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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1353 matches for " Nobuo Goto "
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Joint Operation of Atomic Force Microscope and Advanced Laser Confocal Microscope for Observing Surface Processes in a Protein Crystal  [PDF]
Shin-ichiro Yanagiya, Nobuo Goto
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology (JSEMAT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsemat.2012.223032
Abstract: We demonstrated the insitu observation of a moving atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever using a laser confocal microscope combined with a differential interference microscope (LCM-DIM). The AFM cantilever scanned or indented the {110} surface of a hen egg-white lysozyme crystal in a supersaturated solution. Using a soft cantilever, we could observe the step growth with high time resolution by LCM-DIM and perform quantitative measurements of the step height by AFM simultaneously. In addition, a hard cantilever was used with LCM-DIM to observe the dynamics of crystal surface scratching and indentation. In the supersaturated solution, the small steps generated from the scratched line aggregated to macro steps, and subsequently flattened the surface.
Cut-Off Points of Head, Chest, and Arm Circumferences to Identify Low Birthweight: Meta-Analysis  [PDF]
Eita Goto
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2017.72015
Abstract: Background: The cut-off points of newborn anthropometric variables to identify low birthweight (i.e., birthweight < 2500 g) have varied between studies or even within the same study. Methods: Meta-analysis was performed to summarize cut-off points in studies judged as good quality based on the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool (QUADAS). PubMed (MEDLINE) and nine other databases were searched (January, 2015). PubMed related-citations and references of potentially eligible articles and related reviews were also investigated. The Egger test was used to assess publication bias. Results: With respect to head, chest, and arm circumferences, the cut-off points that involved no publication bias could be summarized based on the data from large numbers of newborns (=21,793, 8917, and 12,912, respectively) in relatively sufficient numbers of studies (=17, 15, and 19, respectively). The optimal cut-off points to identify low birthweight were 33.0 cm (95% confidence interval [CI], 32.8 - 33.2), 30.4 cm (95% CI, 30.3 - 30.6), and 9.3 cm (95% CI, 9.1 - 9.4) for head circumference, chest circumference, and arm circumference, respectively. The summarized cut-off point of birth height, i.e., 47.2 cm (95% CI, 46.7 - 47.7), used to identify low birthweight involved publication bias (n = 13). Conclusion: The cut-off points were determined to identify low birthweight using head, chest, and arm circumferences.
Study of Integral Variable Structure Control Method for Stability of SI Engine Idling Speed  [PDF]
Yang Zhang, Nobuo Kurihara
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.38094
Abstract: The intake air control system of a gasoline engine is a typical nonlinear system, and included among the adverse fac-tors that always induce poor idle-speed control stability are dead time and disturbances in the intake air control process. In this paper, to improve the responsiveness when idling with regard to disturbances, a mean-value engine model (MVEM) with dead time was constructed as the control object, and the two servo structures of sliding mode control (SMC) were studied for better idle control performance, especially in transient process of speed change. The simulation results confirmed that under the constraint condition of control input, the robustness of idle speed control that is being subjected to torque disturbances and noise disturbances can be greatly improved by use of the servo structure II.
Adaptive Back-Stepping Control of Automotive Electronic Control Throttle  [PDF]
Nobuo Kurihara, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2017.101003
Abstract: Back-stepping control (BSC), which is deemed effective for a non-holonomic system, is applied to improving both responsiveness and resolution performance of an electronic control throttle (ECT) used in automotive engines. This paper is characterized by the use of a two-step type BSC in a manner that achieves an improvement in responsiveness with the ETC operated in a fully opened state by adding a derivative term in Step 1 and the improvement in resolution performance with the ETC operated in a minutely opened state by adding an adaptive feature in the form of an integral term using the control deviation in Step 2. This paper presents an ECT control expressed as a second-order system including nonlinearities such as backlash of gear train and static friction in sliding area, a BSC system designed based on Lyapunov stability, and a determination method for control parameters. Also, a two-step type BSC system is formulated using Matlab/Simulink with a physics model as a control object. As a result of simulation analyses, it becomes clear that the BSC system can achieve quicker response because the derivative term works effectively and finer resolution because the adaptive control absorbs the error margin of the nonlinear compensation than conventional PID control.
Full-Length Sequence of Mouse Acupuncture-Induced 1-L (Aig1l) Gene Including Its Transcriptional Start Site
Mika Ohta,Aki Sugano,Shuji Goto,Surini Yusoff,Yushi Hirota,Kotaro Funakoshi,Kenji Miura,Eiichi Maeda,Nobuo Takaoka,Nobuko Sato,Hiroshi Ishizuka,Naoki Arizono,Hisahide Nishio,Yutaka Takaoka
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep121
Abstract: We have been investigating the molecular efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA), which is one type of acupuncture therapy. In our previous molecular biological study of acupuncture, we found an EA-induced gene, named acupuncture-induced 1-L (Aig1l), in mouse skeletal muscle. The aims of this study consisted of identification of the full-length cDNA sequence of Aig1l including the transcriptional start site, determination of the tissue distribution of Aig1l and analysis of the effect of EA on Aig1l gene expression. We determined the complete cDNA sequence including the transcriptional start site via cDNA cloning with the cap site hunting method. We then analyzed the tissue distribution of Aig1l by means of northern blot analysis and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We used the semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to examine the effect of EA on Aig1l gene expression. Our results showed that the complete cDNA sequence of Aig1l was 6073 bp long, and the putative protein consisted of 962 amino acids. All seven tissues that we analyzed expressed the Aig1l gene. In skeletal muscle, EA induced expression of the Aig1l gene, with high expression observed after 3 hours of EA. Our findings thus suggest that the Aig1l gene may play a key role in the molecular mechanisms of EA efficacy.
Preparation and Properties of Polyaniline in the Presence of Trehalose  [PDF]
Hirotsugu Kawashima, Hiromasa Goto
Soft Nanoscience Letters (SNL) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/snl.2011.13013
Abstract: Oxidative polymerization of aniline in aqueous solution in the presence of trehalose was conducted. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed successful preparation of polyaniline containing a trace amount of trehalose. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy revealed that electron spin concentration of the polyaniline increases with aniline/trehalose ratio in the polymerization. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the polyaniline shows granular and porous morphology. Electrical conductivity of these polyanilines was in the order of 10-4 S/cm.
International Factor Mobility and Dynamic Paths  [PDF]
Hiroshi Goto, Yuji Matsuoka
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.36051
Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to consider the adjustment process of the spatial structure in a two-country economy where both labor and capital are mobile. For this purpose, we combine the model of New Economic Geography with the phase diagram technique. We show that the agglomeration processes are not always monotonic since the mobile factors interact with each other. More specifically, even when both factors are eventually agglomerated to one country, it is possible that labor and capital move in opposite directions in the adjustment process. Differences in factor endowment ratio and market size play significant roles in this transition path.

Pitfalls and Remedies in DEA Applications: How to Handle an Occurrence of Zero in Multipliers by Strong Complementary Slackness Conditions  [PDF]
Toshiyuki Sueyoshi, Mika Goto
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.55A005
Abstract: This study discusses a guideline on a proper use of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that has been widely used for performance analysis in public and private sectors. The use of DEA is equipped with Strong Complementary Slackness Conditions (SCSCs) in this study, but an application of DEA/SCSCs depends upon its careful use, as summarized in the guideline. The guideline consists of the five suggestions. First, a data set used in the DEA applications should not have a ratio variable (e.g., financial ratios) in an input(s) and/or an output(s). Second, radial DEA models under variable and constant Returns to Scale (RTS) need a special treatment on zero in a data set. Third, the DEA evaluation needs to drop an outlier. Fourth, an imprecise number (e.g., 1/3) may suffer from a round-off error because DEA needs to specify it in a precise expression to operate a computer code. Finally, when a large input or output variable may dominate other variables in DEA computation, it is necessary to normalize the data set or simply to divide each observation by its average. Such a simple treatment produces more reliable DEA results than the one without any data adjustment. This study also discusses how to handle an occurrence of zero in DEA multipliers by applying SCSCs. The DEA/SCSCs can serve for a multiplier restriction approach without any prior information. Thus, the propesed DEA/SCSCs can provide more reliable results than a straight use of DEA.
Preparation of Polyaniline/ZnO Films by Electrochemical Polymerization  [PDF]
Yuki Kaitsuka, Hiromasa Goto
Open Journal of Polymer Chemistry (OJPChem) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojpchem.2016.61001
Abstract: A series of polyaniline (PANI)/zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-particle (diameter 70 nm) composite films were prepared by electrochemical polymerization in the presence of ZnO nanoparticle. Furthermore, PANI-ZnO/PVA (PVA = polyvinyl alcohol) double-layer system was prepared. We first report preparations of a photocatalyst/conducting polymer light absorber by using ZnO nano-particles.
Resolution of Resource Contentions in the CCPM-MPL Using Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithm  [PDF]
Hajime Yokoyama, Hiroyuki Goto
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2016.66044
Abstract: This research aims to plan a “good-enough” schedule with leveling of resource contentions. We use the existing critical chain project management-max-plus linear framework. Critical chain project management is known as a technique used to both shorten the makespan and observe the due date under limited resources; the max-plus linear representation is an approach for modeling discrete event systems as production systems and project scheduling. If a contention arises within a single resource, we must resolve it by appending precedence relations. Thus, the resolution framework is reduced to a combinatorial optimization. If we aim to obtain the exact optimal solution, the maximum computation time is longer than 10 hours for 20 jobs. We thus experiment with Simulated Annealing (SA) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) to obtain an approximate solution within a practical time. Comparing the two methods, the former was beneficial in computation time, whereas the latter was better in terms of the performance of the solution. If the number of tasks is 50, the solution using SA is better than that using GA.
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