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Selected acute phase CSF factors in ischemic stroke: findings and prognostic value
Maia Beridze, Tamar Sanikidze, Roman Shakarishvili1, Nino Intskirveli, Natan M Bornstein
BMC Neurology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-11-41
Abstract: Ninety five acute ischemic stroke patients were investigated. Ischemic region visualized at the twenty fourth hour by conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Stroke severity evaluated by National Institute Health Stroke Scale. One month outcome of disease was assessed by Barthel Index. Cerebrospinal fluid was taken at the sixth hour of stroke onset. CSF pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were studied by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Nitric Oxide and Lipoperoxide radical were measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. CSF Nitrate levels were detected using the Griess reagent. Statistics performed by SPSS-11.0.At the sixth hour of stroke onset, cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels were elevated in patients against controls. Severe stroke patients had increased interleukin-6 content compared to less severe strokes (P < 0.05). Cerebrospinal fluid Electron Paramagnetic Resonance signal of nitric oxide was increased in patients against controls. Severe stroke group had an elevated Electron Paramagnetic Resonance signal of lipoperoxiradical compared to less severe stroke. Cerebrospinal fluid nitrate levels in less severe stroke patients were higher than those for severe stroke and control. Positive correlation was established between the initial interleukin-6 content and ischemic lesion size as well as with National Institute Health Stroke Scale score on the seventh day. Initial interleukin-6 and nitrate levels in cerebrospinal fluid found to be significant for functional outcome of stroke at one month.According to present study the cerebrospinal fluid contents of interleukin-6 and nitrates seem to be the most reliable prognostic factors in acute phase of ischemic stroke.Modern concepts of acute cerebral ischemia highlight the role of neurovascular units and emphasize the importance of integrative tissue responses that result from dynamic interactions of endothelial cells, vascular sooth muscles, matrix elements, astroglia, microglia and neurons. By means of infla
Regular Elements of the Complete Semigroups BX(D) of Binary Relations of the Class ∑2(X,8)  [PDF]
Nino Tsinaridze, Shota Makharadze
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.63042
Abstract: As we know if D is a complete X-semilattice of unions then semigroup Bx(D) possesses a right unit iff D is an XI-semilattice of unions. The investigation of those a-idempotent and regular elements of semigroups Bx(D) requires an investigation of XI-subsemilattices of semilattice D for which V(D,a)=Q2(X,8) . Because the semilattice Q of the class ∑2(X,8) are not always XI -semilattices, there is a need of full description for those idempotent and regular elements when V(D,a)=Q . For the case where X is a finite set we derive formulas by calculating the numbers of such regular elements and right units for which V(D,a)=Q .
Null Mutations in EphB Receptors Decrease Sharpness of Frequency Tuning in Primary Auditory Cortex
Irakli Intskirveli, Raju Metherate, Karina S. Cramer
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026192
Abstract: Primary auditory cortex (A1) exhibits a tonotopic representation of characteristic frequency (CF). The receptive field properties of A1 neurons emerge from a combination of thalamic inputs and intracortical connections. However, the mechanisms that guide growth of these inputs during development and shape receptive field properties remain largely unknown. We previously showed that Eph family proteins help establish tonotopy in the auditory brainstem. Moreover, other studies have shown that these proteins shape topography in visual and somatosensory cortices. Here, we examined the contribution of Eph proteins to cortical organization of CF, response thresholds and sharpness of frequency tuning. We examined mice with null mutations in EphB2 and EphB3, as these mice show significant changes in auditory brainstem connectivity. We mapped A1 using local field potential recordings in adult EphB2?/?;EphB3?/? and EphB3?/? mice, and in a central A1 location inserted a 16-channel probe to measure tone-evoked current-source density (CSD) profiles. Based on the shortest-latency current sink in the middle layers, which reflects putative thalamocortical input, we determined frequency receptive fields and sharpness of tuning (Q20) for each recording site. While both mutant mouse lines demonstrated increasing CF values from posterior to anterior A1 similar to wild type mice, we found that the double mutant mice had significantly lower Q20 values than either EphB3?/? mice or wild type mice, indicating broader tuning. In addition, we found that the double mutants had significantly higher CF thresholds and longer onset latency at threshold than mice with wild type EphB2. These results demonstrate that EphB receptors influence auditory cortical responses, and suggest that EphB signaling has multiple functions in auditory system development.
Nicotinic filtering of sensory processing in auditory cortex
Raju Metherate,Irakli Intskirveli,Hideki D. Kawai
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2012.00044
Abstract: Although it has been known for decades that the drug nicotine can improve cognitive function, the nature of its effects and the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Nicotine activates nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) that normally are activated by endogenous ACh, presumably “hijacking” the cholinergic contribution to multiple cognitive functions, notably attention. Thus, studying nicotine's effects helps to better understand a commonly used drug as well as functions of nAChRs. Moreover, nicotinic agonists are being developed to treat a variety of disorders that involve attention-related or age-related cognitive dysfunction. Studies have shown that nicotine can enhance processing of attended stimuli and/or reduce processing of distracters; that is, nicotine enhances attentional filtering. To examine potential mechanisms within sensory cortex that may contribute to cognitive functions, here we describe nicotinic actions in primary auditory cortex, where well-characterized neural “filters”—frequency receptive fields—can be exploited to examine nicotinic regulation of cortical processing. Using tone-evoked current-source density (CSD) profiles, we show that nicotine produces complex, layer-dependent effects on spectral and temporal processing that, broadly speaking, enhance responses to characteristic frequency (optimal) stimuli while simultaneously suppressing responses to spectrally distant stimuli. That is, nicotine appears to narrow receptive fields and enhances processing within the narrowed receptive field. Since basic cortical circuitry and nAChR distributions are similar across neocortex, these findings may generalize to neural processing in other sensory regions, and to non-sensory regions where afferent inputs are more difficult to manipulate experimentally. Similar effects across sensory and non-sensory cortical circuits could contribute to nicotinic enhancement of cognitive functions.
Wet lungs, broken hearts and difficult therapies after subarachnoid hemorrhage
Nino Stocchetti
Critical Care , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/cc8936
Abstract: An acute catecholamine discharge immediately following intracranial bleeding can have devastating extracranial effects: the heart, lungs, fluids and electrolytes can be severely affected. Hoff and colleagues report on pulmonary edema (PE) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) [1]. They found a high incidence of PE, usually several days after the initial bleeding, and an association of PE with lower intra vascular volumes (compared with cases without PE). PE is not uncommon after SAH, both as an early complication and as a late complication.Neurogenic PE is an acute event directly linked with an intracranial disaster; as such, it is often diagnosed on admission in cases with severe SAH [2]. PE in the days following SAH has been reported in association with triple-H therapy, which includes hypervolemia and induced arterial hypertension [3]. In different series, the PE incidence varied from 14 to 23% [4,5]. Increasing evidence is accumulating on the myocardial dysfunction that follows SAH, as well as other acute intracranial disasters. Takotsubo syndrome - with typical left ventricular abnormalities (bulging out of the apex of the heart with preserved function of the base, which earned the syndrome its name - a kind of a pot used as octopus trap in Japan), ECG abnormalities and biomarker changes - is a typical example of how much an injured brain can break the heart [6]. Neurogenic in origin, left ventricular failure causes congestion in the pulmonary vasculature and PE in Takotsubo syndrome.What is concerning in the report of Hoff and colleagues is that PE, often labeled in the text as neurogenic PE, has been diagnosed days after the initial bleeding, without concurrent reduction of the cardiac index and in the absence of volume expansion [1]. The clinical implications of these findings, as pointed out by the authors, would be that PE more than 4 days after SAH is not cardiogenic and would not be suitable for treatment with diuretics. It is therefore hard to reconci
The Spaciotemporal Patterns of Georgian Winter Solstice Festivals
Nino Abakelia
Folklore : Electronic Journal of Folklore , 2008,
Abstract: The article focuses on the rituals and ritual symbols of winter solstice festivals in Georgia, which are discussed from a spaciotemporal perspective and which, in their turn, are based on cosmological symbolism. The article aims to show how everyday life changes through ritual into a winter mythicoritual scenario and how the surrounding built environment of a society is being mythologized. How a place of dwelling as a microcosm is opposed to macrocosm; how symbolism conveys further the dialectic of the hierophanies by transforming things or humans into something other than what they appear in the profane experience. The article investigates who are the main characters of the ritual performance. For this purpose, the selection of ritual guests and their symbolic meanings in various rituals are discussed. Also, an attempt has been made to explain what they symbolize. While exploring the rituals from the spatiotemporal perspective, it is possible to distinguish between three kinds of ritual guests: (i) the first-foot, who through ritual embodies the transcendental supernatural powers, which are represented by different saints (predominantly by St Basil, in other cases by St George, and others); (ii) Evangelical “shepherds”; and (iii) the spirits of the dead, who are divided into “visible” spirits of the dead, embodied by a group of disguised mummers, and invisible ancestral spirits of the family. All these ritual guests were unavoidable visitors at winter solstice festivals and were responsible for ensuring the wellbeing and prosperity of the family. By means of the rituals and ritual guests the society communicated with the outer world and guaranteed welfare for the forthcoming New Year.
Nino Serdarevi?
Economic Review : Journal of Economics and Business , 2011,
Abstract: This paper presents empirical evidence on applied analysis interdependences with created accounting policies and estimates within Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH) private commercial entities, in specific, targeting practice oriented relevance of financial indicators, non-financial indicators, enterprise resource planning and management account-ting insight frequencies. Recently, standard setters (International Accounting Standards Board and International Federation of Accountants) have published outcomes of an internationally organized research on financial reports usefulness, recommending enforced usage of enterprise relevant information, non-financial indicators and risks implications in assets and liabilities positions. These imply litigation and possible income smoothening. In regard to financial reporting reliability, many authors suggest accounting conservatism as a measure to compose risk assessment and earnings response ratio. Author argues that recently suggested financial management measures involving cash and assets management, liquidity ratios and turns do not directly imply accounting information quality, prior computed within applied accounting conservatism.
Distribution of certain pathophysiologic forms of cardiac arrest and survival in patients of Zenica-Doboj canton
Nino Hasanica
South Eastern Europe Health Sciences Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Aim To determine the presence of the pathophysiological forms of cardiac arrest at the beginning and at the end of the reanimation procedures and survival of the patients.Methods This retrospective-descriptive-analytic research involved 41 patients admitted to the Department for urgent and regular admission at the Canton Hospital Zenica during the period 01. September 2008 to 31. May 2009. The data (number of patients before treatment, number of survivors and deaths, ECG forms of the cardiac arrest) were extracted from the Protocols. Chi-square test was used for the comparision of the data and calculate statistical significance at the level of 0.005.Results The most common pathophysiological form of the cardiac arrest at the beginning of the reanimation procedures was asystole (AS), 27 patients (65.9%). Cardiac arrest survived five (12.2%) patients. The most common pathophysiological form of the cardiac arrest, which was registered in the surviving patients immediately before the establishment of the normal cardiac rhythm was ventricular fibrillation (VF), four (80.0%) patients. One (3.7%) patient survived AS, four (66.7%) patients survived VF. Frequency of all forms of cardiac arrest was statistically significantly different (frequency of AS and EMD was higher and VT and VF was lower) in this study, then the expected frequency (p>0.005).Conclusion Ther is need for the improve of the efficiency of pre-hospital treatment by improving the cooperation with institutions that provide training in first aid (Red Cross).
Nino ?ganec
Ljetopis Studijskog Centra Socijalnog Rada , 2002,
Abstract: Zlostavljanje i zanemarivanje djece nije problem samo obitelji ili pojedinca, ve problem ire lokalne zajednice i dru tva u cjelini.Poseban doprinos u prepoznavanju zna ajnosti faktora zajednice koji mogu pozitivno ili negativno utjecati na pojavnost zlostavljanja i zanemarivanja djece ostvaren je u okviru ekolo kog pristupa.Ekolo ki pristup iznimnu pa nju pridaje, kako unutarobiteljskim odnosima, tako i izvanobiteljskim utjecajima odre enim prije svega putem utjecaja koje na obitelj ima lokalna zajednica i susjedstvo, kole te dru tva u cjelini.Koje su karakteristike, stupanj organiziranosti i uloge zajednice u preveniranju zlostavljanja i zanemarivanja djece, kao i zna aj organiziranja lokalne zajednice u okvirima Hrvatske, pitanja su kojim se rad bavi.
Teaching Diversity to Young Learners (With a Sample Lesson)
Nino Mikeladze
Humanising Language Teaching , 2013, DOI: 17559715
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