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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1960 matches for " Norman Curthoys "
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Interferon-α Regulates Glutaminase 1 Promoter through STAT1 Phosphorylation: Relevance to HIV-1 Associated Neurocognitive Disorders
Lixia Zhao, Yunlong Huang, Changhai Tian, Lynn Taylor, Norman Curthoys, Yi Wang, Hamilton Vernon, Jialin Zheng
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032995
Abstract: HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) develop during progressive HIV-1 infection and affect up to 50% of infected individuals. Activated microglia and macrophages are critical cell populations that are involved in the pathogenesis of HAND, which is specifically related to the production and release of various soluble neurotoxic factors including glutamate. In the central nervous system (CNS), glutamate is typically derived from glutamine by mitochondrial enzyme glutaminase. Our previous study has shown that glutaminase is upregulated in HIV-1 infected monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDM) and microglia. However, how HIV-1 leads to glutaminase upregulation, or how glutaminase expression is regulated in general, remains unclear. In this study, using a dual-luciferase reporter assay system, we demonstrated that interferon (IFN) α specifically activated the glutaminase 1 (GLS1) promoter. Furthermore, IFN-α treatment increased signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation and glutaminase mRNA and protein levels. IFN-α stimulation of GLS1 promoter activity correlated to STAT1 phosphorylation and was reduced by fludarabine, a chemical that inhibits STAT1 phosphorylation. Interestingly, STAT1 was found to directly bind to the GLS1 promoter in MDM, an effect that was dependent on STAT1 phosphorylation and significantly enhanced by IFN-α treatment. More importantly, HIV-1 infection increased STAT1 phosphorylation and STAT1 binding to the GLS1 promoter, which was associated with increased glutamate levels. The clinical relevance of these findings was further corroborated with investigation of post-mortem brain tissues. The glutaminase C (GAC, one isoform of GLS1) mRNA levels in HIV associated-dementia (HAD) individuals correlate with STAT1 (p<0.01), IFN-α (p<0.05) and IFN-β (p<0.01). Together, these data indicate that both HIV-1 infection and IFN-α treatment increase glutaminase expression through STAT1 phosphorylation and by binding to the GLS1 promoter. Since glutaminase is a potential component of elevated glutamate production during the pathogenesis of HAND, our data will help to identify additional therapeutic targets for the treatment of HAND.
Disputing National Histories: Some Recent Australian Debates
Ann Curthoys
Transforming Cultures , 2006,
Abstract: National history seems to be a form of history marked by a particularly strong relation between past and present. In the last few decades, the most serious historiographical conflicts, and the ones which have attracted public as well as scholarly attention, have tended to be those where national honour was felt to be at stake. Very often they have concerned either the foundation of the nation, or the national role in war, and sometimes both; think of the example of Japan, Israel, the United States, and Australia, to name just a few. These debates have attracted particular heat because history was seen to have implications not only for specialist historians but also for the morality and future of the nation.
Plasticity during Vestibular Compensation: The Role of Saccades
Ian S. Curthoys
Frontiers in Neurology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00021
Abstract: This paper is focused on one major aspect of compensation: the recent measures of saccadic responses to high acceleration head turns during human vestibular compensation and their possible implications for recovery after unilateral vestibular loss (UVL). New measurement techniques have provided additional insights into how patients recover after UVL and have given clues for vestibular rehabilitation. Prior to this it has not been possible to quantify the level of function of all the peripheral vestibular sense organs. Now it is. By using vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials to measure utricular and saccular function and by new video head impulse testing to measure semicircular canal function to natural values of head accelerations. With these new video procedures it is now possible to measure both slow phase eye velocity and also saccades during head movements with natural values of angular acceleration. The present evidence is that after UVL there is little or no restoration/compensation of slow phase eye velocity responses to natural head accelerations. It is doubtful as to whether the modest changes in slow phase eye velocity to small angular accelerations are functionally effective during compensation. On the other hand it is now clear that saccades can play a very important role in helping patients compensate and return to a normal lifestyle. Preliminary evidence suggests that different patterns of saccadic response may predict how well patients recover. Furthermore it may be possible to train patients to produce more effective saccadic patterns in the first days after their unilateral loss and possibly improve their compensation process. Some patients do learn new strategies, new behaviors, to conceal their inadequate vestibulo-ocular response but when those strategies are prevented from operating by using passive, unpredictable, high acceleration natural head movements, as in the head impulse test, the vestibular loss can be demonstrated. It is those very strategies which the tests exclude, which may be the cause of their successful compensation.
What Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Actually Activates
Ian S. Curthoys
Frontiers in Neurology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00117
Abstract: In a recent paper in Frontiers Cohen et al. (2012) asked “What does galvanic vestibular stimulation actually activate?” and concluded that galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) causes predominantly otolithic behavioral responses. In this Perspective paper we show that such a conclusion does not follow from the evidence. The evidence from neurophysiology is very clear: galvanic stimulation activates primary otolithic neurons as well as primary semicircular canal neurons (Kim and Curthoys, 2004). Irregular neurons are activated at lower currents. The answer to what behavior is activated depends on what is measured and how it is measured, including not just technical details, such as the frame rate of video, but the exact experimental context in which the measurement took place (visual fixation vs total darkness). Both canal and otolith dependent responses are activated by GVS.
What can Software Engineers Learn from Manufacturing to Improve Software Process and Product?  [PDF]
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2009.12015
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide the software engineer with tools from the field of manufacturing as an aid to improving software process and product quality. Process involves classical manufacturing methods, such as statistical quality control applied to product testing, which is designed to monitor and correct the process when the process yields product quality that fails to meet specifications. Product quality is measured by metrics, such as failure count occurring on software during testing. When the process and product quality are out of control, we show what remedial action to take to bring both the process and product under control. NASA Space Shuttle failure data are used to illustrate the process methods.
Blind Trust in the Care-Giver: Is Paternalism Essential to the Health-Seeking Behavior of Patients in Sub-Saharan Africa?  [PDF]
Ishmael Norman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2015.52008
Abstract: In the past, patients put their lives in the care of doctors in blind trust that the doctors would care for them. This kind of trust is no longer common particularly in the western industrialized nations but the same cannot be said about patients in Ghana and Sub-Sahara Africa. The first concern was whether paternalism was essential in medical practice in Ghana. The second was whether paternalism as an ethical standard should be considered from the ethical lens of the western industrialized nations, rather than from the African cultural context. This entailed a review and examination of the literature on paternalism. We searched databases such as PubMed, Medline and others for reports, editorials and published papers in the English Language. A search on Goggle Scholar on “paternalism in medical practice in Africa” yielded over 380,000 entries and “paternalism in medical practice in Ghana” yielded 2.1 million but more than 99% were not relevant in each instant. Hand searching of selected printed journals and grey literature such as technical reports, conference proceedings and workshops were also assessed. The studies that met the inclusion criteria were given additional review but those with poor methodology were excluded but discussed in this review. I assigned an overall score and identified the position taken in the publication or report in relation to the objectives and rated them objectively. The papers that received scores above 2.5 out of 4 in the evaluation were further analyzed. I summarized the findings into their respective units, and interpreted them based upon my skills, knowledge and specialization in medico-legal ethics, public health and law. The result shows that not enough research has been done on whether or not paternalism should be encouraged as a regular feature of medical practice in Ghana due to the lack of education. It also shows that paternalism enhances the health seeking behavior of patients despite developments on patient autonomy and capacity. Where the average patient is illiterate in general and in medical matters, the paternalism of the physician may be inevitable. Ethical standards such as Informed Consent, Autonomy, Due Process, Benevolence and No malfeasance should be defined and operationalized in clinical practice within the cultural context of Sub-Sahara Africa. A systematic indigenization of medico-legal ethical concerns in medical practice is needed in Ghana.
Define “Social Exclusion”, Articulate Realistic Benchmarks and Evaluation Modalities for the Livelihood Empowerment against Poverty Program, Ghana  [PDF]
Ishmael Norman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2017.71002
Abstract: The Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty, a “flagship” program of Ghana, has been praised as a Sub-Saharan Africa’s “miracle cure” for poverty alleviation because it gives US$4.00 - 6.00 a month to a single beneficiary household. In any other regions of the world, the paltry sum would not be praiseworthy. This paper reviewed the literature on the Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty program to identify the reported gains by beneficiaries. Using government’s own publication on LEAP, the author sought to determine evidence of exclusion of the extreme poor, and to find if the alleged gains under LEAP have improved the social inclusion and functionings of the beneficiary households by reducing the alleged social exclusion, chronic poverty and deprivation or by improving social solidarity and equal opportunities for the beneficiaries. Internet search of pertinent literature was conducted, with hand searching of grey literature produced by the Ghana Ministry of Women and Children Affairs and others on the matter. The pertinent papers that addressed the research questions were read and briefed for analyses. The published literature reveals that the program has not significantly improved the capabilities, functionings and being of beneficiaries, though there is a plethora of anecdotal reportage about improvements in their lives. In rural Ghana poverty is not the basis for social exclusion, though disability is. The loose eligibility criteria reward undeserving recipients of LEAP. The government of Ghana and its development partners need to conduct monitoring and evaluation exercise of the program to assess the contributions, if any. They also need to have a working definition of social exclusion, social isolation and solidarity in order to identify the types of exclusions that should inform policy and intervention. There is an urgent need to redesign the program, rearticulate the eligibility criteria and to set clear pathways for capacity building of the beneficiary household leaders towards productive activities.
The Right to Keep and Bear Arms, Ghana  [PDF]
Ishmael Norman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2018.810040
Abstract: The 1992 Constitution provides explicit instructions to the citizens of Ghana to defend it. That is to say, the citizens are inured with the correlative constitutional right to acquire arms, to keep and to bear them in anticipation of national defense. Despite this charge, the legislative framework has, for a considerable length of time, placed administrative restrictions on gun ownership that undermine the constitutional grant to citizens to even acquire arms. The National Commission on Small Arms and regional conventions such as Ecowas Convention on Small Arms and Light Weapons, have confusing nomenclature and idiosyncratic definition for legal and illicit gun ownership that complicate the right to bear arms. This investigation attempts to show to what extent the constitutional mandate had been overlooked and encroached upon, and how the encroachment can be clawed back to enhance Article 3 rights of the citizens under the 1992 Constitution of Ghana.
Juxtaposition of Hohfeldian Rights, Principle-Based Ethics, Functionings, and the Health-Seeking Behavior of Sub-Saharan Africa  [PDF]
Ishmael D. Norman, Blandina M. Awiah Norman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2016.610026
Abstract: Principle-based ethics appears to be recent addition to Sub-Saharan Africa’s rights profile, although universal principles of morality have been part of the region from time immemorial. In this regard, periodic review of how principle-based ethics is being integrated into the health-seeking behavior of Sub-Saharan Africa is essential to the capabilities and functionings of the people. Whether the Hohfeldian incidents should be applied to Sub-Saharan Africa in measuring the degree of autonomy, capacity and informed consent, given the limited actual and medical education. Whether ethical concepts of “responsibility” and “paternalism” should be more promoted and if so, what happens to their “functionings” and “being”? The author examined the literature on ethics, searched databases for reports and published papers in the English language. Hand searching of selected printed journals and grey literature such as technical reports and conference proceedings were also accessed and briefed for further analyses. This shows that Hohfeldian rights are a natural part of African ethics. Principle-based ethics does not incorporate African ethics per se, although physicians’, and decision experts’ paternalism enhances the health-seeking behavior of Africa’s people, it interferes with their “rights”, “claims”, “power” and “privilege”, as well as their capabilities and functionings. Hohfeldian rights relate to Sub-Sahara Africa as universal man and amalgamate with African ethics and morality through the paternalism of doctors, community leaders and other “decision experts” in society in general. The application of the principle-based ethics in the healthcare delivery system and in other endeavors of Sub-Saharan Africa is achieved through the paternalism of superior powers. This compromises the functionings and being of the people.
Thyroidectomy for Massive Goiter Weighing more than 500 Grams. Technical Difficulties, Complications and Management. Review  [PDF]
Norman Oneil Machado
Surgical Science (SS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2011.25060
Abstract: Background: Multinodular goiter is a relatively common thyroid disorder with a marked female preponderance. Most of these goiters weigh less than 100 grams with those weighing more than 500 grams being exceptional. The massively expanding goiter due to the strategic anatomic location of thyroid gland, in addition to being cosmetically disfiguring can seriously compromise the patency of the trachea and oesophagus. Thyroidectomy for such goiters is a surgical challenge due to the possible association of tracheomalacia, retrosternal extension, skin involvement and the difficulty in intubation and dissection of the thyroid gland due to distorted and displaced anatomy. Material and methods: While presenting 2 patients who underwent thyroidectomy for glands weighing more than 500 grams, the literature is reviewed to analyze the technical difficulties and approach in such patients and the frequently encountered complications in them and their management. Results: A review of the literature revealed an additional 7 cases of patients who had undergone thyroidectomy for glands weighing more than 500 grams. Massively enlarged goiter was often associated with tracheomalacia, tracheal stenosis and retrosternal extension. Difficulty during surgery was most often encountered in establishing the airway and in exposure of the gland particularly when the skin was involved. The predominant postoperative complications were related to respiratory distress as a consequence of tracheomalacia and tracheal stenosis. Conclusion: In spite of the technical challenge related to the airway, and thyroidectomy, surgery continues to be the best option in experienced hands due to its distinct advantage of its immediate effect and complete resolution of compressive symptoms.
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