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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19142 matches for " Nisreen Al-Shaikh "
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Prioritization of Sub-Watersheds in a Large Semi-Arid Drainage Basin (Southern Jordan) Using Morphometric Analysis, GIS, and Multivariate Statistics  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan, Ali Anbar, Nisreen Al-Shaikh, Haifa Almohammad, Sireen Alshawamreh, Manal Barghouthi
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/as.2018.94031
Abstract: GIS-based morphometric analysis was employed to prioritize the W. Mujib-Wala watershed southern Jordan. Seventy six fourth-order sub-watersheds were prioritized using morphometric analysis of ten linear and shape parameters. Each sub-watershed is prioritized by designated ranks based on the calculated compound parameter (Cp). The total score for each sub-basin is assigned as per erosion threat. The 76 sub-basins were grouped into four categories of priority: very high (12 sub-basins, 15.8% of the total), high (32 sub-watersheds, 42.1% of the total), moderate (25 sub-watersheds, 32.9% of the total), and low (7 sub-watersheds, 9.2% of the total). Sub-watersheds categorized as very high and high are subjected to high erosion risk, thus creating an urgent need for applying soil and water conservation measures. The relative diversity in land use practices and land cover, including variation in slope and soil types, are considered in proposing suitable conservation structures for sub-watersheds connected to each priority class. The adaptation of soil conservation measures priority-wise will reduce the erosivity effect on soil loss; while increasing infiltration rates; and water availability in soil profile. Principal component analysis (PCA) reduces the basic parameters and erosion risk parameters to three components, explaining 88% of the variance. The relationships of these components to the basic and erosion risk parameters were evaluated, and then the degree of inter-correlation among the morphometric parameters was explored. The verification of priority classes obtained through morphometric analysis was tested using Discriminant Analysis (DA). The results show a complete separation existing between the identified priority classes. Thus, soil erosion risk and geomorphic conditions are found entirely different from one class to another. The present results are intended to help decision makers to plan for efficient soil and water conservation measures to achieve future agricultural sustainability in the rainfed highlands of Jordan.
Quantitative Regionalization of W. Mujib-Wala Sub-Watersheds (Southern Jordan) Using GIS and Multivariate Statistical Techniques  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan, Nisrin Al-Shaikh
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology (OJMH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2017.72010
Abstract: In arid and semi-arid watersheds, sustainable management of natural resources (i.e. land, water and ecological resources), and watershed management are crucial issues in applied morphometric studies. Geomorphometric parameters and their interrelationships are of paramount importance in characterizing the morphology, topography, geology and structure, hydrological potential, and geomorphic evolution of such catchments. An analysis of spatial characteristics and morphological development of the demarcated 76 sub-watersheds related to W. Mujib-Wala catchment, was carried out using ASTER DEM and GIS. Multivariate statistical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Cluster Analysis (CA), and Discriminant Analysis (DA), were also employed to assess different aspects of drainage networks, and their morphometric properties. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) reduces the 22 morphometric parameters to five components, which explain 90.4% of total variance. The relationship of these components to the morphometric variables and to the individual sub-watersheds was evaluated, and then the degree of inter-correlation among the morphometric descriptors was explored. The 76 sub-watersheds were classified according to their individual relation to the components, and similarities in their morphometric characteristics. Regionalization of sub-watertsheds was achieved using hierarchical Cluster Analysis (CA). The validity of the resultant cluster groups was tested statistically by means of Discriminant Analysis. The present investigation provides information which highlights the benefit of geomorphometric analysis and multivariate statistics in modeling hydrological responses: i.e., surface runoff and sediment yield, hydrological assessment, water resources planning, and watershed management. Furthermore, the results can be useful for soil and water conservation planning, and assessment of flash floods potential.
Quantitative Analysis of Geomorphometric Parameters of Wadi Kerak, Jordan, Using Remote Sensing and GIS  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan, Ali Anbar, Omar Enaba, Nisrin Al-Shaikh
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.76037
Abstract: Geomorphometric analysis was carried out to illustrate the drainage characteristics and morphology of Wadi Kerak watershed, southern Jordan. The basic and derived morphometric parameters (linear, areal and relief aspects of drainage network) for the basin were determined using ASTER DEM (30 m resolution) and Geographic Information System (GIS). These parameters describe the basin drainage network, geometry, texture, and relief characteristics. The hypsometric curve, hypsometric integral and clinographic curve were also prepared using topographic maps of 1:50,000 scale. Findings have revealed that W. Kerak is in the youth-age stage of geomorphic evolution. Fluvial erosion associated with successive phases of rejuvenation plays a significant role in drainage basin development, whereas structure and tectonics, lithology and relief dictate the drainage pattern and morphological setting of the catchment. The drainage area of the watershed is 190.9 km2 and constitutes a 5th-order drainage basin. The commonly observed drainage patterns are the trellis type, with sub-dendritic pattern recognized in the upper catchment. The drainage pattern, and the semi-linear alignment of main and branching drainage indicate the prominent influence of the Kerak-Al-fiha fault system on the drainage network. High dissection, relative relief, relief ratio, steep slopes and breaks of slopes are characteristic of W. Kerak. Morphometric analysis reveals that four rejuvenation phases caused severe erosion and down cutting activity in the past, and it is still susceptible to surface erosion at present.
Prioritization of Semi-Arid Agricultural Watershed Using Morphometric and Principal Component Analysis, Remote Sensing, and GIS Techniques, the Zerqa River Watershed, Northern Jordan  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan, Ali Anbar, Nisrin Al-Shaikh, Rami Mousa
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/as.2017.81009
Abstract: Remote sensing and GIS techniques were employed for prioritization of the Zerqa River watershed. Forty-three 4th order sub-watersheds were prioritized based on morphometric and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), in order to examine the effectiveness of morphometric parameters in watershed prioritization. A comparison has been carried out between the results achieved through applying the two methods of analysis (morphometric and PCA). Afterwards, suitable measures are proposed for soil and water conservation. Topo sheets and ASTER DEM have been employed to demarcate the 43 sub-watersheds, to extract the drainage networks, and to compile the required thematic maps such as slope categories and elevation. LANDSAT 8 image (April-2015) is employed to generate land use/cover maps using ENVI (v 5.1) software. The soil map of the watershed has been digitized using Arc GIS software. Prioritization of the 43 sub-watersheds was performed using ten linear and shape parameters, and three parameters which are highly correlated with components 1 and 2. Subsequently, different sub-watersheds were prioritized by ascribing ranks based on the calculated compound parameters (Cp) using the two approaches. Comparison of the results revealed that prioritization of watersheds based on morphometric analysis is more consistent and serves for better decision making in conservation planning as compared with the PCA approach. The recommended soil conservation measures are prescribed in accordance with the specified priority, in order to avoid undesirable effects on land and environment. Sub-watersheds classified under high priority class are subjected to high erosion risk, thus, creating an urgent need for applying soil and water conservation measures. It is expected that decision makers will pay sufficient attention to the present results/information, activate programs encouraging soil conservation, integrated watershed management, and will continue working on the afforestation of the government-owned sloping lands. Such a viable approach can be applied at different parts of the rainfed highland areas to minimize soil erosion loss, and to increase infiltration and soil moisture in the soil profile, thus, reducing the impact of recurrent droughts and the possibility of flooding hazards.
Online Registration System
Ala'a M. Al-Shaikh
International Journal of Computer Science and Security , 2010,
Abstract: Problem Statement: Enrolling students into the General Associate-DegreeExaminations is a very difficult, critical, and important process. Students arerequired to pass this exam in Jordan to be given the Associate Degree in thefiled of study they studied for 2 years. The exam is held 3 times per annum;annually, more than 15,000 students from different colleges all over thecountry apply to the exam. Managing all exam activities is a very complex andsophisticated process. In the old, conventional method, i.e. the manualregistration system, communication between different parties working withexam activities is very difficult. Lack of technologies used in exam activitiesobstructs dealing with it in a modern and simplified way. Approach: The mainoutcome is to computerize everything related to the General Associate-Degree Examination. To do so, the Waterfall Model is to be used to study thenew system requirements, analyze it, design, implement, and finally test anddeploy it. Results: After the deployment of the new system and working with it,all the problems referred to were solved; this is done by adopting the OnlineRegistration System which helped a lot in reducing the errors resulted indifferent ways and which in turn afferent the correctness of the exam itself.Conclusion/Recommendation: In conclusion a web-based tool was developedto computerize the required steps already expected by the system. As afurther work, some features might be added, such as adding SMS support,adding AJAX functionality to the website to increase response time, and tocreate a bulletin board system, that might enable different parties working withthe system to interact and communicate with each other easily.
Ultrasound Estimated Bladder Weight in Asymptomatic Adult Females
Ghadeer Al-Shaikh,Hazem Al-Mandeel
Urology Journal , 2012,
Abstract: PURPOSE: To estimate the bladder weight by automated ultrasound method (BladderScan BVM 9500) in adult females without lower urinary tract symptoms and to assess both the intra-observer and interobserver reproducibility of this method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy volunteers were recruited in King Khalid University Hospital from hospital staff and patients attending the gynecological clinic over a period of six months. All women were screened for any lower urinary tract symptoms using a validated short version of Urinary Distress Inventory questionnaire. BladderScan BVM 9500 device (Diagnostic Ultrasound, Bothell, WA) was used to measure bladder wall thickness, bladder volume, and calculated bladder weight. RESULTS: Eighty-five women were included in the study. The mean age was 37.5 years (± 11.1). Mean bladder wall thickness (BWT) was 1.68 mm (95% confidence interval: 1.61 to 1.75) and the mean ultrasound-estimated bladder weight (UEBW) was 32.25 g (95% confidence interval: 31.7 to 32.8). The UEBW intra-observer (ICC: 0.81) and interobserver (ICC: 0.8) reproducibility were excellent while intra-observer (ICC: 0.55) and interobserver (ICC: 0.6) reproducibility for BWT were moderate. No correlation was found between UEBW and age, height, body weight, or bladder volume. CONCLUSION: The estimated bladder weight by automated ultrasound device in asymptomatic adult females yields reproducible measurements and can be used as a reference for future understanding of the changes in bladder weight related to different types of urinary incontinence or voiding disorders.
Relation and Growth of Internet Penetration Rate with Human Development Level from 2000 to 2010
Ahmad Raf'ie Pratama,Moneer Al-Shaikh
Communications of the IBIMA , 2012,
Abstract: This study examines the relation of Internet penetration rate with human development level over the last decade. The main purpose is to investigate the possible existence of a digital divide between developed and developing countries during the last 10 years. Furthermore, it also explores how the growth of the Internet penetration rate in developed countries is compared to that of developing countries. UNDP Human Development Index is used to measure human development level, while Internet penetration rate is represented by the number of Internet user per 100 inhabitants of a country. The result of this study supports the argument that a digital divide exists because of this disparity in Internet penetration rates.
Development of a Novel Inhalational Model of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Rats and Comparative Evaluation of Three Biomarkers for Its Diagnosis
Suhail Ahmad, Ali A. Al-Shaikh, Ziauddin Khan
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100524
Abstract: Aspergillus fumigatus, a thermotolerant fungus, is the main causative agent of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in immunocompromised patients that is associated with high mortality rates. Early diagnosis of IPA is crucial for mortality reduction and improved prognosis. An experimental inhalational model of IPA was developed in rats and the efficacy of three biomarkers, namely β-D-glucan (BDG), a panfungal marker, galactomannan (GM), a genus-specific marker, and A. fumigatus DNA, a species-specific marker was evaluated in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens at different time points postinfection for early diagnosis of IPA. BDG and GM were detected by using commercial Fungitell and Platelia Aspergillus EIA kits, respectively. A. fumigatus DNA was detected by developing a sensitive, single-step PCR assay. IPA was successfully developed in immunosuppressed rats and all animals until 5 days post-infection were positive for A. fumigatus by culture and KOH-calcofluor microscopy also showed A. fumigatus in 19 of 24 (79%) lung tissue samples. Fourteen of 30 (47%) and 27 of 30 (90%) serum and BAL specimens, respectively, were positive for all three biomarkers with 100% specificity (none of sera or BAL specimens of 12 control rats was positive for biomarkers). Our data show that BAL is a superior specimen than serum and combined detection of BDG, GM and A. fumigatus DNA provide a sensitive diagnosis of IPA in an experimental animal model. Moreover, combined detection of GM and DNA in BAL and detection of either GM or DNA in serum was also positive in 27 of 30 (90%) animals. For economic reasons and considering that the positive predictive value of BDG is low, the detection of GM and/or DNA in serum and BAL samples has the potential to serve as an integral component of the diagnostic-driven strategy in high-risk patients suspected for IPA.
Pre-existing diabetes mellitus and adverse pregnancy outcomes
Hayfaa A Wahabi, Samia A Esmaeil, Amel Fayed, Ghadeer Al-Shaikh, Rasmieh A Alzeidan
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-496
Abstract: This is a retrospective cohort study for women who delivered in King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) during the period of January 1st to the 31st of December 2008. The pregnancy outcomes of the women with PDM were compared to the outcomes of all non-diabetic women who delivered during the same study period.A total of 3157 deliveries met the inclusion criteria. Out of the study population 116 (3.7%) women had PDM. There were 66 (57%) women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and 50 (43%) women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Compared to non-diabetic women those with PDM were significantly older, of higher parity, and they had more previous miscarriages. Women with PDM were more likely to be delivered by emergency cesarean section (C/S), OR 2.67, 95% confidence intervals (CI) (1.63-4.32), P < 0.001, or elective C/S, OR 6.73, 95% CI (3.99-11.31), P < 0.001. The neonates of the mothers with PDM were significantly heavier, P < 0.001; and more frequently macrosomic; OR 3.97, 95% CI (2.03-7.65), P = 0.002. They more frequently have APGAR scores <7 in 5?minutes, OR 2.61, 95% CI (0.89-7.05), P 0.057 and more likely to be delivered at <37 gestation weeks, OR 2.24, 95% CI (1.37- 3.67), P 0.003. The stillbirth rate was 2.6 times more among the women with PDM; however the difference did not reach statistical significance, P 0.084.PDM is associated with increased risk for C/S delivery, macrosomia, stillbirth, preterm delivery and low APGAR scores at 5?min.It is estimated that by the year 2030 more than 360 million people will have diabetes mellitus (DM) [1] and as the burden of the disease increases the management of pregnancies complicated by DM will be part of the daily obstetric practice in many regions of the world. Studies investigating the influence of ethnicity on the outcome of pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus (PDM) reported variation in the outcome with different ethnic groups with worse outcome for Asian [2] and Afro-Caribbean mothers c
Evaluation of Three Chitin Metal Silicate Co-Precipitates as a Potential Multifunctional Single Excipient in Tablet Formulations
Rana Al-Shaikh Hamid,Faisal Al-Akayleh,Mohammad Shubair,Iyad Rashid,Mayyas Al Remawi,Adnan Badwan
Marine Drugs , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/md8051699
Abstract: The performance of the novel chitin metal silicate (CMS) co-precipitates as a single multifunctional excipient in tablet formulation using direct compression and wet granulation methods is evaluated. The neutral, acidic, and basic drugs Spironolactone (SPL), ibuprofen (IBU) and metronidazole (MET), respectively, were used as model drugs. Commercial Aldactone ?, Fleximex ? and Dumazole ? tablets containing SPL, IBU and MET, respectively, and tablets made using Avicel ? 200, were used in the study for comparison purposes. Tablets of acceptable crushing strength (>40 N) were obtained using CMS. The friability values for all tablets were well below the maximum 1% USP tolerance limit. CMS produced superdisintegrating tablets (disintegration time < 1 min) with the three model drugs. Regarding the dissolution rate, the sequence was as follow: CMS > Fleximex ? > Avicel ? 200, CMS > Avicel ? 200 > Dumazole ? and Aldactone ? > Avicel ? 200 > CMS for IBU, MET and SPL, respectively. Compressional properties of formulations were analyzed using density measurements and the compression Kawakita equation as assessment parameters. On the basis of DSC results, CMS co precipitates were found to be compatible with the tested drugs. Conclusively, the CMS co-precipitates have the potential to be used as filler, binder, and superdisintegrant, all-in-one, in the design of tablets by the direct compression as well as wet granulation methods.
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