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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 368 matches for " Noureddine Elboughdiri "
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Mechanistic Insight into Disinfection Using Ferrate(VI)  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105946
Disinfection, chemical oxidation, and coagulation are key methods in water treatment. A chemical that may be used for all these targets is ferrate(VI). This work tries to bring some light into mechanisms implied throughout killing microbes using ferrate(VI). In acidic pH, the oxidation and reduction capacity of ferrate(VI) is superior to all currently utilized oxidizers and disinfectants in water and wastewater treatment. The technology of using ferrate(VI) for coagulation, chemical oxidation and disinfection of water and wastewater in a reactor simultaneously, can reduce the size of water and wastewater treatment plants and increase the treatment efficiency. Ferrate(VI) allows a novel emergency water treatment design for disaster-affected populations through the repercussions of natural disasters, through the concurrent and efficient elimination of microbial and chemical pollutants. The ferrates’ elevated performance and utilization as a green element for water treatment propose that these techniques remain greatly convenient for usage as pre- or post-treatment in traditional wastewater plants. It seems that there is no big difference in terms of ferrate’s action on pathogens with other chemical disinfectants. However, ferrate was found to be requiring lower needed doses as compared with other chemicals. More researches on disinfection by-products formation following ferrate injection as a disinfectant are required. Finally, ferrate(VI) deserves more attention to be used more largely through worldwide wastewater treatment plants.
Optimization of the Degradation of Hydroquinone, Resorcinol and Catechol Using Response Surface Methodology  [PDF]
Noureddine Elboughdiri, Ammar Mahjoubi, Ali Shawabkeh, Hussam Elddin Khasawneh, Bassem Jamoussi
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2015.52012
Abstract: A clay catalyst (montmorillonite and kaolinite) was prepared and used to degrade three phenolic compounds: hydroquinone, resorcinol and catechol obtained from the treatment the Olive Mill Wastewater (OMW) generated in the production of olive oil. The operating conditions of the degradation of these compounds are optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM) which is an experimental design used in process optimization studies. The results obtained by the catalytic tests and analyses performed by different techniques showed that the modified montmorillonites have very interesting catalytic, structural and textural properties; they are more effective for the catalytic phenolic compound degradation, they present the highest specific surface and they may support iron ions. We also determined the optimal degradation conditions by tracing the response surfaces of each compound; for example, for the catechol, the optimal conditions of degradation at pH 4 are obtained after 120 min at a concentration of H2O2 equal to 0.3 M. Of the three phenolic compounds, the kinetic degradation study revealed that the hydroquinone is the most degraded compound in the least amount of time. Finally, the rate of the catalyst iron ions release in the reaction is lower when the Fe-modified montmorillonites are used.
Drinking Water Reuse: One-Step Closer to Overpassing the “Yuck Factor”  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri, Saad Ghareba
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105895
Water shortage, because of either augmented domestication or climatic variability, has prompted nations to diminish stress on water supplies mostly via decreasing water demand. Nevertheless, this procedure entirely is not enough to ensure the quality of life that high-quality water services boost, particularly inside the case of augmented domestication. Intrinsically, the notion of water reuse (WR) has been reaching strength for the last few decades. Decision-makers require ready and reachable data concerning public attitudes toward WR to adopt convenient and sustainable resource management plans. Applying reclaimed infrastructure must concentrate firstly on usages with more important social acceptability, like street cleaning, car washing, irrigation of parks and athletic fields or toilet flushing. Acceptance of the usage of recycled water for other goals implementations, like food crop irrigation and watering of residential lawns may augment as public knowledge of the system expands. As inhabitants begin to be more usual with the techniques and global comprehension of the linked advantages of WR increases, officials, planners, and managers may encounter reduced objection to extra usages and attain bigger water savings via prolonged application of WR schedules. For potable WR, there is only one-step closer to overpassing the “yuck factor”. However, great efforts remain to be accomplished in mater of hybrid water technologies to assure efficient pollutant removal. Finally, WR may be considered a safe tool to avoid water sources’ contamination. In other words, treating wastewater at its source of generation before its expansion at the highest level of purity will avoid pollution expansion into nature: air, soil, and water. In this case and only in this case, the “yuck factor” will be overpassed.
A WSN-Based System for Country Border Surveillance and Target Tracking  [PDF]
Noureddine Boudriga
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2016.51005
Abstract: Target tracking using wireless sensor networks offers multiple challenges because it usually involves intensive computation and requires accurate methods for tracking and energy consumption. Above all, scalability, energy optimization, efficiency, and overhead reduction are some among the key tasks for any protocol designed to perform target tracking using large scale sensor networks. Border surveillance systems, on the other side, need to report border crossings in a real time manner. They should provide large coverage, lower energy consumption, real time crossing detection, and use efficient tools to report crossing information. In this paper, we present a scheme, called Border Cooperative and Predictive Tracking protocol (BCTP), capable of energyaware surveillance and continuous tracking of objects and individuals’ crossing a country border and anticipating target motion within a thick strip along the border and estimating the target exit zone and time.
Joint Power Allocation and Beamforming for Cooperative Networks  [PDF]
Sondes Maadi, Noureddine Hamdi
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2011.47053
Abstract: In this paper, we investigate power allocation problem with the use of transmit beamforming in a dual hop MISO (multiple input single output) relay channel. We consider either amplify and forward (AF) or decode and forward (DF) cooperative protocols at the relay and optimize the power allocated to the relay and the source, under total transmit power constraint, to minimize the bit error rate (BER) of relaying system. Cooperative communication is viewed as a method for increasing diversity gain and reducing end to end path loss. The use of relay can create a virtual antenna array so that it allows users to exploit the advantages of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) techniques. In this work, we solve cooperative ratio, which is defined as the ratio power used for cooperative transmission over the total power. This approach is then compared to an equal power assignment method and its performance enhancement is verified by simulation results.
A Multilevel Tabu Search for the Maximum Satisfiability Problem  [PDF]
Noureddine Bouhmala, Sirar Salih
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2012.510068
Abstract: The maximum satisfiability problem (MAX-SAT) refers to the task of finding a variable assignment that satisfies the maximum number of clauses (or the sum of weight of satisfied clauses) in a Boolean Formula. Most local search algorithms including tabu search rely on the 1-flip neighbourhood structure. In this work, we introduce a tabu search algorithm that makes use of the multilevel paradigm for solving MAX-SAT problems. The multilevel paradigm refers to the process of dividing large and difficult problems into smaller ones, which are hopefully much easier to solve, and then work backward towards the solution of the original problem, using a solution from a previous level as a starting solution at the next level. This process aims at looking at the search as a multilevel process operating in a coarse-to-fine strategy evolving from k-flip neighbourhood to 1-flip neighbourhood-based structure. Experimental results comparing the multilevel tabu search against its single level variant are presented.
Study of Oxidation Kinetics in Air of Zircaloy-4 by in Situ X-Ray Diffraction  [PDF]
Noureddine Selmi, Ali Sari
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2013.32023

The zircaloy-4 is an alloy of zirconium, which has a very weak thermal neutron absorption, satisfactory mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance at high temperature. For these reasons, zircaloy-4 is used as a material of cladding fuel rod of nuclear reactors. In this environment, it is submitted to different severe conditions of temperature and pressure. The objective of this work is to study the oxidation kinetics of zircaloy-4 in air by the X-ray diffraction technique. The experiments were realized in a “HTK1200” furnace installed as a sample holder in the diffractometer at different temperatures; 25°C, 350°C, 500°C, 830°C and 1000°C. The results show that the monoclinic and the tetragonal phases are formed at 350°C temperature. The volume fraction of these phases increased with the temperature until 1000°C where the α phase disappears completely. For simulating the case of loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA), we have done x-ray diffraction of Zry-4 samples water quenched at 1050°C with different ageing times at this temperature. At 10 seconds and more, there is an important evolution of monoclinic and tetragonal zirconias, which leads to the degradation of zircaloy-4 properties.

Optimization of QoS Parameters in Cognitive Radio Using Combination of Two Crossover Methods in Genetic Algorithm  [PDF]
Abdelfatah Elarfaoui, Noureddine Elalami
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2013.611050

Radio Cognitive (RC) is the new concept introduced to improve spectrum utilization in wireless communication and present important research field to resolve the spectrum scarcity problem. The powerful ability of CR to change and adapt its transmit parameters according to environmental sensed parameters, makes CR as the leading technology to manage spectrum allocation and respond to QoS provisioning. In this paper, we assume that the radio environment has been sensed and that the SU specifies QoS requirements of the wireless application. We use genetic algorithm (GA) and propose crossover method called Combined Single-Heuristic Crossover. The weighted sum multi-objective approach is used to combine performance objectives functions discussed in this paper and BER approximate formula is considered.

Assessment of the Contribution of Road Traffic to Greenhouse Emissions: A Case of an Algerian City  [PDF]
Aouragh Leila, Bourmada Noureddine
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.513130
Abstract: Rapid urbanisation brings about increase in air pollution. These emissions are generally linked to the production of energy, to industrial activities and to transport in the densely inhabited areas. Estimating the pollutants quantities released in the air is an important stage in the evaluation of air quality. However, the problem of air pollution in urban areas is a problem in all Algerian cities. Similar to all Algerian big cities, the city of Batna has become a major urban area with an ever increasing fleet of motor vehicles most of which are practically old ones. This state of affairs increases the demand in fuel consumption and undeniably intensifies polluting emissions. As the situation goes, it has become the utmost urgency to wonder about a possible support that may be given to this sector in order to evaluate how air quality is managed in a durable way. The main objective of this study is to assess the quantity of CO2 pollutant known as the most significant greenhouse gas emission from traffic. The approach used is mainly based on a number of assumptions, which allows us to find the amount of 192 g/km/day CO2 released into the urban atmosphere of the city of Batna.
A New Class of Vector Padé Approximants in the Asymptotic Numerical Method: Application in Nonlinear 2D Elasticity  [PDF]
Abdellah Hamdaoui, Rachida Hihi, Bouazza Braikat, Noureddine Tounsi, Noureddine Damil
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2014.42006

The Asymptotic Numerical Method (ANM) is a family of algorithms for path following problems, where each step is based on the computation of truncated vector series [1]. The Vector Padé approximants were introduced in the ANM to improve the domain of validity of vector series and to reduce the number of steps needed to obtain the entire solution path [1,2]. In this paper and in the framework of the ANM, we define and build a new type of Vector Padé approximant from a truncated vector series by extending the definition of the Padé approximant of a scalar series without any orthonormalization procedure. By this way, we define a new class of Vector Padé approximants which can be used to extend the domain of validity in the ANM algorithms. There is a connection between this type of Vector Padé approximant and Vector Padé type approximant introduced in [3, 4]. We show also that the Vector Padé approximants introduced in the previous works [1,2], are special cases of this class. Applications in 2D nonlinear elasticity are presented.

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