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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2410 matches for " Norihiro Kato "
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Cancer detection by ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase L1 methylation in pancreatobiliary fluids
Norihiro Kato,Hiroyuki Yamamoto,Yasushi Adachi,Hirokazu Ohashi
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2013, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i11.1718
Abstract: AIM: To evaluate the utility of measuring epigenetic alterations in pancreatic and biliary fluids in determining molecular markers for pancreatobiliary cancers. METHODS: DNA was extracted from undiluted pancreatic and biliary fluids. As a surrogate for a genome-wide hypomethylation assay, levels of long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) methylation were analyzed using bisulfite pyrosequencing. CpG island hypermethylation of 10 tumor-associated genes, aryl-hydrocarbon receptor repressor, adenomatous polyposis coli, calcium channel, voltage dependent, T type α1G subunit, insulin-like growth factor 2, O-6-methyl-guanine-DNA methyltransferase, neurogenin 1, CDKN2A, runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3), secreted frizzled-related protein 1, and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase L1 (UCHL1), was analyzed using MethyLight. To examine the role of CpG methylation and histone deacetylation in the silencing of UCHL1, human gallbladder carcinoma cell lines and pancreatic carcinoma cell lines were treated with 2 or 5 μmol/L 5-AZA-dC for 72 h or 100 nmol/L Trichostatin A for 24 h. After the treatment, UCHL1 expression was analyzed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Pancreatobiliary cancers exhibited significantly lower LINE-1 methylation levels in pancreatic and biliary fluids than did noncancerous pancreatobiliary disease (58.7% ± 4.3% vs 61.7% ± 2.2%, P = 0.027; 53.8% ± 6.6% vs 57.5% ± 1.7%, P = 0.007); however, LINE-1 hypomethylation was more evident in pancreatic cancer tissues than in pancreatic fluids (45.4% ± 5.5% vs 58.7% ± 4.3%, P < 0.001). CpG island hypermethylation of tumor-associated genes was detected at various frequencies, but it was not correlated with LINE-1 hypomethylation. Hypermethylation of the UCHL1 gene was cancer-specific and most frequently detected in pancreatic (67%) or biliary (70%) fluids from patients with pancreatobiliary cancer. As a single marker, hypermethylation of the UCHL1 gene in pancreatic and biliary fluids was most useful for the detection of pancreatic and pancreatobiliary cancers, respectively (100% specificity). Hypermethylation of the UCHL1 and RUNX3 genes in pancreatic and biliary fluids was the most useful combined marker for pancreatic (87% sensitivity and 100% specificity) and pancreatobiliary (97% sensitivity and 100% specificity) cancers. Treatment with a demethylating agent, 5-AZA-2’-deoxycytidine, restored UCHL1 expression in pancreatobiliary cancer cell lines. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that hypermethylation of UCHL1 and RUNX3 in pancreatobiliary fluid might
Jupiter: Peer-to-Peer Networking Platform over Heterogeneous Networks
Norihiro Ishikawa,Takeshi Kato,Hiromitsu Sumino,Johan Hjelm
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics , 2006,
Abstract: Peer-to-peer has entered the public limelight over the last few years. Several research projects are underway on peer-to-peer technologies, but no definitive conclusion is currently available. Compared with traditional Internet technologies, peer-to-peer has the potential to realize highly scalable, extensible, and efficient distributed applications. This is because its basic functions realize resource discovery, resource sharing, and load balancing in a highly distributed manner. An easy prediction is the emergence of an environment in which many sensors, people, and many different kinds of objects exist, move, and communicate with one another. Peer-to-peer is one of the most important and suitable technologies for such networking since it supports discovery mechanisms, simple one-to-one communication between devices, free and extensible distribution of resources, and distributed search to handle the enormous number of resources. The purpose of this study is to explore a universal peer-to-peer network architecture that will allow various devices to communicate with one another across various networks. We have been designing architecture and protocols for realizing peer-to-peer networking among various devices. We are currently designing APIs that are available for various peer-to-peer applications and are implementing a prototype called "Jupiter" as a peer-to-peer networking platform over heterogeneous networks.
A Comparison of Paraconsistent Description Logics  [PDF]
Norihiro Kamide
International Journal of Intelligence Science (IJIS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijis.2013.32011

Description logics (DLs) are a family of logic-based knowledge representation formalisms with a number of computer science applications. DLs are especially well-known to be valuable for obtaining logical foundations of web ontology languages (e.g., W3C’s ontology language OWL). Paraconsistent (or inconsistency-tolerant) description logics (PDLs) have been studied to cope with inconsistencies which may frequently occur in an open world. In this paper, a comparison and survey of PDLs is presented. It is shown that four existing paraconsistent semantics (i.e., four-valued semantics, quasi-classical semantics, single-interpretation semantics and dual-interpretation semantics) for PDLs are essentially the same semantics. To show this, two generalized and extended new semantics are introduced, and an equivalence between them is proved.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a rural, physically active, low income population in Sri Lanka
M Pinidiyapathirage, Anuradha S Dassanayake, Shaman Rajindrajith, Udaya Kalubowila, Norihiro Kato, A Wickremasinghe, H de Silva
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-513
Abstract: By visiting individual households in the community, 35-64 year old adults resident in two selected estates in the Nuwara Eliya District of Sri Lanka, were invited to participate in the study. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were made on all participants. Blood samples were obtained for the assay of fasting glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin and alanine aminotransferase. NAFLD was diagnosed on established ultrasound criteria for fatty liver in the absence of hepatitis B and C markers and high alcohol consumption.Of those invited, 403 (65%) participated in the study. Almost all participants were either Indian or Sri Lankan Tamils and 53% were females. Prevalence of NAFLD was 18% in this population. Twice as many males were diagnosed as having NAFLD compared to females. Male sex, high BMI, high waist circumference, high diastolic blood pressure and high plasma glucose levels were significant predictors of NAFLD.Nearly one in five people in this predominantly Indian Tamil, rural, physically active, economically deprived population had NAFLD. The condition was associated with constituent features of the metabolic syndrome. These results support studies reporting ethnic variations in disease susceptibility and suggest that genetic factors may also play a role in determining disease risk.Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now recognized as the most common chronic liver condition in most regions worldwide. The majority of patients with this condition generally have simple hepatic steatosis with no or mild nonspecific inflammation. However, more active forms of the condition that include steatohepatitis can have significant clinical consequences related to the development of cirrhosis and its complications or co-morbid cardiovascular disease [1].The prevalence of NAFLD has accelerated in the last few decades, paralleling the substantial increase in rates of overweight and obese people in the general population [1]. NAFLD was conventionally recogniz
Reasoning about Context Information in Cloud Computing Environments  [PDF]
Norihiro Kamide, Yishui Zhu
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2012.531109
Abstract: The notion of context provides flexibility and adaptation to cloud computing services. Location, time identity and activity of users are examples of primary context types. The motivation of this paper is to formalize reasoning about context information in cloud computing environments. To formalize such context-aware reasoning, the logic LCM of context-mixture is introduced based on a Gentzen-type sequent calculus for an extended resource-sensitive logic. LCM has a specific inference rule called the context-mixture rule, which can naturally represent a mechanism for merging formulas with context information. Moreover, LCM has a specific modal operator called the sequence modal operator, which can suitably represent context information. The cut-elimination and embedding theorems for LCM are proved, and a fragment of LCM is shown to be decidable. These theoretical results are intended to provide a logical justification of context-aware cloud computing service models such as a flowable service model.
Altered Energy Homeostasis and Resistance to Diet-Induced Obesity in KRAP-Deficient Mice
Takahiro Fujimoto, Kyoko Miyasaka, Midori Koyanagi, Toshiyuki Tsunoda, Iwai Baba, Keiko Doi, Minoru Ohta, Norihiro Kato, Takehiko Sasazuki, Senji Shirasawa
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004240
Abstract: Obesity and related metabolic disorders have become leading causes of adult morbidity and mortality. KRAP (Ki-ras-induced actin-interacting protein) is a cytoskeleton-associated protein and a ubiquitous protein among tissues, originally identified as a cancer-related molecule, however, its physiological roles remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that KRAP-deficient (KRAP?/?) mice show enhanced metabolic rate, decreased adiposity, improved glucose tolerance, hypoinsulinemia and hypoleptinemia. KRAP?/? mice are also protected against high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance despite of hyperphagia. Notably, glucose uptake in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) in KRAP?/? mice is enhanced in an insulin-independent manner, suggesting that BAT is involved in altered energy homeostasis in KRAP?/? mice, although UCP (Uncoupling protein) expressions are not altered. Of interest is the down-regulation of fatty acid metabolism-related molecules, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)-1, ACC-2 and fatty acid synthase in the liver of KRAP?/? mice, which could in part account for the metabolic phenotype in KRAP?/? mice. Thus, KRAP is a novel regulator in whole-body energy homeostasis and may be a therapeutic target in obesity and related diseases.
Tocilizumab, a Proposed Therapy for the Cachexia of Interleukin6-Expressing Lung Cancer
Katsutoshi Ando, Fumiyuki Takahashi, Motoyasu Kato, Norihiro Kaneko, Tokuhide Doi, Yuichiro Ohe, Fumiaki Koizumi, Kazuto Nishio, Kazuhisa Takahashi
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102436
Abstract: Background We previously reported the role of IL-6 in a murine model of cancer cachexia and currently documented a patient in whom tocilizumab, anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, dramatically improved cachexia induced by IL-6 over-expressing lung cancer. Despite this potential to alleviate cancer cachexia, tocilizumab has not been approved for this clinical use. Therefore, preceding our planned clinical trial of tocilizumab, we designed the two studies described here to evaluate the levels of IL-6 in patients with lung cancer and the effect of tocilizumab in a murine model of human cancer cachexia. Methods First, we measured serum IL-6 levels in patients with lung cancer and analyzed its association with cachexia and survival. Next, we examined the effect of a rodent analog of tocilizumab (MR16-1) in the experimental cachexia model. Results Serum IL-6 levels were higher in patients with cachexia than those without cachexia. In patients with chemotherapy-resistant lung cancer, a high IL-6 serum level correlated strongly with survival, and the cut-off level for affecting their prognosis was 21 pg/mL. Meanwhile, transplantation of IL-6-expressing Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells caused cachexia in mice, which then received either MR16-1 or 0.9% saline. Tumor growth was similar in both groups; however, the MR16-1 group lost less weight, maintained better food and water intake and had milder cachectic features in blood. MR16-1 also prolonged the survival of LLC-IL6 transplanted mice (36.6 vs. 28.5 days, p = 0.016). Conclusion Our clinical and experimental studies revealed that serum IL-6 is a surrogate marker for evaluating cachexia and the prognosis of patients with chemotherapy resistant metastatic lung cancer and that tocilizumab has the potential of improving prognosis and ameliorating the cachexia that so devastates their quality of life. This outcome greatly encourages our clinical trials to evaluate the safety and efficacy of tocilizumab treatment for patients with increased serum IL-6.
Supergravity, Supermembrane and M(atrix) model on PP-Waves
Norihiro Iizuka
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.68.126002
Abstract: In the first part of this paper, we study the back-reaction of large-N light cone momentum on the maximally supersymmetric anti-pp-wave background. This gives the type IIA geometry of large-N D0-branes on curved space with fluxes. By taking an appropriate decoupling limit, we conjecture a new duality between string theory on that background and dual field theory on D0-branes which we derive by calculating linear coupling terms. Agreement of decoupling quantities, SO(3) \times SO(6) isometry and Higgs branch on both theories are shown. Also we find whenever dual field theory is weakly coupled, the curvature of the geometry is large. In the second part of this paper, we derive the supermembrane action on a general pp-wave background only through the properties of null Killing vector and through this, derive the Matrix model.
Modules of differential operators of order 2 on Coxeter arrangements
Norihiro Nakashima
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: We prove that the modules of differential operators of order 2 on the classical Coxeter arrangements are free by exhibiting bases. For this purpose, we use Cauchy-Sylvester's theorem on compound determinants and Saito-Holm's criterion. In the case type $A$, we apply Cauchy-Sylvester's theorem on compound determinants to Vandermond determinant. By using the Schur polynomials, we define operators which form a part of a basis of modules of differential operators on the classical Coxeter arrangements of type $A$. In the cases of type $B$ and type $D$, the proofs go similarly to the case of type $A$ with some adjustments of operators and determinants.
The noetherian properties of the rings of differential operators on central 2-arrangements
Norihiro Nakashima
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: Whereas Holm proved that the ring of differential operators on a generic hyperplane arrangement is finitely generated as an algebra, the problem of its Noetherian properties is still open. In this article, after proving that the ring of differential operators on a central arrangement is right Noetherian if and only if it is left Noetherian, we prove that the ring of differential operators on a central 2-arrangement is Noetherian. In addition, we prove that its graded ring associated to the order filtration is not Noetherian when the number of the consistuent hyperplanes is greater than 1.
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