admisible en el agua de bebida en Espa a. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la concentración de arsénico en el agua procedente de abastecimientos subterráneos en la Comunidad de Madrid. Métodos: Se presentan los resultados de los dos primeros muestreos realizados en el plan de seguimiento de niveles de arsénico establecido. En la primera fase se analizaron muestras de agua de los 353 abastecimientos censados por la Dirección General de Salud Pública de la Comunidad de Madrid. Con estos primeros resultados se realizó una clasificación de riesgo de los abastecimientos. En una segunda fase, seis meses después, se repitieron los análisis en los 35 abastecimientos que se consideró podían suponer un riesgo para la salud pública. Resultados: El 74% de los abastecimientos estudiados en la primera fase presentaron una concentración de arsénico menor de 10myg/l; el 22,6% contenía niveles entre 10 y 50myg/l; y en el 3,7% eran superiores a 50myg/l. La mayoría de los abastecimientos con niveles de arsénico superiores a 10myg/l se encuentran situados en la misma zona geográfica. En el segundo muestreo (6 meses después) se incluyeron los 35 abastecimientos clasificados de riesgo. De ellos, 26 presentaron el mismo nivel de arsénico (10-50myg/l) y 9 cambiaron de categoría: 6 pasaron a tener menos de 10myg/l y 3 más de 50myg/l. Conclusiones: La vigilancia periódica de la calidad del agua realizada por la Dirección General de Salud Pública ha permitido detectar la presencia de 16 abastecimientos de agua de consumo de origen subterráneo con más de 50myg/l de arsénico, nivel máximo admisible según la legislación vigente en nuestro país. Se han adoptado medidas para evitar el consumo de agua en estos abastecimientos.
Nivel de arsénico en abastecimientos de agua de consumo de origen subterráneo en la comunidad de Madrid
Aragonés Sanz,Nuria; Palacios Diez,Margarita; Avello de Miguel,Antonio; Gómez Rodríguez,Pilar; Martínez Cortés,Mercedes; Rodríguez Bernabeu,María José;
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1135-57272001000500003
Abstract: background: in 1998, arsenic concentrations of more than 50mg/l were detected in some drinking water supplies from underground sources in the autonomous community of madrid, which is the maximum permissible concentration for drinking water in spain. these two facts have meant the getting under way of a specific plan for monitoring arsenic in the drinking water in the autonomous community of madrid. methods: the results of the first two sampling processes conducted in the arsenic level monitoring plan set out are presented. in the initial phase, water samples from 353 water supplies comprised within the census of the public health administration of the autonomous community of madrid were analyzed. a water supply risk classification was made based on these initial results. in a second phase, six months later, the analyses were repeated on those 35 water supplies which were considered to possibly pose a risk to public health. results: seventy-four percent (74%) of the water supplies studied in the initial phase were revealed to have an arsenic concentration of less than 10mg/l, 22.6% containing levels of 10mg/l-50mg/l, and 3.7% over 50mg/l. most of the water supplies showing arsenic levels of more than 10mg/l are located in the same geographical area. in the second sampling process (six months later), the 35 water supplies classified as posing a risk were included. twenty-six (26) of these supplies were revealed to have the same arsenic level ((10-50mg/l), and nine changed category, six of which had less than 10mg/l and three more than 50mg/l. conclusions: in the autonomous community of madrid, less than 2% of the population drinks water coming from supplies which are from underground sources. the regular water quality monitoring conducted by the public health administration has led to detecting the presence of more than 50mg/l of arsenic in sixteen drinking water supplies from underground sources, which is the maximum permissible level under the laws currently in forc
Socio-economic class, rurality and risk of cutaneous melanoma by site and gender in Sweden
Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Nuria Aragonés, Per Gustavsson, Virginia Lope, Gonzalo López-Abente, Marina Pollán
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-33
Abstract: A major-sized historical occupational Swedish cohort comprising 2,992,166 workers was used to estimate relative risk of cutaneous melanoma, broken down by gender and anatomical site, for occupational sectors (as a proxy of socio-economic class) and rurality. To this end, Poisson models were fitted for each site in men and women, including occupational sector and town size, with adjustment for age, period of diagnosis and geographical area as possible confounding factors.White collar workers presented a marked increased of risk in men in all melanoma cases, as well as in trunk, upper and lower limbs. This pattern was less clear for women, in which some heterogeneity appeared, as low risks in lower socioeconomic sectors in trunk, or risk excesses in white collar workers in lower limbs did not achieve statistical significance. Males also showed significant differences in risk by rural/urban distribution, but in women this association was limited to CM of lower limb. Risk of CM of head/neck did not vary by occupational sector or town size, thus depicting a specific epidemiological profile, which proved common to both sexes.While differences in risk between men and women could suggest greater homogeneity in UV-exposure behaviour among women, the uniform risk pattern in head and neck melanoma, present in both sexes, might support the coexistence of different aetiological pathways, related to anatomical site.Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is one of the neoplasms more usually associated with higher social class [1-5]. As ultraviolet radiation (UV) is the main aetiological agent for CM, this relationship has been attributed to differences in UV-exposure-related behaviour. The sun is considered responsible for almost 65% of cases [6], mainly through intermittent exposure [7] during summer holidays, something that tends to be more usual among persons having a higher socio-economic class [2] and residing in larger towns [8]. Sun-bed use [9] has also been related to increased CM risk;
Lung cancer mortality in towns near paper, pulp and board industries in Spain: a point source pollution study
Susana Monge-Corella, Javier García-Pérez, Nuria Aragonés, Marina Pollán, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Gonzalo López-Abente
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-288
Abstract: This was an ecological study that modelled the Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) for lung cancer in 8073 Spanish towns over the period 1994–2003. Population exposure to industrial pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. An exploratory, near-versus-far analysis was conducted, using mixed Poisson regression models and an analysis of the effect of municipal proximity within a 50-kilometre radius of each of the 18 installations.Results varied for the different facilities. In two instances there was an increasing mortality gradient with proximity to the installation, though this was exclusively observed among men.The study of cancer mortality in areas surrounding pollutant foci is a useful tool for environmental surveillance, and serves to highlight areas of interest susceptible to being investigated by ad hoc studies. Despite present limitations, recognition is therefore due to the advance represented by publication of the EPER and the study of pollutant foci.Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death among men in Spain, giving rise to 16,614 deaths in 2005, 27.4% of all male cancer-related deaths. In this same year there were 2,459 deaths among women, accounting for 7% of total female deaths and ranking lung cancer as the third leading cause of cancer-related death after breast and colon cancer [1]. The male:female ratio is 7:1. Owing to its frequency and impact, this tumour is regarded as a serious public health problem. Although the male lung-cancer mortality trend has declined in recent years, in women the trend has been rising, particularly from 1990 onwards, and is currently increasing by 2.4% per annum [2]. Despite diagnostic and therapeutic advances, the disease continues to be highly lethal, with only 12.2% of patients surviving to five years after diagnosis [3].Lung cancer displays marked geographic and temporal variability, which corresponds to the diversity and different distribution of its
Description of industrial pollution in Spain
Javier García-Pérez, Elena Boldo, Rebeca Ramis, Marina Pollán, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Nuria Aragonés, Gonzalo López-Abente
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-40
Abstract: All information on industrial pollution discharge in 2001 was drawn from EPER-Spain public records provided by the European Commission server. We described the distribution of the number of industries and amounts discharged for each pollutant, as well as emission by pollutant group and the industrial activities associated with each pollutant. Maps of Spain were drawn up, with UTM coordinates being used to plot pollutant foci, and circles with an area proportional to the emission to depict pollution emission values.The EPER-Spain contained information on 1,437 industrial installations. The industrial plants that discharge pollutant substances into air and water above the pollutant-specific EPER threshold were mainly situated in the Autonomous Regions of Aragon, Andalusia and Catalonia and in Catalonia, the Basque Country and Andalusia respectively. Pollution released in 2001 into air approached 158 million Mt. Emissions into water were over 8 million Mt.A few single industrial plants are responsible for the highest percentage of emissions, thus rendering monitoring of their possible health impact on the surrounding population that much simpler. Among European countries Spain is the leading polluter in almost one third of all EPER-registered pollutant substances released into the air and ranks among the top three leading polluters in two-thirds of all such substances. Information obtained through publication of EPER data means that the possible consequences of reported pollutant foci on the health of neighbouring populations can now be studied.Toxic substances, which are released constantly into the environment (to both air and water) by many types of industrial activities, include a long list of products and pollutants that until now have never been quantified in Spain. Evidence as to the health risk posed by residing in the vicinity of such polluting industries is limited, with cancer and congenital malformations being the most widely studied health problems in the
Municipal mortality due to thyroid cancer in Spain
Virginia Lope, Marina Pollán, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Nuria Aragonés, Rebeca Ramis, Diana Gómez-Barroso, Gonzalo López-Abente
BMC Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-302
Abstract: It was possible to compile and ascertain the posterior distribution of relative risk on the basis of a single Bayesian spatial model covering all of Spain's 8077 municipal areas. Maps were plotted depicting standardized mortality ratios, smoothed relative risk (RR) estimates, and the posterior probability that RR > 1.From 1989 to 1998 a total of 2,538 thyroid cancer deaths were registered in 1,041 municipalities. The highest relative risks were mostly situated in the Canary Islands, the province of Lugo, the east of La Coru?a (Corunna) and western areas of Asturias and Orense.The observed mortality pattern coincides with areas in Spain where goiter has been declared endemic. The higher frequency in these same areas of undifferentiated, more aggressive carcinomas could be reflected in the mortality figures. Other unknown genetic or environmental factors could also play a role in the etiology of this tumor.At the European level, Spain ranks midway in terms of thyroid cancer (TC) incidence. This is a tumor that is far more frequent among women than among men. In recent years, incidence rate per 100,000 population has increased from 1.73 to 2.22 in the periods 1993–1996 [1] and 1997–2000 [2] in men, and from 3.63 [1] to 5.69 [2] per 100,000 in women. In the 1990s, mortality due to this tumor in males registered a statistically significant [2] mean annual increase of 1.21%, which in 2004 rose to a rate, standardized to the European population, of 0.33 per 100,000 population [3]. In women, however, TC mortality declined significantly by an average of 0.39% per annum [2], until reaching a rate of 0.49 per 100,000 population in 2004 [3]. Prevalence attributable to cases diagnosed in the preceding 5 years has reached a figure of 1559 cases in men and 4901 in women [4]. In Spain, TC is the tumor with the highest survival rate in women (86% at 5 years), and ranks second after testicular cancer in men (82%) [5].Most thyroid tumors are epithelial and are classified into well-dif
Contaminantes atmosféricos y su vigilancia
Aránguez,Emiliano; Ordó?ez,José María; Serrano,Javier; Aragonés,Nuria; Fernández-Patier,Rosalía; Gandarillas,Ana; Galán,I?aki;
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S1135-57271999000200003
Abstract: some basic concepts regarding air pollution are set out. although, from a health care standpoint, our interest revolves around the impact which pollution has on human health, it being important to ascertain the main pollutants, the sources of emissions, the physicochemical properties thereof, the sampling and analysis methods which are used at the air pollution control stations, the limits set by the laws currently in impact and the world health organization recommendations with regard to the levels of inmission. this study reviews these concepts with regard to the pollutants which have been analyzed in the spanish multicenter study of air pollution and mortality. (emecam): particles, sulfur dioxide (so2), nitrogen dioxide (no2), carbon monoxide (co) and ozone (o3). for this purpose, the most recent publications on this subject have been used, including part of what is going to be the line around which all of the measures aimed at combating air pollution are going to be revolving in the very near future, that is, the new set of european union directives (some currently in the proposal stage) and the latest recommendations (not as yet published) of the world health organization. lastly, a wide range of aspects are set out which involve public health in the field of air pollution, despite the monitoring and control thereof falling to the environmental affairs authorities in terms of government organization.
Efectos a corto plazo de la contaminación atmosférica sobre la mortalidad: resultados del proyecto EMECAM en Madrid, 1992-1995
Galán Labaca,I?aki; Aránguez Ruiz,Emiliano; Gandarillas Grande,Ana; Ordó?ez Iriarte,José María; Aragonés Sanz,Nuria;
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S1135-57271999000200014
Abstract: background: despite the changes which have taken place in the sources of emissions, the levels of particles, so2 and co continue to be high in the municipality of madrid. apart from this, photochemical pollutants, such as no2 and o3 are taking on growing importance due to the increased number of cars and trucks on the road and the major degrees of sunlight in this city. the objective of this article is to set out the short-term relationship between the major pollutants and the daily death rate in the city of madrid for the 1992-1995 period, using the standardized procedure of the emecam projects (spanish multicenter study of air pollution and death rate). methods: the daily fluctuations in the death rate for all causes except external ones for all ages and for those individuals over age 69 , in addition to those of the circulatory system and respiratory apparatus are related to the daily fluctuations in particles (pm10), so2, no2, co and o3, by means of autoregressive poisson regression models. the seasonality, tendency, temperature, relative humidity, flu, day of the week, holidays and events out of the ordinary are controlled. results: statistically significant positive relationships were found to exist between so2 and all of the death rate series analyzed, between co and the death rate of individuals over age 69, as well as with cardiovascular and respiratory deaths and of the particles to the death rate as the result of cardiovascular disease. a statistically significant relationship was also found to exist between no2 and the cardiovascular death rate. these impact are immediate, that is to say, they occur with the pollutants of the same day. no significant positive relationships were found to exist for o3. conclusions: these findings suggest that, for a broad spectrum of major pollutants, the current levels of air pollution in madrid are related to a rise in the death rate.
Role of educational level in the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQL) among rural Spanish women
María García-Mendizábal, José Carrasco, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Nuria Aragonés, Pilar Guallar-Castillón, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, Gonzalo López-Abente, Marina Pollán
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-120
Abstract: Cross-sectional study with personal interview of 1298 women (aged 18 to 60) randomly selected from the electoral rolls of 14 towns in Galicia, a region in the north-west of Spain. HRQL was assessed using the SF-36 questionnaire. The association between body mass index (BMI) and suboptimal scores in the different HRQL dimensions was summarised using odds ratios (ORs), obtained from multivariate logistic regression models. Separate analyses were conducted for women who had finished their education younger than 16 years old and women with secondary education to assess differences in the relationship between BMI and HRQL according to educational level.Among women with primary or lower education, obesity was associated with a higher prevalence of suboptimal values in the following dimensions: Physical functioning (OR: 1.97; 95%CI: 1.22–3.18); Role-physical (OR: 1.81; 95%CI: 1.04–3.14); General health (OR: 1.76; 95%CI: 1.10–2.81); and Role-emotional (OR: 2.52; 95%CI: 1.27–5.03). In women with higher education, physical functioning was the only dimension associated with obesity (OR: 2.02: 95%CI 0.83–4.97).The impact of obesity on women's HRQL is greater among those with a lower educational level. This group registered higher prevalence of obesity and poorer self-perceived health.Obesity is a multifactorial disorder stemming from the interaction between genetic and metabolic factors on the one hand, and nutritional lifestyles and physical activity on the other, both of which are, in turn, conditioned by social, behavioural and cultural factors. It constitutes a major and increasing public health problem worldwide [1]. In some industrialized countries such as USA [2] or Germany [3], the prevalence of obesity exceeds 25% in adults.In Spain, the percentage of self-reported obesity among persons aged 20 years and over has increased in the last decades, rising from 7.7% in 1987 to 15.25% in 2006, in men and women alike [4,5]. Moreover, socio-economic level has been inversely rel
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