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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1951 matches for " Nophea Sasaki "
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Re-Assessment of Forest Carbon Balance in Southeast Asia: Policy Implications for REDD+  [PDF]
Vathana Khun, Nophea Sasaki
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2014.54016
Abstract: Southeast Asia is rich in tropical forests and biodiversity but rapid deforestation and forest degradation have accelerated climate change and threatened sustainable development in the region. Carbon emission reductions through reducing deforestation and forest degradation, forest conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+) have been a focal topic of the climate change mitigation since the Bali in 2007. However, only a handful of studies exist so far on this important issue that are suitable to inform the debate with estimates of carbon stocks and emission reductions or removals as a result of REDD+. Our study attempts to analyze the potential emission reductions and removals for a 35-year period under the REDD+ scheme. We start by developing land use change and forest harvesting models that are used to estimate carbon stock changes in natural forests and forest plantations in Southeast Asia. Carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation of natural forests were 1865.1, 1611.4, and 1300.4 TgCO2 year-1, respectively. With a hypothetical carbon project of 35 years beginning from 2015, carbon emission reductions were estimated at 817.6 TgCO2 year-1, of which about 10% was from reducing forest degradation. Carbon removals due to increase of forest plantations were 76.3 TgCO2 year-1 but the removals could be much higher if there is a new definition on the eligibility of forest plantations. Summing up together, about 893.9 TgCO
Assessment of Drivers of Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Phnom Tbeng Forest Based on Socio-Economic Surveys  [PDF]
Somanta Chan, Nophea Sasaki
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.517155
Abstract: Carbon emission reductions through reducing deforestation and forest degradation or REDD+ scheme of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change could not be achieved without understanding the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation. Until recently, only a handful of study has focused on such drivers. Cambodia experienced rapid deforestation and forest degradation despite growing international interests in protecting forests for carbon revenue generation. This paper was designed to assess livelihood of forest-dependent community and drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in Cambodia. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect socio-economic data from 42 households living in Phnom Tbeng forest, where annual deforestation rate was about 2.4% between 2004 and 2009. Our results suggest that local people depend on forests for income generation, subsistence use and social identity. About 90% of the respondents believed that deforestation was resulted from illegal logging, slush and burn agricultural practices, land clearing for large plantation, land encroachment, firewood extraction, charcoal production and forest fire. As the population has increased rapidly and almost 100% of local people depend on fuelwood for cooking, fuelwood collection will continue to cause deforestation and forest degradation unless alternative sources of affordable energy are provided. Appropriate policy interventions should be proposed to reduce the drivers obtained in this study because if drivers cannot be reduced, it is not possible to reduce deforestation and forest degradation, and related carbon emissions.
Cumulative Carbon Fluxes Due to Selective Logging in Southeast Asia  [PDF]
Vathana Khun, Nophea Sasaki
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2014.54018
Abstract: Selective logging creates a large amount of wood residues in forests in addition to producing a small amount of sawnwood for use as source of construction materials. Although accounting for carbon fluxes in harvested wood products (HWPs) becomes necessary in the fight against climate change, previous studies focused mainly on carbon fluxes in HWPs in temperate and boreal forests. This report attempts to analyze carbon fluxes in various wood components created by selective logging in production forest in Southeast Asia during a hypothetical period of carbon project implementation between 2015 and 2050 under conventional (CVL) and reduced-impact logging (RIL). Study results suggest that CVL produced about 146.6 (±5.4) million m3 annually. Logging created annual carbon fluxes of about 0.23, 0.23, 0.20, 0.69, and 0.15 MgC ha-1·year-1 in sawnwood, wood wastes at sawmills (SWW), wood product wastes due to logging damages remained in the forests (WPW), branches and top logs (BRA), and belowground dead root (BLD), respectively. Cumulative carbon fluxes were estimated at 281.0, 506.6, and 87.4 TgC year-1 in sawnwood, onsite (WPW, BRA, BLD), and offsite (SWW) pools, respectively. Except in SW, cumulative carbon fluxes in onsite and offsite pools showed a decline trend in about 10 years after logging. Switching from CVL to RIL could increase fluxes in sawnwood 60% higher than that under CVL, while reducing fluxes in short-lived onsite and offsite wood residues. Not only RIL can increase carbon fluxes in sawnwood, it can also increase production of sawnwood and retain more carbon in standing forests.
Using Online Tools to Assess Public Responses to Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Japan
Sengtha Chay,Nophea Sasaki
Future Internet , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/fi3020117
Abstract: As a member of the Annex 1 countries to the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Japan is committed to reducing 6% of the greenhouse gas emissions. In order to achieve this commitment, Japan has undertaken several major mitigation measures, one of which is the domestic measure that includes ecologically friendly lifestyle programs, utilizing natural energy, participating in local environmental activities, and amending environmental laws. Mitigation policies could be achieved if public responses were strong. As the internet has increasingly become an online platform for sharing environmental information, public responses to the need for reducing greenhouse gas emissions may be assessed using available online tools. We used Google Insights for Search, Google AdWords Keyword Tool, and Google Timeline View to assess public responses in Japan based on the interest shown for five search terms that define global climate change and its mitigation policies. Data on online search interests from January 04, 2004 to July 18, 2010 were analyzed according to locations and categories. Our study suggests that the search interests for the five chosen search terms dramatically increased, especially when new mitigation policies were introduced or when climate change related events were organized. Such a rapid increase indicates that the Japanese public strongly responds to climate change mitigation policies.
Time to Substitute Wood Bioenergy for Nuclear Power in Japan
Nophea Sasaki,Toshiaki Owari,Francis E. Putz
Energies , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/en4071051
Abstract: Damage to the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant by the recent earthquake and tsunami that hit northern Japan should stimulate consideration of alternative sources of energy. In particular, if managed appropriately, the 25.1 million ha of Japanese forests could be an important source of wood biomass for bioenergy production. Here, we discuss policy incentives for substituting wood bioenergy for nuclear power, thereby creating a safer society while better managing the forest resources in Japan.
Reducing Carbon Emissions through Improved Forest Management in Cambodia  [PDF]
Nophea Sasaki, Issei Abe, Vathana Khun, Somanta Chan, Hiroshi Ninomiya, Kimsun Chheng
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2013.44A006

Carbon emissions from selectively logged forests in the tropics are strongly affected by logging practices. Although tropical forests are mainly managed under the concession system, only a handful of studies were done to assess the impact of logging practices on emission reductions and future timber supply. In this report, carbon stocks, timber supply, and carbon emission reductions under conventional logging (CVL), reduced-impact logging (RIL), and RIL with special silvicultural treatments (RIL+) were assessed in 3.4 million ha of concession forests for a 55-year project time span. Carbon emissions under a 25-year CVL practiced in Cambodia were estimated at 12.4 TgCO2 year-1 for 55 years. We then tested four cutting cycles of selective logging and our results suggest that a 45-year selective cutting cycle was appropriate for managing concession forests in Cambodia in terms of maintaining commercial timber supply and reducing carbon emissions. By considering RIL or RIL+ as a new logging practice for improving forest management in the tropics, carbon credits from selective logging in Cambodia were estimated at 6.2 - 7.9 TgCO2 or about $31.0 - 39.5 million annually if carbon is priced at $5. It is concluded that RIL or RIL+ should be adopted for “sustainable management of forests” element of the REDD+ scheme.

Estimation of Carbon Emission Reductions by Managing Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest: Case Study in Popa Mountain Park  [PDF]
Yu Ya Aye, Savent Pampasit, Chanin Umponstira, Kanita Thanacharoenchanaphas, Nophea Sasaki
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2014.52009

Global efforts in mitigating climate change are increasingly important as more evidence of climate change impact is apparent. Reducing carbon emissions under the United Nations’ reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, conservation of carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+) have multiple implications for climate change mitigation and sustainable development. However, implementing REDD+ project requires understanding of the magnitude of emissions in the absence of project activities (baseline) and vice versa (projectline). This study attempted to estimate carbon emission reductions by reducing deforestation in dry mixed deciduous forests in Popa Mountain Park in Myanmar. Baseline deforestation was determined using the 1989-2005 forest cover data, while carbon stocks were derived from forest inventory data. Our results show that about 25% to 63% of forest area in the study site will be lost between 2013 and 2043 if no REDD+ project is implemented. Our study results suggest that managing4220 haof dry mixed deciduous forest in Popa Mountain Park could reduce emissions of about 104023.8 - 241991.0 tCO2 over a 30-year project cycle or about 3467 - 8066 tCO2 annually depending on deforestation rates. In terms of carbon revenues, the project would generate about US $349503.3 - $846968.6 per 30 years or US $11650.1 - $28232.3 annually depending on the assumption of carbon price. It is therefore important that carbon financing be made available to protect the forests in the Popa Mountain Park as well as other parts in Myanmar.

Floristic Composition, Diversity and Stand Structure of Tropical Forests in Popa Mountain Park  [PDF]
Yu Ya Aye, Savent Pampasit, Chanin Umponstira, Kanita Thanacharoenchanaphas, Nophea Sasaki
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.517150
Abstract: Safeguarding biodiversity is an important component of the REDD+ scheme of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Information on tree species and their distribution is therefore needed for successful implementation of forestry carbon projects. Forest inventory data were collected in four natural forests located in Popa Mountain Park, Myanmar. Based on the data from 4-ha sample plots, average stem density ranges from 1293 trees ha-1 in dry dipterocarp forest to 804 tree ha-1 in dry evergreen forest. According to the Jackknife estimator for species richness (trees with DBH ≥ 5 cm), the highest number of species was recorded in dry mixed deciduous forest—74 species ha-1, and the lowest number of species recorded in dry forest—40 species ha-1. Dry mixed deciduous forest occupied the highest value on the Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson diversity index while the lowest was in dry forest, indicating that dry mixed deciduous forest is the most complex whereas dry forest is the simplest community. Not only does this study provide useful information on the current status of vegetation type but the information is important for designing forestry management systems that could result in biodiversity conservation and carbon emission reductions.
Proposal on Tunneling Effect between Quantum Hall States  [PDF]
Shosuke Sasaki
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.49A001

In the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, the electric current flows through a thin layer under the strong magnetic field. The diagonal resistance becomes very small at integer and specific fractional filling factors where the electron scatterings are very few. Accordingly the coherent length is large and therefore a tunneling effect of electrons may be observed. We consider a new type of a quantum Hall device which has a narrow potential barrier in the thin layer. Then the electrons flow with tunneling effect through the potential barrier. When the oscillating magnetic field is applied in addition to the constant field, the voltage steps may appear in the curve of voltage V versus electric current I. If the voltage steps are found in the experiment, it is confirmed that the 2D electron system yields the same phenomenon as that of the ac-Josephson effect in a superconducting system. Furthermore the step V is related to the transfer charge Q as V = (hf)/Q where f is the frequency of the oscillating field and h is the Planck constant. Then the detection of the step V determines the transfer charge Q. The ratio Q/e (e is the elementary charge) clarifies the

Weierstrass’ Elliptic Function Solution to the Autonomous Limit of the String Equation of Type (2,5)*  [PDF]
Yoshikatsu Sasaki
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2014.48055

In this article, we study the string equation of type (2,5), which is derived from 2D gravity theory or the string theory. We consider the equation as a 4th order analogue of the first Painlevé equation, take the autonomous limit, and solve it concretely by use of the Weierstrass’ elliptic function.

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